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Workshop 3: Professional learning communities: A substitute for leadership

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Title: Workshop 3: Professional learning communities: A substitute for leadership


1
Workshop 3 Professional learning communities A
substitute for leadership
  • Dr. Albert Boerema
  • PL/CZ/SK Administrators Conference Katowice,
    Poland
  • February 5-7, 2014

2
From last time
  • Supervision activities are essential.
  • Supervision activities are difficult, even gut
    wrenching.
  • Supervision does not make schools better.
  • We need a different approach to make schools and
    educational programs better.

3
Agenda
  • Images and metaphors that support or inhibit the
    development of communities.
  • The role of school culture
  • Substitutes for leadership
  • Servant leadership as stewardship

4
Leadership space
Reliability and predictability through shared
goals and purposes
Reliability and predictability through standard
operating procedures, policies, regulations
5
Reliability through . . .
  • Direct supervision
  • Standardize the work through control of materials
    and instructional technique
  • Standardization of the output by requiring set
    level of achievement

6
Reliability through . . .
  • Professional socialization and shared goals
  • Purposing and shared values (communities of
    practice)
  • Collegiality and interdependence

7
  • Collegiality and interdependence
  • Purposing and shared values
  • Professional socialization
  • Standardize output through required ends
  • Standardize output through tools/methods
  • Direct supervision

8
Digression on ill-structured tasks
  • Well-structured problem yields a right answer
    through the application of an appropriate
    algorithm
  • Ill-structured problem (sometimes called an
    "ill-defined" problem or a "messy" problem)
    doesn't yield a particular, certain answer.
  • A well-structured problem requires a right answer
  • An ill-structured problem requires a claim and a
    justifying argument

9
  • When it comes to the bottom line, most
    successful principals will tell you that getting
    the culture right and paying attention to how
    parents, teachers, and students define and
    experience meaning are two widely accepted rules
    for creating effective schools. (Sergiovanni, The
    Principalship, 6thedition, p. 132).

10
Leadership and Organizational culture
  • Leadership is the art of articulating,
    representing and leveraging basic cultural
    assumptions in a way that evokes a desired group
    response over time.
  • Smith The Merlin Factor

11
A culture anecdote
  • High school community groups or How to get
    everyone angry at you with one memo

12
Your experiences
  • Describe a time when you, as a leader, imposed
    your values or beliefs on others and recall for
    us what happened.

13
Why is it important to think about organizational
culture?
  • Conventional wisdom leaders exert rational,
    positive control over the organization they lead
    and its people.
  • But, organizational culture controls the behavior
    of members as much or more than the formal rules
    and structures.

14
Why is it important to think about organizational
culture?
  • Many organizational behaviors and decisions are
    in effect predetermined by the patterns of basic
    assumptions that are held by members of the
    organization.

15
  • Organizational culture shapes how groups
    understand and carry out their mission.
  • Culture is created communally.
  • Leaders play a significant role in shaping
    culture.

16
  • Because of the loosely-coupled nature of schools,
    one of the most important ways that leaders can
    help a group move toward accomplishing their
    mission is through shaping organizational culture.

17
  • Organizational culture is highly complex. One
    cannot understand it, or grasp it in its
    entirety.
  • The best we can do is understand aspects of it
    and how certain aspects of organizational culture
    effect life in the organization.

18
Organizational culture
  • the way we do things around here
  • the norms of behaviors and shared values among a
    group of people
  • a pattern of shared basic assumptions that the
    group learned as it solved its problems of
    external adaptation and internal integration,
    that has worked well enough to be considered
    valid and, therefore, to be taught to new
    members

19
Levels of cultural expression
  • artifacts
  • espoused values
  • underlying assumptions

20
Artifacts
  • The way culture is expressed in an organization
    use of space, language, myths and stories,
    ceremonies

21
Espoused values
  • the elements of organizational culture that are
    stated, and usually, consciously held.
  • Values are the things the group cares about.

22
Underlying Assumptions
  • Largely unarticulated, unexpressed, and taken for
    granted, yet they powerfully shape what happens
    in the organization

23
  • Underlying assumptions
  • Values
  • Centers
  • Metaphors
  • Worldview
  • Mind map
  • Commitment framework

24
Centers are . . .
  • repositories of values, sentiments and
    beliefs that provide the needed cement for
    uniting people in a common cause. Centers govern
    the school values and provide norms that guide
    behavior and give meaning to school community
    life. They answer questions like What is this
    school about? What is our image of learners?
    How do we work together as colleagues?
    (Sergiovanni, 1992)

25
Exploring assumptions
  • Describe a behavioral regularity
  • Outline the underlying, non-negotiable assumption
    that drives the behavior

26
What can school leaders do?
  • Change takes time-slower is faster
  • Provide opportunities for school community
    members to surface their underlying beliefs about
    schools, change and quality

27
Leaders and school culture
  • Conversations should include participation of the
    wider community of stakeholdersparents,
    students, and representatives of community groups
  • Principals need to create opportunities for
    teachers to do collaborative work

28
Leaders and school culture
  • Keep the vision discussion at the top of the
    agenda
  • Make decisions based on student growth rather
    than organizational efficiency
  • Ask whether performance issues are systemic
    problems instead of human problems

29
  • Two images for thinking about leading
  • Substitutes for direct leadership
  • Servant leadership as stewardship

30
Substitutes for leadership
  • Formal organization
  • Extrinsic coordination
  • Rules and regulations
  • Supervision
  • Regular monitoring
  • Community metaphor
  • Intrinsic coordination
  • Communally developed norms
  • Professional commitments
  • Collegiality

31
Substitutes for leadership
  • Developing communal norms
  • Professional commitments
  • Collegiality

32
Collegiality
  • Parallel play
  • Adversarial relationships
  • Congenial relationships
  • Collegial relationships

33
Leadership space
Developing norms Professional commitments Collegia
lity
Reliability and predictability through shared
goals and purposes
Reliability and predictability through standard
operating procedures, policies, regulations
34
Servant leadership
  • What can leaders do to move from the command and
    control style of leadership to a servant
    leadership style or leadership as stewardship
    approach?

35
  • Command and control
  • Servant leadership
  • Setting goals
  • Organizing the work
  • Outlining performance standards
  • Assigning people to work
  • Directing and monitoring the work
  • Evaluating
  • Leadership by outrage
  • Purposing
  • Empowerment
  • Using a female style

36
  • Outrage

37
Processing time
  • Who are the least privileged in your school
    setting?
  • How has the school specifically attended to their
    needs?
  • What changes could be made in this area?

38
Purposing
  • Clarity, consensus, and commitment around the
    basic purposes
  • Transform the school from a mere organization
    into a covenantal community

39
Empowerment
  • Responsibility to the community
  • Empowerment linked to enablement

40
  • Power over
  • emphasizes control
  • Rule-bound
  • Power to
  • Source of energy for shared goals
  • Goal bound
  • Uses influence

Power is not a zero-sum game
41
Female Style
  • Male style individual relationships, individual
    achievement, power as a source for controlling
    events and people, independence, authority.
  • Female style successful relationships,
    affiliation, power, as the means to achieve
    shared goals, connectedness, authenticity.
  • Men goals / Woman connections

42
Female style
  • Relationships with others are central to all
    actions of women leaders
  • Teaching and learning are the major foci of woman
    administrators
  • Building community is an essential part of woman
    administrators style

43
Leadership space
Purposing Empowerment Using a female style
Outrage
Setting goals Organizing the work Outlining
performance standards Assigning people to
work Directing and monitoring the work Evaluating
44
Processing time
  • What three things are you taking away that will
    help you change your practice?
  • Share what you are taking away with someone near
    you.
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