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THE AGE OF JEFFERSON 1789-1824

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Title: THE AGE OF JEFFERSON 1789-1824


1
THE AGE OF JEFFERSON 1789-1824
2
THE PRESIDENCY OF GEORGE WASHINGTON
3
THE PRESIDENCY OF GEORGE WASHINGTON
  • GW was elected unanimously by Congress. He
    provided a much-needed symbol of national unity.
  • Having retired to private life after the war, he
    was a model of republican virtue.
  • His vice-president, John Adams, was widely
    respected as one of the main leaders in the drive
    for independence.
  • GW brought into his cabinet some of the nations
    most prominent leaders.

4
THE PRESIDENCY OF GEORGE WASHINGTON
  • TJ was his his Secretary of State.
  • AH was Secretary of the Treasury.
  • Gen. Henry Knox was Secretary of War.
  • GW also appointed a Supreme Court of six members,
    including John Jay.
  • But harmonious govt., proved short-lived.
  • Political divisions first surfaced over the
    financial plan developed by AH in 1790 and 1791.

5
HAMILTONS FINANCIAL PLAN
  • Immediate Aims
  • To establish the nations financial stability.
  • Bring to the governments support the countrys
    most powerful financial interests.
  • Encourage economic development.
  • Long-term goal was to make the US a major
    commercial and military power.
  • Model Great Britain
  • The goal of national greatness, AH believed,
    could never be realized if the government
    suffered from the same weaknesses as under the
    Articles of Confederation.

6
HAMILTONS FINANCIAL PLAN
  • Part One Establish the new nations credit
    worthiness that is to create conditions under
    which persons would loan money to the govt., by
    purchasing its bonds, confident that they would
    be repaid.
  • Part Two Creation of a new national debt the
    old debts would be replaced by the new
    interest-bearing bonds to the govt., creditors.
    This would give men of economic substance a stake
    in promoting the new nations stability.

7
HAMILTONS FINANCIAL PLAN
  • Part Three Called for the creation of a Bank of
    the United States The goal of the BUS was to
    serve as the nations main financial agent. It
    would hold public funds, issue bank notes that
    would serve as currency, and make loans to the
    govt., when necessary, all the while returning a
    tidy profit.

8
HAMILTONS FINANCIAL PLAN
  • Part Four To raise revenue, AH proposed a tax on
    the producers of whiskey.
  • Part Five AH called for the imposition of a
    tariff and govt., subsidies to encourage the
    development of factories that could mfg.,
    products currently purchased from aboard.

9
HAMILTONS FINANCIAL PLAN
  • AH also promoted an unsuccessful effort to build
    an industrial city at present day Paterson, NJ.
  • He also proposed the creation of an national army
    to deal with uprisings like Shayss Rebellion.

10
THE EMERGENCE OF OPPOSITION
  • AHs plan won strong support from American
    financiers, manufacturers, and merchants.
  • But it alarmed those who believed the new
    nations destiny lay in charting a different path
    of development.
  • AHs plan hinged on close ties with GB, Americas
    main trading partner.

11
THE EMERGENCE OF OPPOSITION
  • To TJ and Madison, the future lay in westward
    expansion, not connections with Europe.
  • They had little desire to promote mfg., or urban
    growth or to see economic policy shaped in the
    interests of bankers and business leaders.
  • Their goal was a republic of independent farmers
    marketing grain, tobacco, and other products
    freely to the entire world.
  • Free trade would promote American prosperity
    while fostering greater social equality.

12
THE EMERGENCE OF OPPOSITION
  • TJ and Madison quickly concluded that the
    greatest threat to American freedom lay in the
    alliance of a powerful central govt., with an
    emerging class of commercial capitalists, such as
    AH appeared to envision.
  • TJ Hamiltons system flowed from principles
    adverse to liberty, and was calculated to
    undermine and demolish the republic.
  • AHs plans for a standing army was criticized as
    a threat to freedom.
  • Critics feared that the national bank and
    assumption of state debts would introduce into
    American politics the same corruption that had
    undermined British liberty.
  • AHs whiskey tax seemed to single out whiskey
    producers.
  • At first opposition arose entirely from the
    South.
  • VA., had pretty much paid off its war debt it
    did not see why it should be taxed to benefit
    states like MA., who had failed to do so.

13
THE EMERGENCE OF OPPOSITION
  • AH insisted that all his plans were authorized by
    the Constitutions ambiguous clause empowering
    Congress to enact laws for the general welfare.
  • This clause is known as the Necessary and Proper
    Clause.
  • AH took a broad constructionist view of the Const.

14
THE EMERGENCE OF OPPOSITION
  • Opponents of the plan took a strict
    constructionist view the federal govt., could
    only exercise powers specifically listed in the
    Const.
  • TJ believed the new national bank
    unconstitutional since the right of Congress to
    create a bank was not mentioned in the Const.

15
THE EMERGENCE OF OPPOSITION
  • Opposition in Congress threatened the enactment
    of AHs plan.
  • Behind-the-scenes negotiations followed.
  • A compromise was reached during a dinner between
    AH and TJ.
  • Southerners would agree to the fiscal program in
    exchange for the establishment of the permanent
    national capitol on the Potomac River between
    MD., and VA.

16
THE EMERGENCE OF OPPOSITION
  • Pierre-Charles LEnfant designed a grandiose plan
    for the federal city modeled on the great urban
    centers of Europe.
  • Benjamin Banneker, the first African American
    scientist, performed the job of surveying the
    area.

17
THE EMERGENCE OF OPPOSITION
  • When it came to constructing the public buildings
    in the nations new capital, most of the labor
    was done by slaves.
  • The debate over AHs financial plan was the first
    step in the development of political parties.

18
THE IMPACT OF THE FRENCH REVOLUTION
19
THE IMPACT OF THE FRENCH REVOLUTION
  • Political divisions began over AHs fiscal plan,
    but they deepened in response to events in
    Europe.
  • 1789 The French Revolution began. It was
    welcomed by nearly all Americans.
  • 1793 It took a more radical turn with the
    execution of King Louis XVI along with numerous
    aristocrats and other foes of the new govt., and
    war broke out between France and GB.
  • Events in France became a source of bitter
    conflict in America.
  • The French Revolution was the second step in the
    development of political parties.

20
THE IMPACT OF THE FRENCH REVOLUTION
  • TJ and his followers believed that despite its
    excesses the Fr. Rev., marked an historic victory
    for the idea of popular self-govt., which must be
    defended at all costs.
  • To GW, AH, and their supporters, the FR. Rev.,
    raised the specter of anarchy. Americans, they
    believed, had no choice but to draw close to GB.

21
THE IMPACT OF THE FRENCH REVOLUTION
  • The permanent alliance between France and the
    US, which dated back to 1778, complicated the
    situation.
  • No one advocated that the US should become
    involved in the European war.
  • 4/1793 GW issued a Proclamation of Neutrality
    the US would remain neutral in the French and
    English war.

22
THE IMPACT OF THE FRENCH REVOLUTION
  • But that spring, French Rev., admirers organized
    a tumultuous welcome for Edmond Genet, a French
    envoy seeking to arouse support for his
    beleaguered govt.
  • When he began commissioning American ships to
    attack British vessels under the Fr., flag, the
    Washington admin., asked for his recall.

23
THE IMPACT OF THE FRENCH REVOLUTION
  • Meanwhile, the British seized hundreds of
    American ships trading with the French West
    Indies.
  • GB also resumed the hated practice of impressment
    kidnapping sailors, including American citizens
    of British origin, to serve in their navy.

24
THE IMPACT OF THE FRENCH REVOLUTION
  • GW sent John Jay to London to negotiate a treaty
    and end the practice of impressment.
  • Jays Treaty produced the greatest public
    controversy of GWs presidency.

25
THE IMPACT OF THE FRENCH REVOLUTION
  • Jays Treaty contained no British concession on
    impressment or the rights of American shipping.
  • GB did agree to abandon outposts on the American
    western frontier, which it was supposed to have
    done in 1783.
  • In return, the US guaranteed favored treatment to
    British imported goods.
  • In effect, the treaty canceled the
    American-French alliance and recognized British
    economic and naval supremacy as unavoidable facts
    of life.
  • Critics of GW, charged that it aligned the US
    with monarchial GB in its conflict with France.

26
THE DEVELOPMENT OF POLTIICAL PARTIES
  • By the mid-1790s, two increasingly coherent
    parties had appeared in Congress.
  • They called themselves Federalists and
    Democratic-Republicans.
  • Both parties laid claim to the language of
    liberty, and each accused its opponent of
    engaging in a conspiracy to destroy liberty.

27
THE DEVELOPMENT OF POLITICAL PARTIES
  • THE FEDERALISTS
  • Supporters of GW
  • Favored Hamiltons financial plan.
  • Favored close ties with Great Britain.
  • Included prosperous merchants, farmers, lawyers,
    and established political leaders (especially
    outside the South).
  • Outlook generally elitist.
  • Broad constructionists.
  • THE DEMOCRATIC-REPUBLICANS
  • Led by TJ and JM.
  • More sympathetic to France.
  • Drew support from an unusual alliance of wealthy
    Southern planters and ordinary farmers throughout
    the country.
  • Support also came from urban artists.
  • Preferred the boisterous sea of liberty.
  • More accepting of broad democratic participation
    as essential to freedom.
  • Strict constructionists.

28
THE DEVLOPMENT OF POLITICAL PARTIES
  • The Federalist Party reflected the 18th century
    view of society as a fixed hierarchy and of
    public office reserved for men of economic
    substance.
  • Freedom, to them, rested on deference to
    authority. It did not mean the right to stand up
    in opposition to the government.
  • Federalists feared that the spirit of liberty
    unleashed by the Rev., was degenerating into
    anarchy and lacking moral discipline.
  • The Federalists may have been the only party in
    American history to proclaim democracy and
    freedom dangerous in the hands of ordinary
    citizens.

29
THE DEVELOPMENT OF POLITICAL PARTIES
  • Each party considered itself the representative
    of the nation and the other an illegitimate
    faction.
  • The political debate became more and more heated.
  • The Federalists called the DRs French agents,
    anarchists, and traitors.
  • DRs called the Feds., monarchist intent on
    transforming the new govt., into a corrupt,
    British-style aristocracy.

30
THE DEVELOPMENT OF POLTIICAL PARTIES
  • Each charged the other with betraying the
    principles of the Rev., and American freedom.
  • GW, himself, received mounting abuse over Jays
    Treaty.
  • When he left office, a DR newspaper declared that
    his name had become synonymous with political
    iniquity( wickedness and sinfulness) and
    legalized corruption.

31
THE WHISKEY REBELLION
32
THE WHISKEY REBELLION
  • 1794 Backcountry PA., farmers sought to block
    collection of the new tax on whiskey.
  • Their actions reinforced Federalists convictions
    over mob actions.
  • The rebels invoked the symbols and language of
    1776.
  • GW dispatched 13,000 militiamen to quash the
    rebellion.

33
THE WHISKEY REBELLION
  • GW accompanied the militiamen to the scene of the
    rebellion.
  • The rebels offered no resistance.
  • GW wrote His vigorous response was motivated in
    part for the impression the restoration of
    public order will make on others the others
    being Europeans who did not believe the American
    experiment in self-govt., could survive.

34
THE WASHINGTON PRESIDENCY
  • 1792 GW won unanimous re-election.
  • 1796 He retired from public life, in part to
    establish the precedent that the presidency is
    not a life office.

35
THE WASHINGTON PRESIDENCY
  • In his Farewell Address, mostly written by AH and
    published in newspapers rather than delivered
    orally, GW defended his admin., against
    criticism, warned against the party spirit, and
    advised the country to steer clear of
    international politics by avoiding permanent
    alliances with any portion of the world.

36
THE ELECTION OF 1796
37
THE ELECTION OF 1796
  • GWs departure unleashed fierce party competition
    over the choice of his successor.
  • In the first contested presidential election, two
    tickets presented themselves.
  • John Adams and Thomas Pinckney (SC) representing
    the Federalists.
  • Thomas Jefferson and Aaron Burr (NY) representing
    the Democratic-Republicans.

38
THE ELECTION OF 1796
  • In a majority of the 16 states (VT, KY and TN had
    been added to the original 13) the legislature
    still chose presidential electors.
  • But in 6 states where the people voted for
    electors directly, intense campaigning took place.
  • Results
  • JA 71 electoral votes
  • TP 59 e.v. due to a split among Fed.
  • TJ 68 e.v.
  • Thus JA became President and TJ became VP.

39
THE ELECTION OF 1796
  • Voting fell almost entirely on sectional lines
  • JA carried New England, NY., and NJ.
  • TJ swept the south, along with PA.

40
THE PRESIDENCY OF JOHN ADAMS
41
THE PRESIDENCY OF JOHN ADAMS
  • 1797 JA assumed leadership of a divided country.
  • Brilliant but austere (stern), and
    self-important, he was disliked even by those who
    honored his long career of service to the cause
    of independence.
  • AH, the leader of the Federalist Party, disliked
    him.
  • JAs presidency was beset by foreign and domestic
    crises.

42
THE XYZ AFFAIR
43
THE XYZ AFFAIR
  • The country was dragged into the ongoing European
    war.
  • As a neutral nation, the US claimed the right to
    trade nonmilitary goods with both GB and FR, but
    both countries seized American ships without
    impunity.
  • 1797 American diplomats were sent to Paris to
    negotiate a treaty to replace the old alliance of
    1778.

44
THE XYZ AFFAIR
  • French officials presented the American diplomats
    with a demand for bribes (250,000) before
    negotiations could proceed.
  • When Adams made public the envoys dispatches, the
    French officials were designated XYZ.
  • The XYZ Affair poisoned Americas relations
    with its former ally.

45
QUASI-WAR WITH FRANCE
  • 1798 The US and FR were engaged in a quasi-war
    at sea, with FR ships seizing American vessels in
    the Caribbean and a newly enlarged American navy
    harassing the French.
  • In effect, the US had become an ally of GB.
  • Despite pressure from AH, who wanted a war
    against FR, JA in 1800 negotiated peace with FR.

46
FRIESS REBELLION
47
FRIESS REBELLION
  • JA was less cautious in domestic affairs.
  • Unrest continued in many rural areas.
  • 1799 Farmers in SE PA., obstructed the
    assessment of a property tax that Congress had
    imposed to held fund an expanded army and navy.
  • A crowd, led by John Fries, a local militia
    leader, released arrested men from prison.
  • No shots were fired, but JA dispatched units of
    the federal army to the area.
  • The army arrested Fries for treason and
    terrorized his supporters and whipped Republican
    newspaper editors.
  • JA pardoned Fries in 1800 but the area never
    voted for the Federalist party again.

48
THE REIGN OF WITCHES
49
THE REIGN OF WITCHES
  • The greatest crisis of the Adams Administration
    arose over the Alien and Sedition Acts of 1798.
  • Confronted with mounting opposition, some of it
    voiced by immigrant pamphleteers and editors,
    Federalists moved to silence their critics.
  • A new Naturalization Act extended from 5 to 14
    years the residency requirement for immigrants
    seeking American citizenship.

50
THE REIGN OF WITCHES
  • THE ALIEN ACT
  • 1798
  • Allowed the deportation of persons from abroad
    deemed dangerous by federal authorities.
  • Allowed the detention of any enemy aliens in the
    time of war.
  • THE SEDITION ACT
  • 1798
  • Authorized the prosecution of virtually any
    public assembly or publication critical of the
    government.
  • This meant that opposition editors could be
    prosecuted for almost any political comment they
    printed.
  • Main target was the Republican Press.

51
THE REIGN OF WITCHES
  • 18 individuals, including several Republican
    newspaper editors, were charged under the
    Sedition act.
  • 10 were convicted for spreading false,
    scandalous, and malicious information about the
    government.
  • But the Acts failed to silence the Republican
    press.

52
THE REIGN OF WITCHES
  • Some newspapers ceased publication, but new ones,
    with names like Sun of Liberty and Tree of
    Liberty, entered the field.
  • The Sedition Act thrust freedom of expression to
    the center of discussions of American liberty.
  • Republicans did fight back.

53
THE KENTUCKY AND VIRGINIA RESOLUTIONS
  • TJ and Madison mobilized opposition.
  • They drafted resolutions adopted by the KY., and
    VA., legislatures.

54
THE KENTUCKY AND VIRGINIA RESOLUTIONS
  • Attacked the Sedition Act as an unconstitutional
    violation of the First Amendment.
  • Madison called on the federal government to
    protect free speech.
  • Jeffersons original version of the Kentucky
    Resolution asserted that states could nullify
    laws of Congress that violated the Constitution.
  • The Kentucky legislature deleted this passage.
  • The resolutions were directed against assaults on
    freedom of expression by the federal government,
    not the states.
  • Jefferson took care to insist that the states
    fully possessed the authority to punish
    seditious speech even if the national
    government did not.
  • Indeed, state-level prosecution of newspapers for
    seditious libel did not end when the Sedition Act
    expired in 1801.

55
THE KENTUCKY AND VIRGINIA RESOLUTIONS
  • No other state endorsed the KY and VA
    Resolutions.
  • Many Americans, including Republicans, were
    horrified by the idea of state action that might
    endanger the Union.
  • But the crisis of freedom of the late 1790s
    strongly reinforced the idea that freedom of
    discussion was an indispensable attribute of
    American liberty and of democratic government.

56
THE KENTUCKY AND VIRGINIA RESOLUTIONS
  • Harrison Gray Otis, a MA., Federalist noted that
    free speech had become the peoples darling
    privilege.
  • The broad revulsion against the Acts contributed
    to TJs election as president in 1800.

57
THE REVOLUTION OF 1800
58
THE REVOLUTION OF 1800
  • Jefferson and Liberty became the watchword of
    the Republican campaign of 1800.
  • By this time, Republicans had developed effective
    techniques for mobilizing voters such as holding
    mass meetings to promote their cause.
  • The Federalists found it difficult to match their
    opponents mobilization but they still dominated
    N.E., and enjoyed considerable support in the
    Middle Atlantic states.

59
THE REVOLUTION OF 1800
60
THE REVOLUTION OF 1800
  • THE RESULTS
  • TJ 73 e.v.
  • JA 65 e.v.
  • AB 73 e.v.
  • Before assuming office, TJ was forced to weather
    an unusual constitutional crisis.
  • Each party had arranged to have an elector throw
    away one of his 2 votes for President so that its
    presidential candidate would come out one vote
    ahead of the VP candidate.
  • But the designated Republican failed to do so.

61
THE REVOLUTION OF 1800
  • With no candidate having a majority, the election
    was thrown into the HoR where the Feds., enjoyed
    a slight majority.
  • For 35 ballots, neither man received a majority
    of votes.
  • Finally, AH intervened.
  • AH disliked TJ but believed him enough of a
    statesman to recognize that the Federalists
    financial system could not be dismantled.
  • Burr, he warned, was obsessed with power.
  • AHs support for TJ tipped the balance.

62
THE REVOLUTION OF 1800
  • To avoid a repetition of the crisis, Congress and
    the states adopted the XII Amendment, requiring
    electors to cast separate votes for president and
    vice-president.

63
THE REVOLUTION OF 1800
  • The events of the 1790s demonstrated that a
    majority of American believed ordinary people had
    a right to play an active role in politics,
    express their opinions freely, and contest the
    policies of their government.
  • To their credit, the Federalists never considered
    resistance to the election results.

64
SLAVERY AND POLITICS
65
SLAVERY AND POLITICS
  • Lurking behind the political battles of the 1790s
    lay the potential divisive issue of slavery.
  • TJ received every one of the Souths 41 e.v.
  • He always referred to is victory as the
    Revolution of 1800.
  • He saw his victory as a vindication of American
    freedom, securing posterity the fruits of
    independence.
  • But TJs triumph would not have been possible
    without slavery.
  • Had 3/5 of the slave population not been counted
    in apportionment, JA would have been elected in
    1800.

66
SLAVERY AND POLITICS
  • The issue of slavery would not disappear.
  • The very first Congress, under the new
    Constitution, received petitions calling for
    emancipation.
  • One bore the signature of Benjamin Franklin who
    in 1787 had agreed to serve as president of the
    PA., Abolition Society.
  • A long debate followed, in which speakers from
    GA., and SC., vigorously defended slavery and
    warned that behind Northern criticism they heard
    the trumpets of civil war.
  • Madison found their defense of slavery as an
    embarrassment.
  • But he concluded that the slavery question was so
    divisive it must be kept out of national politics.

67
SLAVERY AND POLITICS
  • Madison opposed Congress even receiving a
    petition from NC., slaves on the grounds that
    they were not part of the American people and had
    no claim on the lawmakers attention.
  • 1793 To implement the Const., fugitive slave
    clause, Congress enacted a law providing for
    federal and state judges and local officials to
    facilitate the return of slaves.

68
SLAVERY AND POLITICS
  • Events during the 1790s underscored how
    powerfully slavery defined and distorted American
    freedom.
  • The same Jeffersonians who hailed the Fr. Rev.,
    as a step in the universal progress of liberty
    reacted in horror against the slave revolution
    which began in 1791 in Saint Domingue, Haiti, the
    jewel of the Fr., overseas empire situated not
    far from the southern coast of the US.

69
SLAVERY AND POLITICS
  • Toussaint LOuverture an educated slave on a
    sugar plantation, forged the rebellious slaves
    into an army to defeat British forces seeking to
    seize the island and then an expedition seeking
    to restore French authority.
  • The slave uprising led to the establishment of
    Haiti as an independent nation in 1804.

70
SLAVERY AND POLITICS
  • The Haitian revolution affirmed the universality
    of the revolutionary eras creed of liberty.
  • It inspired hopes for freedom among American
    slaves.
  • But to most whites, the rebellious slaves were a
    danger to American institutions.

71
SLAVERY AND POLITICS
  • Their resort to violence was widely taken to
    illustrate blacks unfitness for republican
    freedom.
  • The Adams Admin., had encouraged Haitian
    independence.
  • But TJ sought to quarantine and destroy the
    hemisphere second independent republic.

72
SLAVERY AND POLITICS
  • 1800 also witnessed a real attempt by slaves in
    VA., to gain their freedom.
  • It was organized by a Richmond blacksmith,
    Gabriel and his brothers.
  • They planned to march on the city.
  • They would kill some white inhabitants and hold
    the rest, including Gov. James Monroe, hostage
    until their demand for the abolition of slavery
    was met.

73
SLAVERY AND POLITICS
  • On the night when the slaves were to gather, a
    storm washed out the roads to Richmond.
  • The plot was soon discovered and the leaders
    arrested.
  • 26 slaves, including Gabriel, were hanged and
    dozens more shipped out of the state.
  • The VA., legislature tightened controls over the
    black population and severely restricted the
    possibility of masters voluntarily freeing their
    slaves.
  • Any slave freed after 1806 was required to leave
    VA., or be sold back into slavery.
  • The door to emancipation, thrown open by the AM.
    Rev., had been slammed shut.

74
THE PRESIDENCY OF THOMAS JEFFERSON
75
THE PRESIDENCY OF THOMAS JEFFERSON
  • TJ was the first president to begin his term in
    Washington DC.
  • DC still had unpaved streets, impoverished
    residents, and unfinished public buildings.
  • At one point, the roof of the Capitol collapsed
    narrowly missing the VP.
  • The capitols conditions seemed to symbolize TJs
    intention to reduce the importance of the
    national govt., in American life.
  • In his inaugural address, TJ was very
    conciliatory to his opponents.
  • We are all Federalists, we are all Repubicans.

76
THE PRESIDENCY OF THOMAS JEFFERSON
  • TJ hope to dismantled as much of the Federalist
    system as possible.
  • During his 8 years in office he reduced the
    number of govt., employees and slashed the army
    and navy.
  • He abolished all taxes except the tariff and paid
    off the national debt.
  • He aimed to minimize federal power and eliminate
    govt., oversight of the economy.
  • His policies ensured that America would not
    become a centralized state on a European model,
    as AH had envisioned.

77
JEFFERSONS DOMESTIC POLICY
78
JEFFERSON AND THE COURTS
  • Nonetheless, as AH predicted, it proved
    impossible to uproot national authority entirely.
  • TJ distrusted the unelected judiciary and always
    believed in the primacy of local self-govt.
  • But during his presidency, and for many years
    thereafter, Federalist John Marshall headed the
    Supreme Court.
  • Marshall was a strong nationalist. He was JAs
    Sec. of State.
  • JA appointed him Chief Justice shortly before TJ
    assumed office.

79
JEFFERSON AND THE COURTS
  • Marshall established the Courts power to review
    laws passed by Congress and the states.
  • 1803 Marbury v. Madison was the first landmark
    decision of the Marshall Court.

80
MARBURY v. MADISON
  • BACKGROUND
  • On the eve of leaving office, JA had appointed a
    number of justices of the peace for DC.
  • Madison, TJs Sec. of State, refused to issue the
    commissions to these midnight justices.
  • 4, including William Marbury, sued for their
    offices.

81
MARBURY V. MADISON
  • The Court declared unconstitutional the section
    of the Judiciary Act of 1789 that allowed the
    courts to order executive officials to deliver
    judges commissions.
  • It exceeded the power of Congress as outlined in
    the Const., and was therefore void.
  • Marbury, in other words, may have been entitled
    to his commission, but the Court had no power
    under the Const., to order Madison to deliver it.

82
MARBURY v. MADISON
  • On the immediate issue, the Jefferson Admin., got
    its way.
  • But the cost, as TJ saw it, was high.
  • Significance The Supreme Court had assumed the
    right to determine whether an act of Congress
    violates the Const., - a power known as judicial
    review.

83
LOUISIANA PURCHASE
84
THE LOUISIANA PURCHASE
  • The greatest irony of TJs presidency involved
    his greatest accomplishment.
  • This resulted not from astute American diplomacy,
    but because the rebellious slave in Saint
    Domingue defeated forces sent by Napoleon
    Bonaparte to reconquer the island.
  • To take advantage of the sudden opportunity to
    purchase Louisiana, TJ had to abandon his
    conviction that the fed., govt., was limited to
    powers specially mentioned in the Const.
  • Since the Const., said nothing about buying
    foreign territory, TJ had to amend his strict
    constructionist beliefs.

85
THE LOUISIANA PURCHASE
  • The vast Louisiana territory had been ceded by
    France to Spain in 1762 as part of the
    reshuffling of colonial possessions at the end of
    the French and Indian War.
  • France regained the territory in 1800.
  • Soon after taking office, TJ learned of the
    arrangement.

86
THE LOUISIANA PURCHASE
  • TJ had long been concerned about American access
    to the Port of New Orleans, which lay within the
    territory at the mouth of the Mississippi River.
  • The right of trade through NO, essential for
    farmers, had been acknowledged in Pinckneys
    Treaty of 1795 between the USA and Spain.

87
THE LOUISIANA PURCHASE
  • TJ feared that a far more powerful France might
    try and interfere with American commerce.
  • He dispatched envoys to France offering to
    purchase New Orleans.
  • Needing 5 million for military campaigns in
    Europe, Bonaparte offered to sell the entire LA
    Territory.
  • The cost, 15 million (about 250 million today)
    made the LA Purchase one of historys greatest
    real estate bargains.

88
THE LOUISIANA PURCHASE
  • In a stroke, TJ doubled the size of the USA.
  • The LA Purchase ended the French presence in
    North America.

89
LEWIS AND CLARK
90
LEWIS AND CLARK
  • 1804 TJ dispatched an expedition led by
    Meriwether Lewis and William Clark to explore the
    LA Purchase.
  • Their objectives were to study the areas plants,
    animal life, and geography, and to discover how
    the region could be exploited eonomically.
  • TJ hoped the explorers would establish trading
    relations with western Indians and locate a water
    route to the Pacific Ocean the old Northwest
    Passage to Asia.
  • Spring 1804 The most famous exploring party in
    American history left St. Louis.

91
LEWIS AND CLARK
  • April 1805 After spending the winter in ND, they
    resumed their journey.
  • They were now accompanied by 15 year old Shoshone
    women Sacajawea, the wife of a French fur trader,
    who served as interpreter.

92
LEWIS AND CLARK
  • 1806 They returned, bringing with them an
    immense amount of information about the region as
    well as numerous plant and animal specimens.
  • Reports about geography, plant and animal life,
    and Indian cultures filled their daily journals.
  • Although they failed to locate and land route to
    the Asia, they demonstrated the possibility of
    overland travel to the Pacific coast.
  • The success of the journey helped strengthen the
    idea that American territory was destined to
    reach all the way to the Pacific Ocean.

93
SLAVERY AND THE LOUISIANA PURCHASE
94
SLAVERY AND THE LOUISIANA PURCHASE
  • The only part of LA with a significant non-Indian
    population in 1803 was the region around N.O.
  • When the US took control, the city had 8,000
    inhabitants, including nearly 3,000 slaves and
    1,300 free persons of color.
  • Incorporating this diverse population in the US
    was by no means easy.
  • French and Spanish law had given free blacks
    nearly all the same rights as white citizens.
  • Slaves in LA, and FL and TX under Spanish rule,
    enjoyed legal protections unknown in the US.

95
SLAVERY AND THE LOUISIANA PURCHASE
  • Spain made it easy for slaves to obtain their
    freedom through purchase or voluntary
    emancipation by their owners.
  • Slave women had the right to go to court for
    protection against cruelty or rape by their
    owners.

96
SLAVERY AND THE LOUISIANA PURCHASE
  • The treaty that transferred LA., to the US
    promised that all free inhabitants would enjoy
    the rights, advantages, and immunities of
    citizens.
  • Spanish and French civil codes, unlike American
    law, recognized women as co-owners of family
    property.
  • Under American rule, LA., retained this principle
    of community property within marriage.

97
SLAVERY AND THE LOUISIANA PURCHASE
  • But free blacks suffered a steady decline in
    status.
  • LA., soon adopted one of the most sweeping slave
    codes in the South, forbidding blacks to ever
    consider themselves the equal of whites and
    limiting the practice of manumission and access
    to the courts.
  • LA slaves had enjoyed far more freedom under the
    rule of tyrannical Spain than as part of the
    liberty-loving US.

98
JEFFERSONS FOREIGN POLICY
99
THE BARBARY STATES
100
THE BARBARY PIRATES
  • The LA Purchase also demonstrated that despite
    its vaunted isolation from the Old World, the US
    continued to be deeply affected by events
    throughout the Atlantic world.
  • European wars directly influenced the livelihood
    of American farmers, merchants, and artisans.
  • TJ hope to avoid foreign entanglements, but he
    found it impossible as president to avoid being
    drawn into the continuing wars of Europe.
  • Even as he sought to limit the power of the
    national govt., foreign relations compelled him
    to expand it.

101
THE BARBARY PIRATES
  • Only a few months after taking office, TJ
    employed the very navy whose expansion by JA he
    had strongly criticized.
  • The Barbary states on the coast of Africa had
    long preyed on shipping in the Mediterranean and
    Atlantic, receiving tribute from several
    countries, including the US, to protect their
    vessels.

102
THE BARBARY PIRATES
  • 1801 TJ refused demands for increased payments
    and the pasha of Tripoli declared war on the US.
  • The naval conflict lasted until 1084, when an
    American squadron won a victory at Tripoli Harbor

103
THE WAR OF 1812
104
THE WAR OF 1812
  • Far more serious in its impact on the US, than
    the Barbary pirates, was the war between Britain
    and France in 1803.
  • America would be dragged into a war with GB.
  • Some historians have labeled the War of 1812,
    Americas Second War for Independence.

105
CAUSES OF THE WAR OF 1812
106
IMPRESSMENT
107
IMPRESSMENT
  • According to international law, neutral nations
    had a right to trade nonmilitary goods with
    countries at war.
  • 1806 Britain and France had declared the other
    under a blockade, seeking to deny trade with
    America to its rival.
  • The Royal navy had resumed the practice of
    impressment.
  • End of 1807 GB had seized over 6,000 American
    sailors claiming they were British citizens and
    deserters.
  • This included men from the US warship Chesapeake
    which the British frigate Leopold bombarded and
    boarded in American waters off the coast of
    Maryland.

108
THE EMBARGO OF 1807
109
THE EMBARGO OF 1807
  • To TJ, the economic health of the US required
    freedom of trade.
  • American farmers needed access to markets in
    Europe and the Caribbean.
  • As colonial patriots had done in the 1760s and
    1770s, he decided to use trade as a weapon.
  • 12/1807 He persuaded Congress to enact the
    Embargo Act of 1807.
  • This Act placed a ban on all American vessels
    sailing to foreign ports.
  • For a believer in limited govt., this was an
    amazing exercise of federal power.

110
THE EMBARGO OF 1807
  • TJ hoped the embargo would lead Europeans to stop
    their interference with American shipping and
    also reduce the occasion for impressments.
  • 1808 American exports plummeted by 80

111
THE EMBARGO OF 1807
  • Unfortunately, neither GB nor FR, locked in a
    death struggle, took notice.
  • But the embargo devastated the economies of
    American port cities.
  • 3/1809 Just before his term ended, TJ signed the
    Non-Intercourse Act which barred trade not only
    with GB and FR but provided that if either side
    rescinded its edicts against American shipping,
    commerce with that country would resume.

112
MR. MADISONS WAR
113
MR. MADISONS WAR
  • TJ left office at the lowest point of his career.
  • He had won a sweeping re-election in 1804.
  • 1808 His handpicked successor, James Madison
    (JM), won an easy victory.
  • The problems with GB and FR fell to JM to solve.
  • The embargo failed to achieve its diplomatic aims
    and was increasingly violated by American
    shippers and resented by persons whose livelihood
    depended on trade.

114
MR. MADISONS WAR
  • 1810 Madison adopted a new policy.
  • Congress enacted a measure known as Macons Bill
    No. 2.
  • This allowed trade to resume but provided that if
    either GB or FR ceased interfering with American
    rights, the president could reimpose the embargo
    on the other.
  • With little to lose, since GB controlled the
    seas, French emperor Bonaparte announced that he
    had repealed his decrees against neutral
    shipping.
  • But GB continued to attack American vessels and
    stepped up impressments.
  • Spring 1812 JM reimposed the embargo on GB.

115
MR. MADISONS WAR
  • Meanwhile, a group of younger congressmen, mostly
    from the West, were calling for war with GB.
  • Known as war hawks, this new generation of
    political leaders had come of age after American
    won independence and were strong nationalists.
  • Their leaders included Henry Clay of KY and John
    C. Calhoun of SC.

116
MR. MADISONS WAR
  • The war hawks spoke passionately of defending the
    national honor against GB insults.
  • They also had more practical goals in mind,
    notably the annexation of Canada.
  • Many southern war hawks pressed for the conquest
    of FL., a haven for fugitive slaves owned by GBs
    ally Spain.
  • Members of Congress also spoke of the necessity
    of upholding the principle of free trade and
    liberating once and for all from European
    infringements on American independence.

117
MR. MADISONS WAR AND NATIVE AMERICANS
118
Mr. MADISONS WAR AND NATIVE AMERICANS
  • The growing crisis between the US and GB took
    place against the background of deteriorating
    Indian relations in the West.
  • TJ had long favored the removal beyond the
    Mississippi River of Indian tribes who refused to
    cooperate in civilizing themselves.
  • The Louisiana Purchase made this policy more
    feasible.
  • TJ pursued efforts to purchase Indian lands west
    of the Appalachian Mts.
  • He encouraged traders to lend money to Indians,
    in the hope that accumulating debt would force
    them to sell some of their holdings, thus freeing
    up more land for our increasing numbers.

119
MR. MADISONS WAR AND NATIVE AMERICANS
  • 1800 Nearly 400,000 American settlers lived west
    of the Appalachian Mts., far outnumbering the
    remaining Indians.
  • Their seemingly irreversible decline in power led
    some Indians to rethink their opposition to
    assimilation.

120
MR. MADISONS WAR AND NATIVE AMERICANS
  • Among the Creek and Cherokees, a group of men led
    by Major Ridge and Chief John Ross endorsed the
    federal policy of promoting civilization.
  • Their views infuriated nativists who wished to
    root out European influences and resist white
    encroachment on Indian lands.

121
MR. MADISONS WAR AND NATIVE AMERICANS
  • A more militant message was expounded by two
    Shawnee brothers, Tenskwatawa and Tecumseh.
  • Tenskwatawa called for complete separation from
    whites, the revival of traditional Indian
    culture, and resistance to federal policies.

122
MR. MADISONS WAR AND NATIVE AMERICANS
  • Tecumseh sought to revive Neolins pan-Indian
    alliance of the 1760s.
  • He asked Where are the Pequot? Where are the
    Narragansett, the Mohican, the Pocanet, and other
    powerful tribes of our people? They have vanished
    before the avarice and oppression of the white
    man, as snow before the summer sun.

123
MR. MADISONS WAR AND NATIVE AMERICANS
  • Tecumseh proclaimed that Indians must recognize
    that they were a single people and unite in
    claiming a common and equal right in the land.
  • He repudiated the chiefs who had sold land to the
    federal govt.
  • He said
  • Sell a country! Why not sell the air, the great
    sea, as well as the earth? Did not the Great
    Spirit make them all for the use of his children?

124
MR. MADISONS WAR AND NATIVE AMERICANS
  • 1810 Tecumseh called for attacks on American
    frontier settlements.
  • 11/1811 American forces, under William Henry
    Harrison, destroyed Indian forces in the Battle
    of Tippecanoe.
  • Reports that GB was encouraging Tecumsehs
    efforts contributed to the coming of the War of
    1812.

125
MR. MADISONS WAR
  • June 1812 President Madison asked Congress for a
    declaration of war.
  • American nationality, the President declared, was
    at stake would Americans remain an independent
    people, or become colonists and vassals of
    Great Britain.
  • The vote revealed a deeply divided country.
  • Both Federalists and Republicans representing the
    states from NJ northward voted against the war.
  • The South and West were strongly in favor.

126
MR. MADISONS WAR
  • In retrospect, it seems foolhardy for a disunited
    and militarily unprepared nation to go to war
    with one of the worlds two superpowers.
  • Fortunately for the US, GB at the outset was
    preoccupied with the struggle in Europe.
  • But GB easily repelled two feeble American
    invasions of Canada and imposed a blockade that
    all but destroyed American commerce.
  • 1814 Having defeated Bonaparte, GB invaded the
    US.

127
MR.MADISONS WAR
  • British forces seized Washington, DC, burned the
    White House, while the govt., fled for safety.
  • JMs wife Dolly Madison was saved from the
    burning White House by a slave.

128
MR. MADISONS WAR
  • The Americans did enjoy a few military successes.
  • 8/1812 The American frigate Constitution (Old
    Ironsides) defeated the British Guerriere.
  • 9/1813 Commodore Oliver Perry defeated a British
    naval force on Lake Erie.

129
MR. MADISONS WAR
  • 1814 A British assault on Baltimore was repulsed
    when Fort McHenry at the entrance to the harbor
    withstood a British bombardment.
  • This was the occasion when Francis Scott Key
    composed The Star Spangled Banner.

130
MR. MADISONS WAR
  • The war also produced significant victories over
    western Indians who had sided with the British.
  • 3/1814 An army of Americans and pro-assimilation
    Cherokee and Creeks under the command of Andrew
    Jackson defeated hostile Creeks known as Red
    Sticks at the Battle of Horsehoe Bend killing
    more than 800.
  • AJ dictated terms of surrender that required the
    Creeks to cede more than half their land to the
    federal govt.

131
BATTLE OF NEW ORLEANS
132
THE BATTLE OF NEW ORLEANS
  • AJ then proceeded to New Orleans, where he
    engineered the wars greatest victory, fighting
    off a British invasion in Jan. 1815.
  • It was the last battle of the war. In fact the
    treaty ending the war had already been signed
    before the battle.

133
THE BATTLE OF NEW ORLEANS
  • Although a slaveholder, AJ recruited the citys
    free men of color into his forces, appealing to
    them as sons of freedom and promising them the
    same pay and land bounties as white recruits.

134
TREATY OF GHENT
  • Although the treaty was signed in Dec. 1814,
    ships carrying the news of the agreement did not
    reach American until after the Battle of New
    Orleans had been fought.
  • The Treaty restored the previous status quo.
  • No territory exchanged hands, nor did any
    provisions relate to impressment or neutral
    shipping rights.
  • Considering that the war had not been a military
    success for the USA, the Treaty of Ghent was
    about as good as could be expected.

135
THE SIGNIFICANCE OF THE WAR OF 1812
  • A number of contemporaries called the War of 1812
    the Second War for Independence.
  • Despite widespread opposition to the war, it
    confirmed the ability of a republican government
    to conduct a war without surrendering its
    institutions.
  • Andrew Jackson a national hero.
  • The war broke the remaining power of Indians in
    the Old Northwest and significantly reduced their
    holdings in the South, opening rich new lands to
    American settlers (slaveholders).
  • Americans sense of separateness from the Old
    World grew stronger. Increase nationalism.
  • End of the Federalist Party.

136
THE HARTFORD CONVENTION
137
THE HARTFORD CONVENTION
  • A group of N.E., Federalists, gathered at
    Hartford, CT., to give voice to their partys
    long-standing grievances, especially the
    domination of the federal govt., by VA.,
    presidents and their own regions declining
    influence as new western states entered the Union.
  • They called for amending the Const., to eliminate
    the 3/5 clause that strengthened southern
    political power, and to require a 2/3 vote of
    Congress for the admission of new states,
    declaration of war, and laws restricting trade.
  • The Hartford Convention did not call for
    secession or disunion.

138
THE HARTFORD CONVENTION
  • The Convention affirmed the right of a state to
    interpose its authority of the federal govt.,
    violated the Constitution.
  • The Convention had already adjourned before AJs
    victory in New Orleans.
  • In speeches and sermons, political and religious
    leaders alike proclaimed that AJs victory
    revealed, once again, that a divine hand oversaw
    Americas destiny.
  • The Federalists could not free themselves from
    the charge of lacking patriotism.
  • Within a few years, their party no longer existed.

139
THE END OF THE FEDERALIST PARTY
  • Its stance on the war was only one cause of the
    partys decline.
  • The urban commercial and financial interests it
    championed represented a small minority in an
    expanding agricultural nation.
  • Yet the country stood on the verge of a profound
    economic and social transformation that
    Republicans feared.
  • The Feds., elitism and distrust of popular
    self-govt., placed the Federalists more and more
    at odds with the new nations democratic values.
  • Yet in their final moments, they raised an issue
    southern dominance of the national govt., -
    that would long outlive the party.

140
NATIONALISM AND ITS DISCONTENTS
141
NATIONALISM AND ITS DISCONTENTS
  • The War of 1812 inspired an outburst of
    nationalistic pride in the US.
  • But the war revealed how far the US still was
    from being a truly integrated nation.
  • With the BUS having gone out of existence, the
    country lacked a uniform currency and found it
    almost impossible to raise funds for the war
    effort.
  • Given the primitive state of transportation, it
    proved very difficult to move men and goods
    around the country.

142
THE AMERICAN SYSTEM
  • With the coming of peace, the mfg enterprises
    that sprang up while trade with GB had been
    suspended faced intense competition from low-cost
    imported goods.
  • Republicans, like Henry Clay and John C. Calhoun,
    believed these infant industries deserved
    national protection.

143
THE AMERICAN SYSTEM
  • While maintaining their Jeffersonian belief in an
    agrarian republic, they insisted that agriculture
    must be complemented by a mfg., sector if the
    country were to become economically independent
    of GB.
  • 1806 Congress had approved using funds to build
    a paved National Road from Cumberland, MD., to
    the Ohio Valley.

144
THE AMERICAN SYSTEM
  • 1808 Albert Gallatin, TJs Sec., of the
    Treasury, outlined a plan for the fed., govt., to
    tie the nation together by constructing roads and
    canals.
  • The plan fell to regional rivalries but was
    revived after the War of 1812.

145
THE AMERICAN SYSTEM
  • 12/1815 In his annual address to Congress, JM
    put forward a blue print for govt., promoted
    economic development that came to be known as the
    American System, a label coined by Henry Clay.

146
THE AMERICAN SYSTEM
  • Three Pillars
  • A new national bank.
  • A tariff on imported goods to protect American
    industry. (Protectionism)
  • Federal financing of improved roads and canals.
    (Internal improvements)

147
THE AMERICAN SYSTEM
  • Government-sponsored internal improvements
    proved to be the most controversial part of the
    American system.
  • Congress enacted an internal-improvement program
    drafted by Calhoun only to be astonished when
    Madison, on the eve of his retirement from office
    in March 1817, vetoed the bill.

148
THE AMERICAN SYSTEM
  • Madison had become convinced that allowing the
    government to exercise powers not mentioned in
    the Constitution would be dangerous to personal
    liberty and Southern interests.
  • He believed that a constitutional amendment was
    needed before the government built roads and
    canals.

149
THE AMERICAN SYSTEM
  • The other 2 aspects of the American System became
    law.
  • The Tariff of 1816 offered protection to goods
    that could be produced in the USA, especially
    cheap cotton textiles, while admitting tax-free
    those that could not be manufactured at home
    many Southerners supported the tariff believing
    that it would enable their region to develop a
    mfg., base to revival N.E. but it never happened
    slavery.
  • A new Bank of the United States was created, in
    1816, with a 20 year charter from Congress.

150
THE PRESIDENCY OF JAMES MONROE
151
THE ELECTION OF 1816
  • The candidates
  • James Monroe of VA Republicans.
  • Rufus King of MA Federalist.

152
THE ELECTION OF 1816
  • RESULTS
  • JMon., 183 e.v.
  • RK 34 e.v
  • JMon would be the last president from VA.

153
THE PRESIDENCY OF JAMES MONROE
  • Monroes 2 terms in office were years of
    one-party rule, sometimes called the Era of Good
    Feelings.
  • Plenty of bad feelings, however surfaced during
    his presidency along the lines of competing
    interersts.
  • They key issue during JMons administration
    involved banks and money, an economic panic, the
    courts, slavery, and foreign affairs.

154
BANKS AND MONEY
  • The Second BUS soon became the focus of public
    resentment.
  • It was a private, profit-making corporation that
    served as the govts financial agent, issuing
    paper money, collecting taxes, and paying the
    govts bills.
  • It was also charged with ensuring that paper
    money issued by local banks had real value.

155
BANKS AND MONEY
  • The number of local banks had risen to over 200.
  • They promoted economic growth by helping to
    finance mfg and commerce and extending loans to
    farmers for the purchase of land, tools, consumer
    goods, and , in the south, slaves.
  • They also printed paper money.
  • In the 19th century, paper money consisted of
    notes promising to pay the bearer on demand a
    specific amount of specie gold or silver.
  • The value of the currency issued by individual
    banks depended on their reputation for stability.
  • Since banks often printed more money than the
    specie in the vaults, the value of paper money
    fluctuated wildly.

156
BANKS AND MONEY
  • The BUS was supposed to prevent the over issuance
    of money.
  • Because it held all the funds of the fed., govt.,
    it accumulated a large amount of paper money
    issued by local banks, which had been used to
    purchase land.
  • The BUS could demand payment in gold and silver
    from a local bank in exchange for that banks
    paper money.
  • This prospect was supposed to prevent local banks
    from acting improperly, for if it could not
    provide the specie when asked, it would have to
    suspend operations.

157
THE PANIC OF 1819
158
THE PANIC OF 1819
  • Instead of effectively regulating the currency
    and loans issued by local banks, the BUS
    participated in a speculative fever that swept
    the country after the War of 1812.
  • The resumption of trade with Europe created a
    huge overseas market for American cotton and
    grain.
  • Coupled with the rapid expansion of settlement
    into the West, this stimulated demands for loans
    to purchase land, which banks were only happy to
    meet by printing more money.
  • The land boom was especially acute in the South,
    where the Cotton Kingdom was expanding.

159
THE PANIC OF 1819
  • Early 1819 The European demand for American
    goods returned to normal the economic bubble
    burst.
  • The demand for land plummeted and speculators
    lost millions as the price of western land fell.
  • The BUS, followed by local banks, began calling
    in the loans.
  • Farmers and businessmen who could not pay the
    loans declared bankruptcy and unemployment rose
    in eastern cities.

160
THE PANIC OF 1819
  • The Panic of 1819 lasted little more than a year,
    but it severely disrupted the political harmony
    of the previous years.
  • Those suffering from the economic downturn
    pressed the state and national govts for
    assistance.
  • Many states, especially in the West, responded by
    suspending the collection of debts.
  • The Panic of 1819 deepened many Americans
    distrust of banks.
  • The BUS was widely blamed for the panic.
  • Several states retaliated against the BUS by
    taxing its local branches.

161
McCULLOCH v. MARYLAND (1819)
162
McCULLOCH v. MARYLAND (1819)
  • These state taxes produced another of John
    Marshalls landmark Supreme Court decisions in
    McCulloch v. Maryland (1819).
  • Marshall declared the BUS a legitimate exercise
    of Congressional authority under the Consts
    clause that allowed Congress to pass necessary
    and proper laws.

163
McCULLOCH v. MARYLAND (1819)
  • Marshall, a broad constructionist, directly
    contradicted the strict constructionist view that
    limited Congress to powers specifically granted
    in the Const.
  • Marshall acknowledged that the Const., nowhere
    mentions the right of lawmakers to issue
    corporate charters.
  • But, he wrote, where the aim of legislation in
    this case to promote the general welfare was
    legitimate, all means which are not prohibited
    are constitutional.
  • MD., Marshall concluded, could not tax the BUS.

164
McCULLOCH v. MARYLAND (1819)
  • The power to tax, Marshall remarked, involves
    the power to destroy, and the states lacked the
    authority to destroy an agency created by the
    national govt.

165
THE MISSOURI COMPROMISE (The Compromise of 1820)
166
THE MISSOURI COMPROMISE (COMPROMISE OF 1820)
  • Even as political party divisions faded and John
    Marshall aligned the Supreme Court with the
    aggressive nationalism of Clay, Calhoun, and
    others, the troublesome issue of slavery again
    threatened to disrupt the nations unity.
  • 1819 Congress considered a request from
    Missouri, an area carved out of the Louisiana
    Purchase, to form a constitution in preparation
    for admission to the Union as a state.
  • Missouris slave population already exceeded
    10,000.

167
THE MISSOURI COMPROMISE (THE COMPROMISE OF 1820)
  • James Tallmadge, a Republican from NY, moved that
    the introduction of further slaves be prohibited
    and that children already in Missouri be freed at
    age 25.
  • His proposal sparked 2 years of controversy,
    during which Republican unity shattered along
    sectional lines.
  • Tallmadges proposal passed the House but died in
    the Senate.

168
THE MISSOURI COMPROMISE (THE COMPROMISE OF 1820)
  • 1820 Sen. James Thomas of ILL, proposed a
    compromise with three parts
  • Missouri would be authorized a constitution
    without the Tallmadge restrictions.
  • Maine, which prohibited slavery, would be
    admitted to the Union to maintain the sectional
    balance between free and slave states.
  • Slavery would be prohibited in all remaining
    territory of the Louisiana Purchase north of
    latitude 3630 (Missouris southern boundary).

169
THE MISSOURI COMPROMISE (THE COMPROMISE OF 1820)
  • Congress adopted Thomass plan as the Missouri
    Compromise.
  • 1821 Missouri presented to Congress its new
    constitution, which not only protected slavery
    but prohibited
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