Geography Themes, Skills, Landforms, - PowerPoint PPT Presentation

Loading...

PPT – Geography Themes, Skills, Landforms, PowerPoint presentation | free to download - id: 5fed43-OTQ4Z



Loading


The Adobe Flash plugin is needed to view this content

Get the plugin now

View by Category
About This Presentation
Title:

Geography Themes, Skills, Landforms,

Description:

Title: PowerPoint Presentation Last modified by: lmcfarland Created Date: 1/1/1601 12:00:00 AM Document presentation format: On-screen Show Other titles – PowerPoint PPT presentation

Number of Views:214
Avg rating:3.0/5.0
Slides: 49
Provided by: barrenK1
Category:

less

Write a Comment
User Comments (0)
Transcript and Presenter's Notes

Title: Geography Themes, Skills, Landforms,


1
Geography Themes, Skills, Landforms, Earth's
Atmosphere
  • Coach McFarland

2
I. Themes of Geography
  • Location
  • Place
  • Human-Environmental Interaction
  • Movement
  • Region

3
Location
  • Where is it?
  • 2 Types of location
  • Absolute Location a precise place.
  • Relative Location relation to other places.

4
Place
  • Physical surroundings.

5
Human-Environment Interaction
  • How people and the environment interact with each
    other.

6
Movement
  • Transportaion of people, goods and ideas.

7
Region
  • An area with common characteristics.

8
II. The Wide World of Geography
  • Branches of Geography
  • Geography as a Profession

9
Branches of Geography
  • Human Geography
  • The study of how people and their activities vary
    from place to place.
  • Includes political, economic, and cultural
    factors.
  • Physical Geography
  • The study of how the Earths natural features
    vary from place to place.
  • The study of plains mountains, weather
    climates, plants, animals, humans.

10
Geography as a Profession
  • Cartography
  • The study of maps and map making.
  • Because of the movement of people, maps are
    constantly changing.
  • For example, in the past 40 years, 41,000 miles
    of interstate highways have been constructed
    across the U.S. and therefore, have been added to
    various road maps.
  • During WWI, photographs of battle fields were
    taken from airplanes. After the war,
    cartographers started using aerial photographs to
    make detailed maps of the Earths surface

11
5 Features of Every Good Map
  • Grid pattern of lines running horizontally
    (across) and vertically (up and down).
  • Direction shows relative location.
  • Scale How large the maps territory really is.
  • Key Tells what the maps symbols mean.
  • Title Names the map.

12
Geography as a Profession
  • Meteorology
  • Specializes in weather and weather forecasting.

13
Geography as a Profession
  • Applied Geography
  • Help to research, map, and analyze environmental
    data.
  • Investigate land usage.

14
Geography as a Profession
  • Teaching Geography
  • Necessary for good citizenship.
  • Help to develop an informed public.

15
III. Planet Earth The only planet that supports
life as we know it.
  • The Earth System
  • 4 Physical Systems

16
The Earth System
  • The interaction of objects on and around the
    Earth.

17
4 Physical Systems
  • Atmosphere
  • The layer of gas that surrounds the Earth.
  • Lithosphere
  • The rocky surface that forms the continents and
    the ocean floor.
  • Hydrosphere
  • All the planets water in the oceans, on the
    land, and in the atmosphere.
  • Biosphere
  • All of the planets plant and animal life.

18
IV. Global Energy Systems
  • Temperature
  • Air Pressure
  • Wind
  • Global Wind Belts
  • Ocean Circulation

19
Temperature The measurement of heat in the
Earths atmosphere.
  • The process by which heat energy is trapped by
    the atmosphere thus keeping Earth warm is called
    the Greenhouse Effect.
  • Earth maintains its energy balance because most
    heat is lost to space at night and during the
    winter season.

20
Air Pressure The force exerted by air creates
the winds and ocean currents.
  • When air is warmed, it expands, becomes lighter,
    and rises, thus creating a low pressure area.
  • Low-pressure areas tend to bring unstable weather
    conditions.
  • Cold air is dense, heavy, and tends to sink
    causing high-pressure areas.
  • High-pressure areas generally cause clear, calm
    weather.

21
Wind
  • The horizontal motion of air between areas of
    different pressure.

22
Global Wind Belts
  • Prevailing winds that usually blow from areas of
    high-pressure to areas of low pressure
  • Fronts
  • Jet Streams

23
Global Wind Belts
  • Fronts
  • Occur when two air masses with very different
    temperatures and amounts of moisture meet.
  • Fronts usually cause stormy weather.

24
Global Wind Belts
  • Jet Streams
  • Prevailing winds that blow in the upper
    atmosphere.
  • These winds are not directly felt on Earths
    surface.
  • The Jet Stream moves energy, storms, and major
    weather patterns.

25
Ocean Circulation
  • Currents are set in motion by prevailing winds
    blowing across the surface of the ocean.

26
V. Atmospheric Effects
  • Water vapor
  • Storms
  • Elevation

27
Water Vapor
  • An important gas most is evaporated from the
    oceans.
  • The remainder comes from lakes, plants, and the
    soil.
  • Without water vapor, there would be no clouds,
    rain, or storms.

28
Water Vapor
  • Humidity
  • The amount of water vapor in the air.
  • Condensation
  • The process by which water vapor changes from a
    gas into liquid droplets.
  • Condensation can be seen in the formation of
    clouds, fog, and dew.
  • If condensation droplets become large enough,
    they fall as precipitation

29
Water Vapor
  • 4 types of precipitation
  • Rain
  • Sleet
  • Snow
  • Hail

30
Storms
  • Occur when energy stored in the atmospheric water
    vapor is released

31
Storms
  • 3 Kinds of Storms
  • Hurricanes
  • Form over warm ocean waters and carry violent
    winds, torrential rain, and dangerously high
    seas.
  • Tornadoes
  • The smallest, but most violent of storms
    twisting spirals of air that can destroy anything
    in their path.
  • Thunder Storms
  • The most common type contains lightning and
    thunder.

32
Elevation
  • Affects temperature.
  • An increase in elevation, or height above sea
    level, causes lowering of the temperature.
  • Eventhough the equator passes through Kenya, the
    countrys tallest mountain, Mt. Kenya, is
    snowcapped year-round because it is over 17,000
    feet above sea level.

33
VI. Global Climates
  • Factors Affecting Climates
  • Types of Climates

34
Factors Affecting Climate
  • Temperature and Precipitation Differences
  • Continental or Maritime Location
  • Elevation

35
Types of Climates
  • Humid-Tropical
  • Located near the equator with ideal conditions
    for plant growth. (Heavy rain fall continuous
    warm temps.) (Low Latitude)
  • Tropical-Savanna
  • Located just to the N and S of the Humid-Tropical
    climate. Wet and dry climate with more of a
    season change. (Low Latitude)

36
Types of Climates
  • Arid Desert
  • Located 30 degrees N and S of the equator with
    very little rain and few plants surviving. The
    largest desert is the Sahara.
  • Semiarid Steppe
  • Transition area between arid deserts and more
    humid climates an area of short-grass vegetation
    that generally support grasslands trees are rare
    except along riverbanks.

37
Types of Climates
  • Mediterranean
  • Located between 30 and 40 degrees latitude
    confined to the coastal areas of southern Europe
    and the west coasts of continents with cool ocean
    currents. (Middle Latitude)
  • Humid-Subtropical
  • Found on the eastern side of continents with warm
    ocean currents hot, humid summers and mild
    winters. (Middle Latitude)

38
Types of Climates
  • Marine West-Coast
  • Found on the west coast of continents in the
    upper-middle latitudes with mild temperatures all
    year. (Middle Latitude)
  • Humid-Continental
  • Found in latitudes subject to both warm and cold
    air changeable weather and four distinct seasons.
    (Middle Latitude)

39
Types of Climates
  • Subarctic
  • Located in high latitudes with long, dark, and
    cold winters, with temperatures staying well
    below freezing for half of the year short
    summers that can have very warm temperatures has
    the greatest annual temperature ranges in the
    world and supports vast evergreen forests.

40
Types of Climates
  • Tundra
  • Has long winters and temperatures above freezing
    only during short summers vegetation is made up
    of small plants, such as mosses, herbs, and
    shrubs water below the surface remains frozen
    all year., called permafrost.
  • Polar Ice-Cap
  • Has cold temperatures and snowfall year-round

41
VII. The Geography of Water
  • One of Our Most Important Resources
  • Not Evenly Distributed on Earth
  • Water Resources

42
Water is one our most important resources for 3
reasons.
  • Water is essential for agriculture.
  • Water is necessary for industries to function.
  • Water is a valuable power source.

43
Water is not evenly distributed on Earth.
  • The oceans contain 97 of Earths water.
  • More the 2 of Earths water is frozen in the
    polar ice-caps.
  • Less than 1 of Earths water is a available as a
    freshwater resource, found in lakes, rivers, and
    streams.

44
Water Resources
  • Headwaters
  • The first and smallest streams to form from
    runoff.
  • Tributaries
  • Small streams or rivers that flow into larger
    streams or rivers
  • Watershed
  • An area of land that is drained by a river and
    its tributaries
  • Rivers
  • A valuable water resource, providing water for
    agriculture, electricity, transportation, and
    cities

45
Water Resources
  • Estuary
  • Where rivers meet an arm of the sea.
  • Lakes
  • When water fills a depression on the land
    surface mostly freshwater different from seas
    in that they are totally surrounded by land, are
    usually not at sea level, and do not exchange
    water with oceans. The 5 Great Lakes are
    actually one body of water, making up the largest
    body of freshwater on the Earth.

46
Water Resources
  • Wetlands
  • Become flooded for at least part of the year.
    Floridas Everglades is one of the best-known
    wetlands in the United States.
  • Ground Water
  • A large freshwater resource beneath the surface
    of the land with the major source being
    precipitation.

47
Water Resources
  • Oceans
  • Cover about 71 of the Earths surface they are
    actually one continuous global body of water
    divided into 4 oceans
  • Pacific the largest geographic feature on
    Earth.
  • Atlantic
  • Indian
  • Arctic

48
Water Resources
  • Oceans (Cont.)
  • There are smaller bodies of salt water.
  • Seas
  • Gulfs
  • Bays
  • The depth of the oceans vary greatly. The
    greatest ocean depth is in the Mariana Trench,
    located in the N Pacific Ocean. The shallowest
    part is the continental shelf, which slopes
    gently downward from the continents.
About PowerShow.com