The History and Scope of Psychology Module 1 - PowerPoint PPT Presentation

Loading...

PPT – The History and Scope of Psychology Module 1 PowerPoint presentation | free to download - id: 5fe38c-ZjQzM



Loading


The Adobe Flash plugin is needed to view this content

Get the plugin now

View by Category
About This Presentation
Title:

The History and Scope of Psychology Module 1

Description:

The History and Scope of Psychology Module 1 * * Distribute your time Learn to think critically Listen actively in class Overlearn Be a smart test-taker Tips for ... – PowerPoint PPT presentation

Number of Views:118
Avg rating:3.0/5.0
Slides: 39
Provided by: hsu363
Category:

less

Write a Comment
User Comments (0)
Transcript and Presenter's Notes

Title: The History and Scope of Psychology Module 1


1
The History and Scope of Psychology Module 1
2
The History and Scope of Psychology
  • What is Psychology?
  • Psychologys Roots
  • Contemporary Psychology

3
Psychologys Roots
  • Aristotle (384-322 B.C.)

http//faculty.washington.edu
Aristotle, a naturalist and philosopher,
theorized about psychologys concepts. He
suggested that the soul and body are not separate
and that knowledge grows from experience.
4
Psychologys Roots
Psychology
themes of psychology
methods of psychology
Philosophy Humanities
Natural Science
  • Knowledge is a product of understanding
    observable phenomena. Science flourishes through
    observation and experiment
  • Knowledge understanding
  • Knowledge is a product of introspective thought.
  • Knowledge insight

5
Psychological Science is Born
Contents of the conscious mindand
introspection Wundt studied the atoms of the
mind by conducting experiments at Leipzig,
Germany, in 1879 (e.g., sensations,
images). This work is considered the birth of
psychology as we know it today.
Wundt (1832-1920)
6
Psychological Science is Born
Mary Calkins
James (1842-1910)
American philosopher William James wrote an
important 1890 psychology textbook. Mary Calkins,
Jamess student, became the APAs first female
president. Functionalism what the mind does and
why
7
Psychological Science is Born
Freud (1856-1939)
Sigmund Freud, an Austrian physician, and his
followers emphasized the importance of the
unconscious mind and its effects on human
behavior.
8
Psychological Science is Born
Psychology originated in many disciplines and
countries. It was, until the 1920s, defined as
the science of mental life.
9
Psychological Science Develops
  • Behaviorists

Skinner (1904-1990)
Watson (1878-1958)
Watson and later Skinner emphasized the study of
overt behavior as the subject matter of
scientific psychology.
10
Psychological Science Develops
  • Humanistic Psychology

Maslow (1908-1970)
http//facultyweb.cortland.edu
Rogers (1902-1987)
http//www.carlrogers.dk
Maslow and Rogers emphasized current
environmental influences on our growth potential
and our need for love and acceptance.
11
Psychology Today
  • We define psychology today as the scientific
    study of behavior (what we do) and mental
    processes (inner thoughts and feelings).

12
(No Transcript)
13
Biyo-psiko-sosyal model
  • Biyolojik etkiler
  • Hormonlar
  • Nörötransmitterlar
  • Genler
  • Mizaç (enerji düzeyi vs..)...
  • Psikolojik etkiler
  • Ögrenilen korkular, basarilar, beklentiler,
    tutumlar, inançlar, bilgiler...
  • kisaca geçmis tecrübeler

Insan duygu, düsünce ve davranislari
  • Sosyo-kültürel, örgütsel etkiler
  • Baska insanlarin varligi,
  • Ebeveyn stili, arkadas grubu
  • Normlar, kurallar
  • Örgütsel/toplumsal kültür, normlar, din...

14
Psychologys Current Perspectives
Perspective Focus Sample Questions
Neuroscience How the body and brain enables emotions? How are messages transmitted in the body? How is blood chemistry linked with moods and motives?
Evolutionary How the natural selection of traits promotes the perpetuation of ones genes? How does evolution influence behavior tendencies?
Behavior genetics How much our genes and our environments influence our individual differences? To what extent are psychological traits such as intelligence, personality, sexual orientation, and vulnerability to depression attributable to our genes? To our environment?
15
Psychologys Current Perspectives
Perspective Focus Sample Questions
Psychodynamic How behavior springs from unconscious drives and conflicts? How can someones personality traits and disorders be explained in terms of sexual and aggressive drives or as disguised effects of unfulfilled wishes and childhood traumas?
Behavioral How we learn observable responses? How do we learn to fear particular objects or situations? What is the most effective way to alter our behavior, say to lose weight or quit smoking?
16
Psychologys Current Perspectives
Perspective Focus Sample Questions
Cognitive How we encode, process, store and retrieve information? How do we use information in remembering? Reasoning? Problem solving?
Social-cultural How behavior and thinking vary across situations and cultures? How are we as Africans, Asians, Australians or North Americans alike as members of human family? As products of different environmental contexts, how do we differ?
17
  • Psychologys Subfields
  • Basic Research
  • pure science that aims to increase the knowledge
    base
  • Applied Research
  • scientific study that aims to solve practical
    problems

18
Psychologys Subfields Research
Psychologist What she does
Biological Explore the links between brain and mind.
Developmental Study changing abilities from womb to tomb.
Cognitive Study how we perceive, think, and solve problems.
Personality Investigate our persistent traits.
Social Explore how we view and affect one another.
19
Psychologys Subfields Research
Data APA 1997
20
Psychologys Subfields Applied
Psychologist What s/he does
Clinical Studies, assesses, and treats people with psychological disorders
Counseling Helps people cope with academic, vocational, and marital challenges.
Educational Studies and helps individuals in school and educational settings
Industrial/ Organizational Studies and advises on behavior in the workplace.
21
Psychologys Subfields Applied
Data APA 1997
22
Clinical Psychology vs. Psychiatry
  • A clinical psychologist (Ph.D.) studies,
    assesses, and treats troubled people with
    psychotherapy.
  • Psychiatrists on the other hand are medical
    professionals (M.D.) who use treatments like
    drugs and psychotherapy to treat psychologically
    diseased patients.

23
Psychological Associations Societies
The American Psychological Association is the
largest organization of psychology with 160,000
members world-wide, followed by the British
Psychological Society with 34,000 members.
24
Ögretim Üyelerimiz
Çigdem Kagitçibasi
Bilge Yagmurlu
Sami Gülgöz
Ilke Öztekin
Zeynep Cemalcilar
Banu Çankaya Fuat Balci (Ocak 2011)
Nazli Baydar
Zeynep Aycan
Tarcan Kumkale
25
Nelerle ilgileniyoruz?
Çigdem Kagitçibasi
Kültürün ailelerin iliski tarzi üzerinde nasil
bir etkisi var? Aile iliskilerinin çocugun
gelisimi üzerinde etkisi nedir? Çocuklarin
gelisimini daha saglikli bir biçime getirmek için
gerekli olan sosyal politikalar nelerdir? Aileler
çocuga ne derece ve ne nedenlerle deger veriyor?
26
Nelerle ilgileniyoruz?
Yasadigimiz olaylarin hangilerini niçin
hatirliyoruz? Olaylarin duygusal etkisi hatirlama
olasiligini degistiriyor mu? Bir olayi hangi
dilde yasadigimiz onun hangi dilde daha kolay
hatirlanacagini belirler mi? Neden 15-30 yas
arasinda yasanan olaylar hep daha fazla
hatirlaniyor? Hatirladigimiz olaylarin
kisiligimizle iliskisi ne?
Sami Gülgöz
27
Nelerle ilgileniyoruz?
  • Çalisanlar is ve aile hayatlarini nasil
    dengeliyorlar? Yogun tempolari içinde
    kendilerine zaman ayirabiliyorlar mi?
  • Insan kaynaklari uygulamalari (ise alma,
    performans degerlendirme, ödüllendirme gibi)
    ülkeler arasinda farklilik gösterir mi? Örnegin
    ABDdeki sistemler Türkiyede kullanilabilir mi?
  • Kültürel zeka nedir? Yabanci ülkelerde çalisan
    yöneticiler için kültürel zeka ve kültüre uyum
    göstermek ne derece önemlidir?
  • Liderlik kültüre göre degisir mi? Babacan
    liderler etkili midir?

Zeynep Aycan
28
Nelerle ilgileniyoruz?
Çocuklarda dil gelisimi tüm dillerde ayni
mi? Ailelerin sosyo-ekonomik durumlarinin dil
gelisiminde etkisi nedir? Ailelerin çocuklara
yönelik kullandigi dil ile çocugun dil gelisimi
arasinda nasil bir iliski var? Zihinsel gelisim
ve sosyal gelisim ile dil becerilerini arasinda
nasil bir iliski var? Hikaye anlatma becerisi
nasil gelisiyor?
Aylin Küntay
29
Nelerle ilgileniyoruz?
Bilge Yagmurlu
Olumlu sosyal davranislarimizi ve saldirgan
davranislarimizi neler belirliyor? Biyolojik
yatkinliklarimiz ne kadar etkili? Çevrenin rolü
ne kadar? Duygu düzenleme becerisi nedir? Neye
yarar? Nasil gelisir? Anne-babalar ne yaparak
çocuklarinin sosyal ve duygusal becerilerini
gelistirmeye yardimci olabilir? Siddeti azaltmak
için neler yapabiliriz?
30
Nelerle ilgileniyoruz?
Insanlar neden ve nasil tutumlar olustururlar? Bu
tutumlar duygu, düsünce ve davranislarini nasil
etkiler? Bazi tutumlari degistirmek neden
zordur? Kitle iletisim araçlarinin kamuoyu ve
tüketici davranislari üzerine etkileri
nelerdir? Insanlari ikna edecek kitle iletisim
mesajlari nasil olmalidir?
31
Nelerle ilgileniyoruz?
Egitici TV programlarinin çocuklarin gelisimine
etkisi var mi? Benimle Oynar misin?
programinin çocuklarin okula hazir olma düzeyi
üzerindeki etkisi. Programi düzenli izleyen
çocuklarin aritmetik, kelime bilgisi, geometrik
sekiller ve heceleme ile ilgili becerileri daha
gelismis.
Nazli Baydar
32
Nelerle ilgileniyoruz?
Ögrencilerin okula aidiyetini belirleyen
faktörler nelerdir? Bunlari degistirerek ne fark
yaratabiliriz? Çevrenin bireyin gelisimine ve
davranislarina etkileri nelerdir? Aidiyet ne
demektir? Nasil gelisir, nasil degisir? Gelisen
teknolojinin sosyal hayatimiza etkileri nelerdir?
Teknoloji, mesela bilgisayar oyunlari,
psikolojimizi kötü etkilemek zorunda midir?
Zeynep Cemalcilar
33
Tips for Studying Psychology
Psychology can teach you how to ask and answer
important questions. Survey, Question, Read,
Rehearse and Review (SQ3R)
  • Survey What you are about to read, including
    chapter outlines and section heads.
  • Question Ask questions. Make notes.
  • Read Look for the answer to your questions by
    reading a manageable amount at a time.
  • Rehearse Recall what youve read in your own
    words. Test yourself with quizzes.
  • Review What you learn. Read over notes and
    quickly review the whole chapter.

34
Tips for Studying Psychology
Additional Study Hints
  • Distribute your time
  • Learn to think critically
  • Listen actively in class
  • Overlearn
  • Be a smart test-taker

35
Crossword exercise
What are the sub-fields of psychology?
36
(No Transcript)
37
  1. Attempt to detect and deal with many problems
    associated with poor school performance
  2. Conduct laboratory studies of learning,
    motivation, sensation and perception
  3. Work to understand and treat mental disorders
  4. Study traits that make individuals unique and
    which persist over time
  5. Deal with the mental and emotional aspects of
    physical performance such as motivation and
    rehabilitation after injury.
  6. Explore the ways in which people interact and
    influence each other
  • Attempt to discover how the nervous system makes
    human thinking and behavior possible
  • Provide expert testimony as to the sanity and
    competence of individuals for the legal system
  • Examine the ways in which our behavior changes
    over the life span
  • Investigate human memory, language, and problem
    solving
  • Seek to understand the psychological factors that
    promote or impair physical health
  • Determine the best methods selecting, training,
    managing and motivating individuals in the work
    place

38
(No Transcript)
39
SUB-DIVISIONS OF PSYCHOLOGY
About PowerShow.com