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GLOBAL WARMING

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Title: GLOBAL WARMING


1
GLOBAL WARMING
DR. V. SUNDARARAJ, Dean (Retd.), Fisheries
College Res. Inst.,
DIRECTOR (TECHNICAL) Asian Analytical
Laboratories, Palavakkam, Chennai 41. Ph 044
- 32560686 / 87 mob 9380657117
2
The Earth Sea / oceans ----------------
70 Land -------------------------27 Ice
--------------------------- 3 (Antarctica and
Greenland)
3
The Earth and its climate
  • Earth receives energy from the sun (radiation)
  • Earth reflects about 30 of the solar radiation
  • Absorbs 70 of the radiation ( warming the land
    atmosphere oceans)
  • Visible radiation heats up the earth nor the
    atmosphere.
  • Constantly changing over 5 billion years
  • Sometimes, climate has warmed, oceans have risen,
    much earth covered.
  • Earth average surface temperature 20-300C
  • Warmer than it would be with out greenhouse
    effect.

4
Atmosphere
  • Covers the earth
  • A thin layer of mixed gases, which makes up the
    air we breath.
  • Helps to avoid the earth becoming too cold or too
    hot.

5
Global Warming
  • Warming of the Globe (Earth) due to solar
    radiation and emission of gases including human
    activities.

6
THE PROCESS OF GLOBAL WARMING
7
GLOBAL WARMING
Not from yesterday Its for years ago For hundreds
of years Impact is not immediate Yet, very
serious
8
Average composition of the atmosphere up to an
altitude of 25km
Sl. No. Gas Name Chemical Formula Percent Volume
1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 Nitrogen Oxygen Water vapour Argon Carbon dioxide Neon Helium Methane Hydrogen Nitrous oxide ozone N2 O2 H2O Ar CO2 Ne He CH4 H2 N2O O3 Variable gases 78.08 20.95 0 4 0.93 0.0360 0.0018 0.0005 0.00017 0.00005 0.00003 0.000004
9
?
?
?
CAUSES
?
10
GREENHOUSES
11
Greenhouse
  • A structure with glass or plastic roof and
    frequently with glass or plastic walls for
    heating inside to warm plants, soil and other
    things kept inside.
  • Glass A selective transmission medium.
  • Effective to trap energy within the
    greenhouse.

12
Greenhouse gases
  • Components of atmosphere
  • Contribute to greenhouse effect
  • Some GHG occur naturally in atmosphere
  • Others result from human activities
  • (Burning of fossil fuels)

13
Greenhouse gases
  • Major
  • Water vapour 36 - 70
  • (clouds not included )
  • Carbon dioxide 9 - 26
  • Methane 4 - 9
  • Ozone 3 - 7
  • Other Greenhouse gases
  • Nitrous oxide
  • Sulfur hexafluoride
  • Hydrofluorocarbons
  • Perfluorocarbons
  • Chlorofluorocarbons

14
GREENHOUSE GASES
                                                  
                                    This graph
shows the distribution of GHG in Earth's
atmosphere. Carbon Dioxide is clearly the
majority.
15
Emissions of
  • Carbon dioxide (CO2)
  • Methane (CH4)
  • Nitrous oxide (N2O)
  • Hydrofluro carbons
  • Sulphur dioxide
  • Perfluro carbons

16
CARBON DIOXIDE
Pie chart shows how CO2 is produced
17
CARBON DIOXIDE
Cars also contribute to CO2 in the atmosphere.
Deforestation and Forest Fires contribute to an
increase in CO2 levels
18
METHANE
Cows such as these contribute a large amount of
methane to the air.
19
CHLOROFLUOROCARBONS
Refrigerators and  Air Conditioners using CFC's
were a huge problem for the ozone layer, but now
HFC's are a problem for the climate.
20
CHLOROFLUOROCARBONS-Problems
21
WORLD PRODUCTION CHLOROFLUOROCARBONS
22
When do we send greenhouse gases into the Air?
  • Whenever we
  • Watch TV
  • Use the AC
  • Turn on a light
  • Play video games
  • Listen to stereo
  • Wash/Dry clothes
  • Use hair dryer
  • Ride in a car
  • Use a dish washer
  • Microwave a meal

23
Main sources of GHG due to human activities
  • Burning of fossil fuels
  • Deforestation
  • Live stock, paddy, wetland changes (Methane)
  • Use of chlorofluorocarbons (CFCs)
  • (In refrigeration systems)
  • Agricultural activities (fertilizers) nitrous
    oxide concentration

24
Green house effect
  • It is important
  • Responsible for warming of earth
  • Warm enough for human living
  • If effect is more?
  • Problems for Humans, plants and animals

25
Diagram to help explain the how greenhouse gases
create the "greenhouse effect"
26
Importance of greenhouse effect
  • Present temperature of the earth - 57ºF (14ºC).
  • If there is no green house effect temperature
    would be 0ºF (-18ºC)
  • Can we live?
  • Can other organisms thrive?
  • Greenhouse effect is required also.

27
Greenhouse gases (Specifically CO2) in
pre-industrial and post-industrial periods
Pre-industrial period Post-industrial period
About 280 parts per million by volume (ppmv) 370 ppmv
By the end of the 21st century 490 1260 ppm
28
Atmospheric life time and GWP of greenhouse gases
Sl.No GHG Atmospheric Lifetime (yrs.) Global warming Potential (GWP)
1 CO2 200 -450
2 Methane 12 3 62 (over 20 yrs.)
3 Nitrous oxide 120 296 over 100 yrs.
4 CFC 12 100 10,600
5 HCFC 22 12.1 5,700
6 Tetra fluromethane 50,000 5,700
7 Sulphur hexafluoride 3,200 22,000
29
CO2
  • A colorless, odorless non-flammable gas
  • Most important Greenhouse gas in earths
    atmosphere
  • Recycled through the atmosphere by photosynthesis
  • Human and over 30 billion tons of CO2 anually in
    the atmosphere by the above process
  • CO2 emission into the air due to
  • Humans exhale
  • Burning of fossil fuel
  • Deforest the planet

30
Seven Sources of CO2 due to fossil fuel combustion
  • Solid fuels (eg. Coal) 35
  • Liquid fuels (eg. Petrol) 36
  • Gaseous fuels (eg. Natural gas) 20
  • Flaring gas industrially and at walls - lt1
  • Cement production 3
  • Non fuel hydrocarbons - lt1
  • International bunkers of shipping and air
    transport 4

31
CO2 Release into the Atmosphere
  • Burning fossil fuels for driving
  • Burning fossil fuels for flying
  • Burning fossil fuels for sailing
  • Burning fossil fuels for Electricity
  • Burning fossil fuels for Heating
  • Burning fossil fuels for cooling
  • Burning fossil fuels for cooking

32
CO2 Production and Utilization
  • Release of CO2 by average American/yr. 30,000
    pounds
  • (Through personal transportation and home energy
    needs)
  • Utilization of CO2 by single tropical tree over
    its life time 2,000 pounds
  • (_at_ 50 pounds /yr. over 40 years)
  • Trees must be planted at the rate of 15/person to
    offset CO2 release

33
Methane
  • Often called swamp gas
  • Colourless, odorless, flammable gas
  • Formed when plants decay, while air is very
    little
  • Often called swamp gas Abundant in swampy areas
  • Bacterial breaking of organic matter in wetlands
  • Bacteria found in livestock produce naturally
  • Annually 350 500 million tons of methane is
    added to the atmosphere (due to livestock - cows,
    sheep, goats, buffalos, camels and also
    terminates), coal mining, drilling for oil, rice
    cultivation etc.,)

34
Nitrous oxide
  • Colourless greenhouse gas
  • Has a sweet odor
  • Used as an anesthetic (Deadens pain)
  • Known as laughing gas
  • Released naturally from oceans and soil bacteria
  • Risen more than 15 since 1750
  • Annual addition to the atmosphere is 7-13 million
    tons (due to fertilizer application, disposal of
    human and animal waste, automobile exhaust, etc.,)

35
Fluorocarbons
  • A term for a group of synthetic organic
    compounds, containing fluorine and carbon
  • Can be easily converted from gas to liquid and
    liquid to gas
  • Because of this, fluorocarbons can be used in
    aerosol cans, refrigerators and air conditioners.
  • They do harm to the atmosphere
  • Banned for production in the US

36
Hydrofluorocarbons (HFCs)
  • Do not harm or breakdown the ozone molecule
  • But trap heat in the atmosphere
  • Used in air-conditioners

37
1996 PROCESSES CARBON DIOXIDE WAS PRODUCED
Country (region) OIL Natural Gas Coal
World 44.7 18.4 36.9
Canada 51.8 30 18.2
United States 45 21.3 33.7
European Union 56.2 19 24.8
China 17.4 1.1 81.5
Japan 64.6 9.9 25.5
This chart shows what percentage of CO2 comes
from Oil, Natural Gas, and Coal. For example, in
1996, 44.7 of the world's CO2 emissions came
from the combustion of oil
38
IMPACTS.. ? !!!
39
What Effect Do Greenhouse Gases Have on Climate
Change?
40
Effects of Global Warming
  • Attributed
  • Glacier retreat
  • Ice shelf disruption
  • Sea level rise
  • Change in rainfall pattern
  • Frequent extreme weather events

41
Expected effects
  • Water scarcity
  • Increased precipitation
  • Changes in mountain snow pack
  • Adverse health effects
  • Increasing deaths
  • Displacements
  • Economic losses

42
Additional anticipated effects
  • Sea level rises of 110 to 770mm (0.36-2.5ft)
    between 1990 2100.
  • Repercussions to agriculture.
  • Slowing of thermocline circulation.
  • Reduction in ozone layer
  • Increased intensity and frequency of hurricanes.
  • Extreme weather events.
  • Lowering of ocean pH.
  • Spreading of diseases such as malaria and dengue
    fever.
  • 18-35 samples-animal and plant species would be
    extinct by 2050.

43
N

44
EFFECTS OF GLOBAL WARMING ON ENVIRONMENT
  1. Glaciers and polar ice caps melting.
  2. Floods droughts becoming more.
  3. Increasing sea levels ( 4-10 inches since 1990).
  4. We might get 2 feet sea rise by 2100.
  5. Freshwater salinity will increase.
  6. Coastal lands will be immersed.
  7. Warmer water and increased humidity will
    encourage tropical cyclones.

45
ENVIRONMENTAL HEALTH
  • CO2, a global pollutant does not adversely impact
    the local environment common belief
  • Many problems are due to Co2 related pollutants
  • Toxic organic micro pollutants
  • Respiratory problems
  • Asthma attacks
  • premature death

46
  • b) Sulphur oxides
  • Acid rain
  • Smog
  • c) Carbon monoxide
  • Inabilty of blood to carry O2
  • Affects health
  • Neurological impairment
  • heart problems
  • Lung problems

47
  • d) Nitrogen oxides
  • Lung damage
  • Respiratory disorders
  • (Also acid rain and smog)
  • e) Arsenic
  • Highly toxic
  • Carsinogenic
  • f) Benzene
  • Highly toxic
  • Carsinogenic
  • Disrupts reproductive Neurological systems
  • Causes anaemia

48
  • g) Mercury
  • Highly toxic
  • Affects child development
  • Impairs brain function
  • h) Lead
  • Highly toxic
  • More so to children
  • Neurological toxicant
  • i) Ozone
  • Lung damage
  • Respiratory impairment

49
  • j) Polycyclic organic matter
  • Carcinogenic
  • Respiratory toxicant
  • k) Formaldehyde
  • Carcinogen
  • Respiratory impairment
  • Asthma inducement
  • Neurological toxicant
  • l) 1, 3- Butadiene
  • Carcinogen
  • Respiratory impairment
  • Cardio vascular disease

50
EFFECTS OF GLOBAL WARMING ON ENVIRONMENT
FLOODING
51
EFFECTS OF GLOBAL WARMING ON ENVIRONMENT
Typhoon
Droughts
52
EFFECTS OF GLOBAL WARMING ON SOCIETY
Food production
  1. Global warming Good for human race
  2. Helps in improving food production.
  3. Climate Determinant factor in Agriculture.
  4. Warming better than cooling for food
    production.
  5. CO2 - essential nutrient for food production.
  6. Food the most important resource for our life.
  7. Temperature rise more land for agriculture
    (towards poles) - Longer growing season.

53
ADVERSE IMPACTS ON HUMAN HEALTH
  1. Loss of life
  2. Insects and other pests migrate towards earths
    pole.
  3. They migrate up to 550 km (or 550 miles).
  4. Some insects carry diseases- like malaria and
    dengue fever.
  5. Thus diseases increase spread leading to a 50
    80 million additional malaria cases annually 10
    15 increase.
  6. Heat itself has effect on health.
  7. Heat waves - heart stroke, heart attacks
  8. July 1995 heat wave in Chicago- killed 700
    people.
  9. Hot conditions cause smoke particles and noxious
    gases-linger in air-accelerate chemical reactions
    generate other pollutants- result in bronchitis
    and asthma.

54
ADVERSE IMPACTS ON HUMAN HEALTH -CONTD
Oceans become warm and expand result in sea
level rising. Coastal people have to move
away. Bangladesh cannot build a coastal
wall. Maldive islands (1190 islands) Avg height
1.5 mts above sea level more than 2,00,000
people will have to abandon their homes. Ocean
warming promote toxic algae red tide fish
mass kill birds kill cholera etc..
55
IMPACT ON FISHERIES
  • Fisheries are directly and strongly affected by
    variations in the natural conditions.
  • Habitat conditions decide the productivity and
    location of fish stocks (migration).
  • 3. Fish are more sensitive to temperature than
    many animals because they cannot maintain a
    constant body temperature.
  • 4. Different fish species live in different
    temperature zones and they are accordingly
    adapted.

56
IMPACT ON FISHERIES - CONTD
  • 5. Fish need more food and more oxygen when
    temperature increases.
  • 6. Rainbow trout grow significantly more slowly
    when temperature rises by 2o C and food is
    limited.
  • 7. A warming of 3o C will double the food
    requirement of Arctic trout.
  • 8. Dissolved oxygen and temperature are
    negatively related and hence in high temperature
    (global warming) oxygen will be insufficient.
  • 9. Even 1- 2oC rise may cause mass mortality.

57
IMPACT ON FISHERIES - CONTD
  • 10. Warm water fishes mature more quickly 90
    of such fish species are small in size than those
    in cooler waters.
  • 11. Rise in temperature leads to less fish off
    springs.
  • 12. Some may not be able to reproduce at all.
  • 13. Tropical Guppies produce smaller broods.
  • 14. Grass carp ovulate less frequently in warmer
    waters.

58
IMPACT ON FISHERIES - CONTD
  • 15. Temperate species like Salmon and Sturgeon
    cannot spawn at all, if winter temperatures do
    not drop below a certain level.
  • 16. Global warming has drastically brought down,
    the fishery of the much preferred quality fish
    Lactarius lactarius.
  • 17. When the water temperature increases, fish
    head out to cooler water areas.
  • 18.When fish in the Gulf of Alaska moved deep in
    1993, 1,22,000 sea birds starved to death.

59
IMPACT ON FISHERIES - CONTD
  • 19. As water warms up, many microbes and
    parasites grow faster and become more virulent.
  • 20. Fish species suffer heavily due to diseases.
  • 21. Due to temperature increase (supported by
    nutrients) algal blooms (including red tides)
    occur and mass mortality of marine organisms
    occur either due to production of toxin or
    reduction of oxygen.

60
IMPACT ON FISHERIES - CONTD
  • 22. Increased warming has led to the extinction
    of 20 species which are found nowhere in the
    world.
  • 23. Global warming has resulted in coral
    bleaching and the loss of symbiotic bacteria that
    corals depend upon.
  • 25. Events like the 1972-73 El Nino has put off
    1500 boats, 200 processing plants and 1,00,000
    people out of work in the Peruvian Anchoveta
    fishery.

61
MITIGATION
62
Save Agriculture Protect farmers Produce your
foods Avoid/ Reduce imports and transports
63
GLOBALIZATION.
Exports and Imports Required? To what extent?
64
PAINTING HOUSES
No oil paints Latex paints. May be O.K
NO VAASTU NO VASSTU COLOURS
65
HAVE ECO FRIENDLY HOUSES
66
USE ENERGY EFFICIENT ELECTRICAL APPLIANCES
67
NO OLD TYPE BULBS
USE CFL BULBS
ALSO ULTRA COMPACT LEDS- LIGHTS
68
USE TWO WHEELERS
ELECTRIC SCOOTERS
AND BICYCLES
69
IS NOT WALKING BETTER?
TO CONTROL..
BLOOD SUGAR BLOOD PRESSURE FAT DEPOSITION AND
OVER WEIGHT
70
FOR LONG JOURNEYS
PUBLIC TRANSPORT
REDUCE PERSONAL VEHICLES
TRAIN
71
HOW MANY CARS IN A HOUSE?
72
IS THIS CONGESTION REQUIRED?
HOW MUCH RELEASE OF CO2
73
GENERATE WIND POWER
74
SOLUTIONS FOR PRODUCING "CLEANER"ENERGY
Hydro Power plant on a river
75
PRODUCE SOLAR ENERGY
76
HAVE NUCLEAR POWER PLANTS
SUBJECT TO SAFETY
77
Geothermal power plant
78
CREATE AWARENESS
79
LET THERE BE GREENERY - EVERYWHERE
80
PRODUCE ALGAL DIESEL
81
FROM HIGH FAT ALGAE
Nanochloropsis
Scenedemus 16 40 Neochloris 35
65 Nitzschia 45 47 Isochrysis
25 33 Nanochloropsis 31 60 Bacteriococcus
25 75
Nitzschia
Bacteriococcus
82
CULTURE METHODS
83
UTILIZE MARINE ALGAE
84
CULTURE SEAWEEDS
85
CULTIVABLE INDIAN SEAWEEDS
AóCôKò âLv (Gracilaria edulis)
ªüLªòô ÜCóê (Gelidiella acerosa)
èôŠð (Caulerpa)
êèú ªõŒ (Sargassum wighti)
èŠðçðèv ÜõªóC (Kappaphycus alvarezii)
ìHùKò èùŒìv (Turbinaria canoides)
86
RAFT CULTURE
87
MONOLINE CULTURE
88
Jatropha
89
Jatropha curcas
90
(No Transcript)
91
(No Transcript)
92
GROW BAMBOO, SIMILAR ONES AND GET CARBON CREDIT
93
Seven steps to curb global warming
  • 1. Global carbon pricing
  • 2. Global satellite monitoring of GHG emissions
  • 3. Compensating developing countries for
    preserving rainforest
  • 4. Creation of a global market for responsible
    biofuel
  • 5. Creation and furtherance of markets for
    renewable electricity
  • 6. Global moratorium on building new coal-fired
    power stations
  • 7. Creation of global incentives for developing
    countries

94
Solution for Global Warming
  • Reduce use of fossil fuel
  • Protect rainforests as Carbon store houses
  • Plant tropical trees and compensate rainforests
    being lost
  • Develop Plantations for biodiesel production

95
  • Global Warming
  • Is
  • GLOBAL WARNING
  • Avoid Pollution,
  • Protect Nature,
  • Promote Plantation,
  • and
  • Use Biodiesel

96
BIO-DIESEL MISSION
Energy Independence is the lifeline of a nation
97
CONTACT FOR CONSULTANCY
PROJECTS.. Aquaculture, environment, water
treatment Aquariums AND Project monitoring
Dr.V.Sundararaj 09380657117 Dr.D.Yuvaraj -
09944099550
Asian Analytical Laboratories Pvt Ltd, 4/2,
Bharathiar St, Palavakkam, Chennai- 600041, Ph
044 32560686
98
THANK YOU
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