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Section I: Early Civilizations of the Americas (Pages 198 - 205 )

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Title: Unit 1: From Pre-History to Early Civilizations Author: CUSD220 Last modified by: CUSD220 Created Date: 8/7/2012 6:38:44 PM Document presentation format – PowerPoint PPT presentation

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Title: Section I: Early Civilizations of the Americas (Pages 198 - 205 )


1
Section I Early Civilizations of the Americas
(Pages 198 - 205 )
  • This section is about
  • The geography and the climate of the area known
    today as Latin America and how these influenced
    the development of early civilizations there.
  • Several significant early civilizations of the
    region, including the Olmecs, Mayas, and Aztecs.

A
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  • Before we start this new Chapter
  • Look at pages 198-199
  • Lets preview whats in this Chapter
  • Lets check out the picture
  • And, lets read page 198 (from a Primary source)
  • On the time line we go back in history for a
    while

A
3
Early civilizations lived in all parts of the
Americas (North, Central, and South)
Central America also includes Latin America
A
4
Why is this called Latin America?
  • Most of the people in this area today speak a
    form of Spanish, Portuguese and/or French (all
    come from Latin).
  • These areas at one time were all annexed (added)
    to land controlled by European countries.

1
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The Geography of Latin America
  • Plains
  • Mountains the Sierra Madres and the Andes
  • Rain Forests in the Amazon are the largest in
    the world
  • Highland Plateaus good for farming/grazing
  • Parts can get real hot and humid and some very
    cold

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The First Americans
  • Probably came across the ice covered (at the
    time) Bering Straits.
  • Best guess right now 13,000 years ago?

A
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Just like everywhere else
  • The early peoples stopped being nomads and slowly
    settled in groups, starting communities that
    ended up growing into complex societies.
  • About 2500 BC these people started successfully
    planting maize (corn) a GREAT food

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Corn uses today
Foods containing corn
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The Olmecs and the Zapotecs(are the oldest
civilizations in the Americas)
  • The Olmec People
  • (1200 BC)
  • Lived near the Gulf of Mexico
  • Were fishermen and farmers.
  • Known for games they played (with rubber balls
    from the rubber trees), gigantic carved stone
    heads, and a calendar.

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  • The Zapotec People
  • (500 BC)
  • Developed a writing system.
  • Huge cities (125,000) with stone buildings,
    plazas, and ceremonial pyramids.
  • Teotihuacan
  • People lived in stone apartments and would travel
    to farm outside the city each day.
  • Others craft workers, artisans, builders,
    merchants, and warriors.
  • Priests and rulers were in charge.

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The Maya (300-900 AD) Lived in todays
Guatemala, Belize, and the Yucatan Peninsula
  • Most were peasants, laborers and farmers also
    played sports (even a game like basketball)
  • Had many city-states which were linked and worked
    together.
  • Wealthy Mayas owned slaves
  • Priests were important (with their daily
    ceremonial pyramids for the Gods).
  • This included human sacrifices
  • Most accurate calendar in the world (based off
    the sun), first to understand the idea of a zero.
  • Developed writing using glyphs (pictures or
    symbols that represent words or ideas)

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The Toltecs (950-1200 AD)
  • Lived north of where Mexico City is today in
    their capital of Tula (mining and trading)
  • Worshipped Quetzacoatl (a feathered serpent who
    symbolized a union of Earth and sky).
  • The civilization ended with a great fire around
    1200 AD
  • They always believed Quetzacoatl would return
    someday

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The Aztecs moved into the same area as the
Toltecs (about 1200)
  • During the 1400s, they began invading the
    peoples around them and forced them to pay
    tribute with maize, tobacco, gold, and precious
    stones.
  • They also took POWs (who became slaves).
  • Most became human sacrifices (Aztecs believed it
    was an honor for them and their families).
  • Lots of swampland, so they came up with chinampas
    (rafts filled with soil).
  • Boys went to school (to train for war). Girls
    were taught by their moms (to be weavers or
    priestesses)

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Its time to be an archeologist (page B)
This is your farm. Youre digging around. You
find this. Tell me about it.
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This is the last slide for today
Make sure page "A" is completed
A
21
Section II Peru and the Incan Empire(Pages 206
- 211)
  • This section is about
  • The early Peruvians and the rich, complex culture
    of the Incan Empire.
  • Elements of the culture of the Incan Empire, such
    as the strong system of government, the arts, and
    architecture.

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  • Lets start by reading whats at the end and
    what we are expected to find out.
  • Page 211 Review History, Critical Thinking, and
    Write About Government.
  • We should probably also look at the pictures on
    206-211

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This section is about South America (Peru
today)and the early Native Americans who lived
there.
  • The Chavin People
  • Lived here about 900-200 BC
  • Built stone temples with carvings of gods and
    other images (jaguars, serpents, caiman).
  • By the coasts, they were among the first to build
    with adobe (sun-dried clay bricks).
  • It took about 50,000,000 of these bricks to build
    a temple

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After the Chavin, the Moche moved to the area
(200-100 BC)
2
  • They controlled a lot of land, but didnt have
    huge cities.
  • They were skilled engineers building roads,
    canals, and irrigation systems.
  • Theyve left very little of their culture behind
    (except some of their buildings)
  • By 900, they were gone.
  • No one really knows why
  • Earthquakes, droughts, floods?

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The Incas are the main group we know about from
this area
  • We dont know much about the early Incas and how
    they started (about 1200 AD?).
  • They controlled the Andes Mountain Valley.
  • Their first great leader (Pachacuti Earth
    Shaker) built the capital city of Cuzco and
    expanded the empire.

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The main Incan place most people know about
Machu Picchu
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The City of Cuzco
  • Designed in the shape of a Puma (mountain lion)
    which was sacred to the Incas.
  • Had a fortress/temple at the head.
  • Houses and palaces were built along the body.
  • Four highways met in the central plaza.
  • The Incas were great builders for buildings ,
    palaces, and roads
  • All Incas were expected to help build

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Inca Messages
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4
  • were easy to send, because they had great roads
    and a postal system.
  • Runners would travel the roads each going 3
    miles to the next rest stop and the next runner.
  • Messages could travel 150 miles in a day this way
    (thats a lot).
  • Incas didnt use writing, so the runners had to
    remember the messages.
  • They also used a quipu (strings that kept track
    of numbers).
  • Government officials would use quipus for
    recordkeeping

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The Later Incan Emperors
  • Topa Inca tried to expand the empire.
  • By 1400, it covered the entire length of the
    Andes Mts.
  • The last of the Inca emperors was Atahualpa
    (thats when the Spanish showed up)

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Incan Government
  • Was a hereditary monarchy
  • The empire was divided into 4 sections each
    with its own governor.
  • These governors were all part of the Inca
    emperors extended family.
  • Other government jobs went to people who were
    loyal to them
  • When they conquered people, they made them into
    slaves or used them for sacrifices.
  • King, whos son is next to rule

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Inca religion was polytheistic
  • What?????
  • Many Gods
  • Main God Viracocha (the creator)
  • Others controlled thunder, the Earth, the sea,
    and the moon.
  • The Sun God was their special protector.
  • People were ordered to build temples to the gods.
  • They also believed spirits lived throughout
    nature (Japanese Shinto)
  • They developed a calendar to keep track of
    festivals important to the farming year (planting
    and harvesting)

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The Incas did have social classes
  • The top the ruling and noble families (only
    about 200 of these pure Incas)
  • Next the adopted Incas nobles from lands the
    Incas conquered
  • Next Nobles from far away lands they controlled
    but didnt care much about.
  • Last ordinary people
  • You could not usually change who you were
    unless you did something extreme (great courage,
    or the best servant/slave in town).
  • Do we have social classes anywhere today?

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Incan Families
  • Families were organized into groups.
  • No taxes, but people were expected to work in
    exchange for government services.
  • The government did give feasts on holidays.
  • The government controlled most peoples lives.
  • People even had travel restrictions and a dress
    code (you had to wear clothing that connected
    you to where you were born).

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Inca Farming
  • Each family belonged to a larger group called an
    allyu.
  • They owned the land together and worked together.
  • The leader of each allyu made sure government
    orders were followed, and decided what each
    persons job should be

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Inca Farms
  • Corn
  • Squash
  • Tomatoes
  • Peanuts
  • Cotton
  • Potatoes (200 kinds great in the mountains)
  • Llamas and alpacas for wool
  • Boys learned from dads (farming or a trade)
  • Girls learned from moms (weaving and cooking).
  • Most didnt like what they did, but they knew it
    would make the empire stronger, which would help
    them out

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This is the last slide for today
Make sure page "C" is completed
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Section III North American Groups (Pages 212
- 217)
  • This section is about
  • How the varied climates and environments of North
    America influenced the development of distinct
    regional cultures in the western and eastern
    regions.

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  • There were many different kinds of Native
    Americans
  • Our book splits them up into Western and Eastern
    groups
  • Page 213 of your book splits them up a little
    differently.
  • Others split them up several ways, but the
    important thing to remember is in the Main Ideas
    on page 212 (A)

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The Native Americans in North America were a lot
different than those in Central and South America
  • No unified empires, no cities, and no palaces.
  • They hunted, gathered, farmed, and traded with
    each other.
  • Had a wide variety of cultures, languages, styles
    of dress and architecture, and beliefs.
  • The big thing is they didnt try to control
    their environment they adapted to it (adjusted)

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Most of North America gets enough rain good for
farming and supporting animals
Also has a great system of rivers (Ohio /
Mississippi / Missouri) for travel and trade
Thick forests, hilly, and rocky with four
distinct seasons
Forests, cool, with a long rainy season
Dry and Hot
Warm and humid
Flat and covered with grass (few trees) with cold
winters and hot summers
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Western Native AmericansThe Aleuts, Yupiks, and
Inuits
  • Lived in todays northern Canada and Alaska
  • Hunted seals, walruses, whales, polar bears,
    caribou, foxes (too cold to farm)
  • Used furs for clothing and blankets.
  • Tools, weapons, tents and boats (kayaks) from
    animal parts

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Northwest Native Americans
  • Easier life than up north
  • Rivers and oceans full of fish and forests full
    of food.
  • Traded a lot
  • Had a ceremony called a potlach the host would
    claim certain rights (like possessions of a dead
    relative), the guests would act as witnesses, the
    host would give them a huge feast (and give them
    costly gifts).

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The Anasazi
  • Settled near the four corners.
  • Were able to grow some food, but produced a lot
    of pottery, baskets, and cloth.
  • Lived in pueblos (adobe brick homes) that were
    temperature controlled
  • They look a lot like some modern apartment
    buildings
  • Mesa Verde is one of their more famous
    settlements.
  • They moved near the Rio Grande in 1300 AD their
    descendants are the Pueblos

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The Pueblos
Kachina Dance
  • Not really one people more of a group of Native
    Americans that shared many of the same
    characteristics.
  • Religion is based on praying for a good harvest
    (in dry area).
  • Kachinas (ancestor spirits) return to the earth
    as plants, animals, or people who have power to
    heal the sick and bring rain.
  • Farming got easier after they moved near the Rio
    Grande.
  • Pueblos today are well-known for their pottery
    skills.

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Navajos / Apaches
  • Navajo means large planted field.
  • About 1000 years ago, their ancestors came from
    Canada and split into the 2 groups
  • They settled where the Anasazi had left (from the
    Four Corners to Texas).
  • Growing food was tough, so they mostly hunted
    (buffalo, deer, and rabbit).
  • Nothing was ever wasted.
  • This wasnt always enough to survive, so they
    often raided other people stealing food,
    livestock, and supplies.
  • For Apaches courage and bravery in making a
    raid was highly valued

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Eastern Native AmericansThe Mound Builders
  • From the Mississippi and Ohio River Valleys
    (starting about 300 years ago)
  • Each time someone was buried (usually a leader),
    they added them to the mound.
  • Two kinds temple mounds and burial mounds - all
    different sizes and shapes
  • The Mississippian people built temple mounds.
    Some are even a pyramid shape.
  • These people disappeared about the 1600s
    either crop failures or wars

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The Iroquois (and the Hurons)
  • Lived where New York is now and didnt always
    get along
  • Lived according to the seasons spring planting
    / fall harvesting (and settling yearly disputes).
  • It got cold in winter so they built longhouses
    with many families living in each
  • All people worked to provide food fishing,
    gathering, hunting, and farming
  • Family groups cooperated, but they argued so much
    among different tribes, they formed a group to
    settle disputes (The Iroquois Confederacy)

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The Iroquois Confederacy
  • Hiawatha (Iroquois) and Dekanawidah (Huron)
    wanted to bring peace to their people.
  • They formed a group made up of the 5 Iroquois
    Nations who all shared the same language and
    traditions (Mohawks/Senecas/Onondagas/Oneids/Cuyag
    as)
  • Each nation had its own council headed by a
    chief called a sachem
  • Their most important duty was to maintain peace
    between the 5 tribes
  • All decisions were to based on the welfare of the
    people.

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This is the last slide for today
Make sure page "E" is completed
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