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The Structure and Function of Sensory Processing Disorders: Working to Benefit from ADD/ADHD to Autism

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Title: The Structure and Function of Sensory Processing Disorders: Working to Benefit from ADD/ADHD to Autism


1
The Structure and Function of Sensory Processing
DisordersWorking to BenefitfromADD/ADHD
to Autism
  • Charles W Chapple, DC, FICPA
  • 360 E Irving Park RD, Roselle, IL
  • (630) 894-8778 www.drchapple.com
  • Selected 2006 2007 Guide To Americas Top
    Chiropractors
  • 2008 Five Star Excellence Award in
    Chiropractic

2
What are Sensory Processing Disorders?
  • Any condition which demonstrates the inability to
    process information through the Senses.
  • Interestingly the DMSR does not acknowledge this
    sensory component in ASD (only language, social
    and behavioral variations).

3
Inter-related Conditions?
  • ADD/ADHD AUTISM PDD
    SPD CHALLENGED


  • Normal Children

4
Prevalence
  • ADD/ADHD 5 Million Children in USA alone
  • Autism Every 21 minutes another Child is
    Diagnosed.
  • Challenged Child 12 to 30 of Children.

5
How is Information Gathered for Our Sensory
System?
  • Though Senses
  • Through Reflexes

6
Body Senses Include
  • Far Senses - Allow us to respond to stimuli
    outside our body
  • Hear
  • See
  • Taste
  • Touch
  • Smell
  • Near Senses - Or Hidden Senses Automatically
    respond within our body to stimuli
  • Body Position/Awareness
  • Movement/Balance

7
What are the Primitive Reflexes?
  • Primitive reflexes are automatic survival
    responses to stimuli (Sensory Input) which
    develop during uterine life and should be fully
    present at birth.
  • Asymmetrical/ Symmetrical Tonic Neck Reflex
  • Moro Reflex
  • Tonic Labyrinthine Reflex
  • Fear Paralysis Reflex
  • Palmar Reflex
  • Plantar Reflex
  • Babinski Reflex
  • Spinal Galant Reflex -
  • Suck and Rooting Reflex

8
Primitive Reflexes Charted
9
Anatomy of Primitive Reflexes
  • Within the brainstem
  • Oldest part of the brain (Reptilian or
    Pre-Cortical) gt Midbrain gt Cortical
  • Automatic vs Volitional
  • Stimulus elicited (e.g. A Chocolate Cookie)
  • Survival / Instinctual
  • As higher brain centers mature or the PRs
    Integrate more voluntary Postural Reflexes and
    Cortical development occurs

10
What are Retained Primitive Reflexes?
  • These are primitive reflexes that remain and do
    not integrate, therefore postural reflexes do not
    develop fully resulting in a Reflexive No Mans
    Land or A Reflexive Seesaw (e.g. Car stuck
    in the Snow).
  • Thus the body remains under the influence of
    involuntary responses instead of voluntary.
  • Retained Primitive Reflexes cause
  • Difficult voluntary movements and Balance
  • Irregular Visual Perception
  • Irregular Auditory Processing
  • Irregular Sensory Perception

11
Observing SPDs
  • An Individual defined as having SPD concerns
    exhibits variations of sensory activity in
  • Frequency Intensity Duration
  • Observed as either as a Hypersensitivity or a
    Hyposensitivity

12
The Sensitivity of the Seven Senses in SPD
  • Hypersensitive - requires less stimulation
  • Avoids sounds
  • Overwhelmed by intense visual
  • Object to textures and gag
  • Avoid textures and being touched
  • Avoids odors
  • Rigid and uncoordinated
  • Apprehensive running, climbing and swinging
  • Hyposensitive - requires more stimulation
  • Appears to ignore sound
  • Appears uninterested by visual
  • Tastes inedible objects
  • Chews and presses into objects
  • Unaware of unpleasant odors
  • Limp and clumsy
  • Craves rocking, twirling and fidgets

13
How SPD Presents
14
More Specific Retention Symptoms of Retained
Reflexes
  • Fear Paralysis Reflex
  • Oppositional Defiance
  • The Screaming Child
  • Moro Reflex
  • Aggressive
  • Overactive (Ready-Fire-Aim)
  • Overemotional (Weeping Anger)
  • Learning Difficulty
  • Cant Turn Off
  • Hypersensitive to sense
  • (sound,taste,touch,vision,balance)
  • Adrenal Fatiguegt Weak Immune
  • Palmar Reflex
  • Poor Manual Dexterity (Thumb)
  • Speech Difficulties
  • Manual Tasks Inhibit Talking
  • Difficult writing (w/Mouth Motion)
  • Plantar Reflex
  • Trouble w/Gait, Run, Toe Walk
  • Rooting/Suck Reflex
  • Difficult Chew, Speech and Dribble
  • Often w/ Car Sport Injury, Dental

15
More Specifics on Retained Symptoms
  • Asymmetrical Tonic Neck Reflex
  • Easily Distracted
  • Poor Pencil Grip, Excessive Grip
  • Missing Visual Reading Fields
  • When reading
  • Difficult Distance Perception
  • Difficult tasks involving both sides of Body
  • Poor Ball Skills
  • Learning Difficulty
  • Tonic Labyrinthine Reflex
  • Poor Judgment of Balance, Space, Distance, Depth
    Motion
  • Motion Sickness
  • Floppy or Rigid Child
  • Fatigue when Neck Flexed
  • Learning Difficulty
  • Spinal Gallant Reflex
  • Delayed Sitting
  • Abnormal Gait/Posture
  • Poor Bladder/ Bed Wetting
  • Ants in Pants Child
  • Learning Difficulty

16
Difficulty with Senses and Reflexes
  • Difficulty with Skills
  • Motor/ Muscle Tone
  • Cognition
  • Communication
  • Socialization
  • Independence
  • Difficulty with Behaviors
  • Impulsiveness
  • Self Control
  • Distractibility
  • Frustration
  • Social
  • Emotional

17
SPD Expression
  • Cause
  • Difficulty with Senses
  • and Reflexes
  • Effect
  • Difficulty with Skills and Behavior
  • Low Self Esteem

18
Intervention
  • Traditional
  • Treats causes as genetic, pre-postnatal trauma
    and unknown
  • Treatment is geared from outside the body to
    inside the body ( e.g. Behavioral Modification)
  • Reactive
  • Alternative
  • Treats the structure in order to improve the
    function as cause is a Sensory Reflex imbalance
    System Overwhelmed
  • Treatment is geared from inside the body to
    outside the body (e.g. Chiropractic and
    Craniosacral Therapy (CST)
  • Proactive

19
Controlling the Senses and the Reflexes
  • The Central Nervous System (CNS), comprised of
    the brain, brain stem, the cranial nerves, the
    spinal cord and the nerve attachments controls
    the senses and the reflexes.

20
CNS Involvement
  • HearCN 8 (Vestibular Cochlear)
  • See..CN 2(Optic)..CN 3(Occulomotor),
  • CN 4(Trochlear)..CN 6 (Abducens)
  • Taste..CN 9(Glossopharyngeal)
  • Touch..............................Afferent and
    Spinal Pathways
  • Smell..CN 1 (Olfactory)
  • Body Position...................CN 8, Brain stem
    and Spinal cord
  • Movement..Brain stem and Spinal cord

21
Cranial Nerves Involvement
22
CNS Structure and Function
  • The Cranium and Spinal Cord are the boney
    structures protecting the CNS.
  • Improper Improper
    Improper
  • Structure Function
    Sensory and Reflex Processing
  • (Alignment and Position) (Motion
    and Nerve Communication)
  • Improve Improve
    Improve
  • Structure Function
    Sensory and Reflex Processing

23
The Link
  • The CNS and its intimately related boney
    protective network form the profound link of
    communication and functional interaction between
    an individuals internal and external
    environments.

24
Craniosacral Therapy (CST)
  • Focuses on relieving pressure on the brain and
    spinal cord through manual pressure techniques
    used at the cranium and sacrum.

25
The Craniosacral System
  • Consists of membranes and cerebral spinal fluid,
    which protect the CNS.
  • Restrictions in this system are detected, and
    corrections are identified through manual
    monitoring of the craniosacral rhythm (CSR).

26
The Bones to the Senses and Reflexes
27
The Bones in Motion
28
Variations in CSR.
  • Variations in the CSR (6-12 bpm) could indicated
    any number of motor, sensory, reflex or
    neurological impairments, as well as causes of
    pain.

29
The Chiropractic Approach to the CNS
  • Chiropractors identify the necessity for the
    reduction of Subluxations, and utilize gentle
    spinal pressure techniques called Adjustments in
    order to remove Subluxations.

30
What are Subluxations?
  • CNS irritation characterized by
  • Irregular boney mechanics or spinal misalignment
  • Nerves imbalances
  • Muscle irritations
  • Tissue inflammation
  • Degenerative wear
  • The poor structure or mechanics involved in
    creating Subluxations results in poor motor,
    sensory, reflex and neurological function, as
    well as causes of pain.

31
Spinal Involvement
32
The Best of Both Worlds
  • CST and Chiropractic adjustments work to restore
    more appropriate motor, sensory, reflex and
    neurological input and therefore improve
    function.
  • Improve Structure Improve
    Function
  • Working inside to out and not outside to in.

33
Measuring CNS Function
  • Health care practitioners are challenged to
    quantify variations of the CNS communication with
    SPD conditions.
  • Frequently conventional tests such as blood
    markers, MRIs and EEGs appear unremarkable.

34
The CNS Simplified
35
Noninvasive Testing of the CNS
  • Infrared Thermography
  • Measures temperature variations along the spine
    as indications of imbalances in the Autonomic
    nervous system which result from subluxations
    within the CNS.
  • Surface Electromyography
  • Illustrates the effectiveness of motor nerves by
    measuring the amount of current at the muscle,
    with imbalances being indication of subluxations
    within the CNS.

36
Infrared Thermography
37
Surface Electromyography
38
More Scans
39
Clarification
  • There is no HealthCare that is guaranteed or
    without risk.
  • However, Chiropractic and CST are among the most
    safe effective in benefiting the CNS.

40
A Moms Story
  • Dear Parents,
  • After a frustrating year of indifferent doctors
    who ignored my concerns about my son, finding Dr
    Chapple was like a gift.
  • Over weeks of therapy he has improved
    considerably. He no longer cocks his head. Spins
    or presses his forehead onto me.
  • In Fact, we took him for a haircut, and for the
    first time he sat still for the whole thing.No
    unfinished haircut, frantic barber or parents.
  • Its sad, but I had never really noticed that he
    didnt run very much before. When he didhe ran
    on his toes with a very awkward gait. Now he
    races around on his little feet for the sheer joy
    of running that all children have.

41
More Resources
  • www.icpa4kids.com
  • www.upledger.com
  • www.autismspeaks.com

42
Some Help from Michelangelo
  • the danger that exist is not aiming to high and
    reaching it, but aiming to low and achieving it.
  • We can never aim to high for our children

43
The Structure and Function of Sensory Processing
Disorders
  • Charles W Chapple, DC, FICPA
  • 360 E Irving Park Rd, Roselle, IL 60172
  • (630) 894-8778 www.drchapple.com
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