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American Society in the Industrial Age

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Title: American Society in the Industrial Age Author: schneider Last modified by: TempUser Created Date: 2/14/2008 4:43:02 AM Document presentation format – PowerPoint PPT presentation

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Title: American Society in the Industrial Age


1
American Society in the Industrial Age
2
African Americans Post Reconstruction
  • Army removed, Southern states govern to oppress
    African-Americans
  • Hall v. DeCuir (1877)
  • Civil Rights Cases (1883)
  • Plessy v. Ferguson (1896)
  • Separate but equal
  • Booker T. Washington
  • Tuskegee Institute
  • Atlanta Compromise
  • Voting restrictions
  • Poll taxes, Literacy tests, Grandfather clauses

3
Native Americans
  • Plains Indians and the Buffalo
  • Destruction of the Buffalo
  • Pacification of native Americans
  • Concentration Strategy
  • Reservations
  • Dawes Severalty Act (1887)
  • Helen Hunt Jackson A Century of Dishonor (1881)
  • Wounded Knee (1890)
  • Ghost Dance

4
New Immigration
  • Between 1866-1915 about 25 million immigrated to
    the US
  • Steam liner - passage safer, quicker and cheaper
  • Industrialization opportunity
  • Farming market in Europe crashed
  • Mainly from Southern Eastern Europe
  • Italy, Croatia, Poland, Russia
  • Catholic, Jews

5
Voyage to America
6
Once They Arrived
  • Ellis Island (1892)
  • Processed 12 million people in 60 years
  • Pass the test
  • Immigrants were inspected and interviewed
  • Criminals or mentally deficient people were
    generally the ones to go
  • Not many rejected maybe one in fifty
  • Often names were butchered by over-worked customs
    officials and family names lost.

7
Ellis IslandThe Gateway to America
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Pass or Fail? In or Out?
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Angel Island
  • Located in San Francisco, CA
  • The Ellis Island of the West
  • Predominantly Chinese emigrants

13
Growth of cities
  • Cities become overcrowded
  • Sanitation issues
  • sewers couldnt keep up
  • Garbage couldnt be picked up fast enough
  • City waterways became polluted from sewage
  • Tuberculosis became common
  • Housing
  • Overcrowded
  • No indoor sanitation, so people relieved
    themselves in outhouses in court yards
  • The smell was unbearable
  • Jacob Riis Wrote How the Other Half Lives
  • Crime
  • Conditions led to violence
  • Street gangs formed from juvenile delinquents

14
Ethnic Neighborhoods
  • People wanted to be by people who
  • They knew
  • Spoke the language
  • Had a similar culture
  • Eases homesickness
  • Observers noted these neighborhoods had a foreign
    appearance

Russian Jewish Neighborhood - NYC
15
What did they do?
  • Cities were booming
  • Second industrial revolution was in full swing.
  • Factory work was readily available for unskilled
  • Merchants in ethnic neighborhoods
  • Few farmers
  • They built American cities

16
Skyscrapers
  • Growth of cities
  • Steel construction possible
  • Labor source

Empire State Bldg - NYC - 1931
Terminal Tower - Cleveland - 1926
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Urban Life
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TENEMENT LIFE
23
Dumbbell Tenement
24
Aerial View
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Nativist Reaction
  • Nativists did not appreciate the influx of
    immigrants
  • Cities are already too crowded
  • Feared low wage workers
  • Radicalism in the wake of the Haymarket bombing
  • Congress passed a literacy test in 1897 for
    immigrants upon arrival
  • vetoed by President Cleveland

30
City Improvements
  • Once the connection was made between filth and
    disease efforts were made to clean things up
  • Streets were paved
  • Streetlights
  • Trolleys improved public transport in the late
    1800s
  • These streetcars made it easier for the area of
    the city to increase. More folks could live in
    the suburbs
  • Suspension bridges increased traffic flows to the
    suburbs as well
  • Brooklyn Bridge (1883) connected Manhattan to
    Brooklyn

31
Labor Problems
  • Long Work Days
  • Low pay
  • Poor working conditions
  • Industrial accidents
  • Dissatisfaction with work Monotony
  • No benefits/sick leave/vacation
  • Child Labor

32
CHILD LABOR
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Working Women
  • Worked more and more outside the home
  • Textile mills employed a large of women
  • Paid lower wages than men

42
Triangle Shirtwaist Factory Fire
  • Women working in garment factory
  • Mostly Jewish/Italian
  • Fire started and trapped women on 9th floor as
    they were notified too late.
  • Doors to stairwells/exits locked
  • 146 women died
  • Led to improved safety standards
  • Womens Union

43
Upward Mobility
  • American Dream - believed society offered
    opportunity
  • White collar jobs offered this
  • Public Education system
  • Work Ethic
  • Rags to riches stories were rare
  • Horatio Alger

44
Labor Movements
  • Labor begins to organize to combat industrialists
  • Boycotts
  • Picketing
  • Strikes
  • Great Railroad Strike (1877)
  • Haymarket Square (1886)
  • Homestead Steel Strike (1892)
  • Pullman Strike (1894)
  • Coal Strike (1902)

45
Knights of Labor
  • Led By Terence Powderly
  • Open to unskilled workers artisans
  • Open to minorities, women, immigrants
  • What did they want?
  • Eight-hour workday
  • Workers cooperatives.
  • Worker-owned factories.
  • Abolition of child and prison labor.
  • Increased circulation of greenbacks.
  • Equal pay for men and women.
  • Safety codes in the workplace.
  • Prohibition of contract foreign labor.

46
End of Knights of Labor
  • Haymarket Square
  • unions violence strikes socialists
    immigrants anarchists
  • Americans turned against labor as a result

47
American Federation of Labor (AFL) - 1886
  • Led by Samuel Gompers
  • Catered to the skilled worker.
  • Understood workers would remain working class
  • Promoted pride in being a worker
  • Pushed for 8 hour days
  • Workers safety laws
  • Maintained a national strike fund.
  • Mediated disputes between management and labor.

48
Religious Answers to the Poor
  • Urban religious leaders
  • Asked what caused the problems with slums
  • Henry Ward Beecher liquor and tobacco
  • Catholics aided poor but blamed their conditions
    on their sins
  • Did not recognizing the connection of living
    conditions and poverty

49
Social Gospel
  • Social Gospel Some preachers believed slum
    conditions caused sin and crimes
  • Focused on improving living conditions rather
    than saving souls
  • Believed people must have enough to eat and
    decent living conditions to behave properly
  • Believed in civil service reform, child labor
    laws, regulation of corporations, and taxing the
    wealthy

50
Reformers
  • Settlement Houses
  • Located in poor districts provided guidance and
    services to the poor
  • Workers were young idealists
  • Some men, but many women fresh from college
  • Hull House 1889 Chicago
  • Founded by Jane Addams

51
Reformers
  • Henry George Progress and Poverty
  • Believed that those who create should reap the
    benefits
  • Disturbed by land owners profiting from workers
  • Believed that land should belong to all humanity.
  • Felt land owners should be heavily taxed
  • His book is critical of the mal distribution of
    wealth
  • Edward Bellamy Looking Backward
  • Believed in the socialization of America
  • Book set in year 2000. America is socialist
    society
  • Popular in underground circles
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