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Tyre Recycling in the European Union

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Title: Tyre Recycling in the European Union


1
Tyre Recycling in the European Union
  • Dr. Valerie L. Shulman
  • Secretary General, ETRA

2
ETRA The European Tyre Recycling
Association
  • Founded in 1994, with 19 members in 5 EU States
  • ETRA has 250 members in 43 countries, including
    each EU State
  • The mission to develop tyre recycling as an
    environmentally and commercially sustainable
    European industry
  • Objectives to develop and advance policies that
    support the industry
  • to expand and develop
    markets
  • to development and implement
    professional standards
  • to prepare and promote
    guidelines for materials, products,
  • applications
  • to provide
    communication links
  • Membership is open to the public and private
    sectors

3
Post-consumer tyres
3,250,000 tonnes of post-consumer tyres are
permanently removed each year from cars and
trucks in the 27 EU States - and defined as waste
It is estimated that an additional 60,000 to
70,000 tonnes of post-consumer tyres are
permanently removed each year from agricultural
and other off-road vehicles in the 27 EU States -
but not defined as waste
4
Compared with other waste streams
5
The raw materials
  • Rubber compounds - throughout the tyre treads,
    sidewalls, etc.
  • Plies and belts layers of brass coated steel
    with rubber
  • Bead wire Cords of high tensile steel that give
    form to the tyre
  • Casing Made of metal, rayon, nylon. Polyester
    cords

6
Composition by weight of tyres
Material Car/utility Truck/lorry
Rubber/elastomersa 48 45
Carbon black or silicab 22 22
Metal 15 25
Textile 5 -
Zinc oxide 1 2
Sulphur 1 1
Additives 8 5
A Truck tyres contain proportionately more natural rubber in comparison to synthetic rubber than do car tyres b Different varieties of carbon black are used for different purposes and may appear in other categories of material A Truck tyres contain proportionately more natural rubber in comparison to synthetic rubber than do car tyres b Different varieties of carbon black are used for different purposes and may appear in other categories of material A Truck tyres contain proportionately more natural rubber in comparison to synthetic rubber than do car tyres b Different varieties of carbon black are used for different purposes and may appear in other categories of material
The rubber compounds, metals and textiles are
recovered through material recycling
7
Recycling makes sense
  • It requires 121,000BTUs to produce 1 kg of new
    rubber materials
  • It requires only 2,200BTUs to produce 1 kg of
    clean granulate or powder.
  • Put another way, the Co2 equivalent for 1kg of
    rubber is
  • 4,351 for Natural rubber
  • 3,409 for SBR
  • 0,097 for recycled rubber

8
Considering energy use
  • The production of 1 tonne of rubber requires the
    following
  • Natural rubber requires the same amount of energy
    as driving from Brussels to Singapore (about
    10,560km)
  • Synthetic rubber (SBR) requires the equivalent of
    driving from Rome to Sidney Australia (15,000km)
  • Recycled rubber is a much shorter trip - it uses
    the equivalent of a 400 km ride from Paris
    (France) to Geneva (Switzerland)

9
Means of tyre valorisation
  • Re-use and or export
  • Retreading
  • Material recycling including
  • Civil engineering and construction applications
  • Environmental rehabilitation projects
  • Consumer and industrial products
  • Energy recovery for
  • Co-incineration
  • Cement kilns
  • Each form of valorisation requires a consistent
    flow of input

10
(No Transcript)
11
The attainment level 2005-6
In 2005-6, 2 669 219 tonnes of post-consumer
tyres were treated in an environmentally sound
manner within the 25 States of the EU. 222
975 tonnes export ( 7) 333 250 tonnes
retreading ( 10,5) 1 012 920 tonnes
material recycling ( 31,8) 1 100 075 tonnes
energy recovery (34,5) Together, 83,8 of
post-consumer tyres were diverted from landfills.
12
Elements of the recycling process
  • Collecting (manual)
  • Sorting
  • Pre-treating
  • Debeading
  • Cutting
  • Processing (mechanical)
  • Shredding
  • Granulating
  • Sieving
  • Packaging
  • Storing
  • Delivering

13
The start of tyre recycling Collecting
  • Knowing where the tyres are
  • At small individual sites
  • Garages, tyre shops, small retailers, vehicle
    sales
  • At large communal depots
  • Tyre distributors
  • Fleet managers
  • Municipal depots
  • Vehicle dismantlers
  • Knowing how to move the tyres

14
Basic collection information
Tyres p/tonne 5.88 17.86 18.52 125 142.60 125
  • Category
  • Off road/agricultural tyres
  • Truck tyres
  • Bus tyres
  • Utility tyres
  • Passenger car tyres
  • Winter tyres
  • Approx. Wt./ tyre
  • 170 kg
  • 56 kg
  • 54 kg
  • 8 kg
  • 7 kg
  • 8kg

15
EU Collection systems
Sweden
Finland
Producer responsibility
Free market system
Norway
Adaptation
Estonia
In transition
Latvia
Denmark
Lithuania
Ireland
Poland
Holland
UK
Germany
Belgium
Czech Republic
Lux
Slovakia
France
Austria
Hungary
Romania
Slovenia
Italy
Bulgaria
Portugal
Spain
Greece
Cyprus
Malta
16
Formula for tyre Collection
  • To move 1 tonne of tyres costs approximately 2
    per km
  • Passenger car tyres 6 - 12 tonnes per delivery
  • 15
    tonnes in a walking floor truck
  • Truck tyres approximately 14 - 15 tonnes per
    delivery
  • 17 - 18
    tonnes in a walking floor truck
  • Off-road tyres 15 tonnes per delivery

17
Stacked tyres
  • Whole tyres are often stacked in a
    basketweave to save space - particularly when the
    tyres will be retreaded

Tyres for recycling are often transported in bulk
- as whole, or as tyre cuts
18
The next steps
  • 1. Sorting Manual process
  • According to category truck,
    passenger car, other
  • Road-worthy undamaged with
    minimum 1.66mm tread
  • Retreadable repairable casing in
    good condition
  • Non-retreadable raw material for
    recycling
  • Many of these tyres are exported to other
    countries that have
  • less restrictive road-use standards

19
Preparation for recycling
  • 2. Pre-treatment Manual processes

  • Removal of debris

  • Rinsing - remove dirt, etc.
  • Cutting in
    halves/quarters
  • Debeading

20
Not all tyres are ready for treatment
21
Truck tyre debeading
  • Truck tyres are debeaded
  • The steel is removed
  • A 60 second spurt at 150 kW/h/t is used
  • Clean tyre bead steel can substitute virgin
    material - dependent upon use

22
Tyre processing
  • Shredding
  • Chipping
  • Granulating
  • Fine granulating
  • Powders
  • Material upgrading

23
Environmental impacts per tonne
24
Shred and chips
  • Shredders can be mobile or fixed
  • Shred can vary in size from 75mm to 300mm in any
    dimension.
  • Smaller shred, of lt100mm, can be used loose or
    compacted, in applications with or without
    binders
  • Chips, from 15 - 75mm, can be used in
    applications with or without binders

25
Granulation plant in operation
26
Cost-use-triangle
27
The range of materials outputs
  • Since 1995, the range of post-consumer tyre
    materials produced and used has expanded -
    principally at the extremes
  • Larger materials, i.e., whole treated and
    untreated tyres, bales, shred, chips are
    increasingly selected by civil engineers
  • Smaller materials, i.e., granulate, powders, fine
    powders and specialised products (reclaim,
    devulcanisates, thermoplastic elastomers, etc.)
    are being selected by manufacturers of consumer
    and technical products
  • Recycling residues are increasingly used for
    specific innovative applications

28
Post-consumer tyre materials
The changing balance of material production and
use
Granulate
54
Powders
10
Whole tyres 12
Specialty
Misc.
Shred/chips 15
7
2
29
Whole tyres
  • Whole tyres can be recycled without physical or
    chemical transformation
  • Principal methods of treatment include cutting
    into halves or quarters,
  • untreated or, treated by removing the beads or
    sidewalls, or by compression

30
Characteristics of whole tyres
  • Characteristics
  • Lightweight,
  • Low compacted density,
  • High void ratio,
  • Good compressibility,
  • Water permeability,
  • Thermal insulation
  • Non-biodegradable

31
Examples of whole tyre uses
Slope stabilisation
Construction bale
Erosion control
Coastal and fluvial protection
32
Shred and Chips
  • Shred and chips are the result of mechanical
    processes by which tyres are fragmented into
    irregular pieces
  • Shred can vary in size from 75mm to 300mm in any
    dimension.
  • Smaller shred, of lt100mm, can be used loose or
    compacted, in applications with or without
    binders
  • Chips, from 15 - 75mm, can be used in
    applications with or without binders

33
Characteristics of shred and chips
  • Characteristics
  • Lightweight,
  • Low compacted density,
  • High void ratio,
  • Good compressibility,
  • Water permeability 10-1 to
  • 10-3 m/s
  • Thermal insulation
  • Low earth pressure

34
Examples of shred and chips
Compacted shred Landfill
cell (geotextile)
Drainage systems
Loose shred Building insulation
Loose unbound chips Compacted unbound chips
Bound chips
35
Granulate
  • Granulate is the result of processing rubber to
    reduce it in size into finely dispersed particles
    from 1mm to 10mm
  • There are two principal methods of production
    ambient and cryogenic
  • Ambient size reduction is the most common,
    particularly for larger truck tyres.

36
Characteristics of granulate
Characteristics Variations are based upon the
treatment technology Ambient irregular shape
some thermal degradation due to treatment
reduced cross-linking Cryogenic regular shape
and particle size smooth, glossy surface no
surface decomposition or thermal stress
37
Examples of granulate uses
Artificial turf
Road furniture
Road furniture
Running tracks
Artificial turf
Insulation
Indoor or outdoor tiles/pavers
Childrens play grounds
Sports arenas
Sports stadia
38
Powders and fine powders
  • Fine granulate is the result of ambient or
    cryogenic process-ing to obtain finely dispersed
    particles of less than 2mm.
  • Powders and fine powders are the result of
    processing and post-treating the material to
    obtain finely dispersed particles of 500µm -
    lt1.mm

39
Characteristics of powders
Characteristics Powders are processed to modify
one or more charac-teristic to restore some
properties of virgin rubber. Powders include
reclaim, surface modified or re-activated
material, elasto- meric alloys, among others.
They are most often used as ingredients in
compounds that are mixed or blended with virgin
material
40
(No Transcript)
41
Well continue to work on it
Thank you for your attention
42
The 15th Annual European Conference
on tyre recycling
Towards a Recycling society
the
challenge

2 - 5 April 2008 The Crowne Plaza Europa,
Brussels
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