The Federal Republic of Nigeria - PowerPoint PPT Presentation

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The Federal Republic of Nigeria

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Title: The Federal Republic of Nigeria


1
  • The Federal Republic of Nigeria

2
Quick Facts
  • Capital Abuja
  • Size more than 2x size of California
  • Population 177.2 million
  • Pop. Growth rate 2.47
  • Languages English (official), Hausa, Yoruba,
    Igbo, Fulani
  • System Type Presidential Republic

3
Quick Facts
  • Constitution May 1999
  • Head of Government State Goodluck Jonathan
    until May 29th, then becomes Muhamadu Buhari
  • GDP 478.5 billion (with PPP)
  • Religions 50 Muslim 40 Christian 10
    traditional or indigenous

4
Quick Facts
  • Young country struggling in face of ethnic
    religious divisions
  • Has had both civilian military govts
    authoritarian to progressive
  • Of particular interest to US many trace roots
    to what is now Nigeria, supplies OIL, and 40 of
    heroin

5
Quick Facts
  • Most populous African country
  • Current growth rate expected to double population
    within 25 yrs.
  • Little more than half are rural though urban pop.
    growing b/c of jobs
  • Large black market, very poor

6
Quick Facts
  • Biggest problem is its dependence on oil, which
    accounts for 99 of exports
  • Entire economy driven by international market
    price of oil as are govt revenues
  • Most oil wealth has been squandered stolen

7
Quick Facts
  • Arguments over how balance should be spent have
    caused bitterness
  • Outspent itself during oil boom yrs. of 1970s
    now has Africas largest debt - 32 billion
  • 4 critical social divisions

8
Quick Facts
  • 1. ETHNICITY Between 250 and 400 ethnic groups
    in country
  • Hausa-Fulani is biggest in north (28-30 of pop.)
  • Yoruba is in southwest (21) and Igbo on
    southeast (18)
  • None of these groups think of themselves as
    Nigerian

9
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10
Quick Facts
  • 2. RELIGION Muslim north and non-Muslim south
  • Northern states support sharia Islamic law
  • Widespread admiration for Bin Laden
  • Tensions have often turned violent

11
Quick Facts
  • 3. REGION north is dry and poor while south is
    better endowed in resources and basic services
  • Lagos alone has 9x elementary schools than north
    combined
  • Best agricultural lands is in heavily populated
    south while north is savanna or semi-desert
  • Oil mostly in southeast or off coast

12
http//www.bbc.co.uk/news/world-africa-12893448
13
Quick Facts
  • 4. CLASS Govt business dominated by small
    educated elite
  • Wealthiest include new business class, landlords,
    traders, self-employed professionals
  • Social advancement tied to jobs in govt
    bureaucracy

14
POLITICAL DEVELOPMENT
  • Lack of settled predictable patterns
  • Since 1960 independence, 3 civilian govt, 5
    successful several attempted military coups,
    civil war, nearly 30 yrs. of military govt
  • Communal violence from 1999-2003 resulted in
    deaths of 10,000

15
POLITICAL DEVELOPMENT
  • PRECOLONIAL ERA (900 BCE-1851 CE)
  • Series of emerging and declining states and
    kingdoms
  • Muslims arrived in 700 CE
  • 14th cent dominated by kingdoms of Mali and
    Ghana
  • 16th cent dominated by Songhai Benin

16
POLITICAL DEVELOPMENT
  • Portuguese 1st Eur. to explore area
  • W/cooperation from Benin, set up slave trade to
    Americas
  • Fr., Brits, Dutch arrived in 17th cent. Brits
    biggest slave traders
  • When slave trade ended in 1807, interior opened
    up Christian missionaries arrived

17
POLITICAL DEVELOPMENT
  • COLONIAL ERA (1861-1960)
  • Britain annexed Nigeria, driven by concerns of
    French expansion
  • 1900 Britain declared separate protectorates
    over Northern Southern Nigeria then combined
    them in 1914 into colony protectorate of Nigeria

18
POLITICAL DEVELOPMENT
  • Still ruled Nigeria as 2 colonies w/different
    administrative systems
  • Indirect rule in north through traditional Muslim
    emirates and direct rule in south through
    advisory Legislative Council
  • Divisions deepened in 1939 when Brit. split
    Nigeria into 3 provinces

19
POLITICAL DEVELOPMENT
  • Provinces based on cash crops peanuts in North,
    cocoa in West, and palm oil in East
  • Provinces roughly coincided with 3 major ethnic
    groups so encouraged to think regionally rather
    than nationally

20
POLITICAL DEVELOPMENT
  • Opposition to Brit rule as educated Nigerians
    railed against colonialism
  • 1920 National Congress of British West Africa
    founded Dr. Nnamdi Azikiwe most active
    nationalist
  • He helped set up 1st political party National
    Council of Nigeria the Cameroons (NCNC)

21
POLITICAL DEVELOPMENT
  • After WWII, 3 experimental constitutions 3rd
    one created Nigerian Federation w/federal
    parliament (1/2 seats to North)
  • Regional elections contested w/ many regionally
    based parties
  • 1959 national elections produced 1st fully
    elected national government

22
POLITICAL DEVELOPMENT
  • Oct 1, 1960 1st PM was Muslim Hausa-Fulani
    named Alhaji Sir Abubakar Tafawa Balewa
  • INDEPENDENCE FIRST REPUBLIC (1960-1966)
  • Brit monarch was still head of state but in 1963,
    Nigeria cut remaining ties and created
    non-executive post of president filled by Dr.
    Azikiwe

23
POLITICAL DEVELOPMENT
  • Almost immediately, ethnic religious divisions
    affected govt
  • Census an issue since allocation of seats in
    federal parliament based on of people in each
    region
  • Political parties broken down along regional
    lines so each state dominated by single party

24
POLITICAL DEVELOPMENT
  • Squabbling among parties, workers strikes,
    charges of pol. corruption
  • 1964 Natl elections held amid charges of fraud
    and 1965 regional elections in west marred by
    civil unrest riots
  • Military watched all this w/dismay

25
POLITICAL DEVELOPMENT
  • MILITARY GOVT I (1966-1979)
  • Jan 15, 1966 1st military coup, staged by group
    of Igbo officers led by Major Johnson Aguiyi
    Ironsi
  • Senior natl regional leaders were murdered and
    federal system abolished
  • Northerners feared Igbos establishing hegemony
    killed in unrest

26
POLITICAL DEVELOPMENT
  • Northern army officers staged 2nd coup, killed
    Ironsi replaced him with Lieutenant Colonel
    Yakubu Gowon, a Christian from Nigerias central
    region (Middle Belt region)
  • Gowon restored federal structure promised
    return to civilian rule but massacre of Igbos on
    north continue

27
POLITICAL DEVELOPMENT
  • Retaliation against northerners living in south
  • Tensions boiled over in July 1967 when
    Igbo-dominated eastern region declared
    independence as new state of BIAFRA civil war
    broke out, pitting Nigerian fed. gov against
    Biafrans led by Ojukwu

28
POLITICAL DEVELOPMENT
  • War dragged on for 27 months, Biafra recd
    financial support from sympathizers outside of
    Nigeria but recognized as sovereign state by only
    4 other African government
  • Starved into submission by naval blockade 1-2
    million deaths of Biafrans

29
POLITICAL DEVELOPMENT
  • War ended Jan 1970, Ojukwu went into exile,
    Nigeria reunited
  • Gowon able to patch up some wounds but slow to
    return to civilian government did too little to
    curb inflation, economic mismanagement,
    squandering of profit from oil boom of 1970s

30
POLITICAL DEVELOPMENT
  • Gowon broke 4-region federation into 12 states to
    dilute power of big three ethic groups
    (increased to 19 by his successor)
  • Increased army from 10,000 to 250,000
    corruption widespread
  • Postponed return to civilian rule

31
POLITICAL DEVELOPMENT
  • July 1975 reform minded senior officers seized
    power in bloodless coup, replacing Gowon with
    Murtala Muhammad, Hausa-Fulani
  • Won praise by purging army, announcing 4-yr
    timetable for return to civilian rule,
    dismissing 10,000 gov officials 150 officers

32
POLITICAL DEVELOPMENT
  • Angered those who benefited from Gowons rule and
    was assassinated 7 months after taking over
    during an attempted coup by Gowon followers in
    1976
  • Coup failed and Olusegun Obasanjo succeeded
    Muhammad 1st Yoruba head of state- promised
    civilian rule

33
POLITICAL DEVELOPMENT
  • SECOND REPUBLIC (1979-1983)
  • Nigeria abandoned Westminster model and opted for
    US model w/directly elected executive, bicameral
    National Assembly, separate Supreme Court
  • 1979 elections swept by Shehu Shagari Natl
    Party of Nigeria

34
POLITICAL DEVELOPMENT
  • He pardoned Ojukwu Gowon announced plans to
    move capital from Lagos to Abuja to promote
    national unity (exact center of country)
  • Unable to control corruption econ weakened by
    fall of oil prices
  • Regional ethnic polarization continued
    factional infighting, declining public services

35
POLITICAL DEVELOPMENT
  • Won 2nd term in 1983 but parties again broke down
    regional ethnic lines elections marred by
    ballot-rigging charges

36
POLITICAL DEVELOPMENT
  • MILITARY GOVT II (1983-1999)
  • 3 months after elections, he was ousted in 4th
    coup led by Muhammadu Buhari, a Muslim northerner
    (new president)
  • Welcomed at 1st but became authoritarian ousted
    in 1985 in another coup
  • Replaced by Ibrahim Babangida, Muslim from Middle
    Belt

37
POLITICAL DEVELOPMENT
  • Political parties legalized in 1989, state govt
    new Natl Assembly elected in 1990-1992,
    final step in transition to new Third Republic
    was to have been presidential election of June
    1993
  • Won by Moshood Abiola of new Social Democratic
    Party

38
POLITICAL DEVELOPMENT
  • Babangida claimed election rigged refused to
    reveal results
  • Outcry that followed persuaded him to step down
    in Aug hand over power to transitional civilian
    government
  • 3 months later Sani Abacha ousted Abiola, who
    still claimed presidency
  • Abacha had Abiola jailed wife killed (though
    claimed common criminals did it)

39
POLITICAL DEVELOPMENT
  • Abacha hated human rights
  • Sentenced Obasanjo to life imprisonment in 1995,
    charged for helping coup
  • Executed Ken Saro-Wiwa 8 activists from Ogoni
    tribe of southeastern Nigeria (live in oil fields
    of Niger delta)

40
POLITICAL DEVELOPMENT
  • Ogonis wanted some oil invested back in their
    land, which suffered environmental problems
  • 4 pro-govt Ogoni chiefs murdered at rally
    Saro-Wiwa (novelist) was blamed, tried,
    executed
  • Nigeria suspended from Commonwealth but Abacha
    won approval from Western govt for controlling
    public spending

41
POLITICAL DEVELOPMENT
  • Became clear Abacha manipulated return to
    civilian govt to ensure he would be elected
    president
  • But before he could carry out plan, died of heart
    attack in June 1998 (possibly from sex), Abiola
    took over but also suffered heart attack
  • Gen. Abdulsalam Abubakar took over quickly
    returned to civilian govt

42
POLITICAL DEVELOPMENT
  • FOURTH REPUBLIC (1999 to now)
  • Series of elections 1998 1999 military
    stepped down
  • Obasanjo called out of retirement to head
    government w/Peoples Democratic party
  • Purged several military officers who had held
    office 1984-1999

43
POLITICAL DEVELOPMENT
  • Renegotiated Nigerias debt repayment schedule
    repair relations w/trading partners (risk)
  • World Bank IMF placed austere measures (cutback
    on gov spending) that might have undermined
    Obasanjos government when it needed public
    support

44
POLITICAL DEVELOPMENT
  • At local level, community violence again w/ethnic
    groups
  • Within months of his inauguration, hundreds
    killed/wounded, mainly in south cont
    throughout 1st term
  • Needed to build strong political institutions,
    break power of elites, deal w/corruption
    w/questions of nature of relationship b/t natl
    local govt

45
POLITICAL DEVELOPMENT
  • NIGERIA TODAY
  • 2nd set of elections held in April 2003
    surrounded by usual charges of fraud violence
  • Obasanjo won 2nd term against Buhari, former
    military leader
  • Nigeria has ongoing econ problems, corruption
    still pervades, religious ethnic violence as
    well, crime, sharia

46
POLITICAL DEVELOPMENT
  • Political leader running for re-election in
    liberal democracy with Obasanjos record would
    almost certainly lose says something of quality
    of desperation in Nigerian politics (best option)
  • Was military leader (76-79) who proved to be
    least corrupt

47
POLITICAL DEVELOPMENT
  • 2011 Presidential Elections won by Goodluck
    Jonathan
  • Supporters of Muhammad Buhari accused him of
    rigging elections
  • Followed by violence, esp. in northern Nigeria
  • Religion being used as tool by politicians
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