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Classroom Instruction That Works Research-Based Strategies for Increasing Student Achievement

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Title: Classroom Instruction That Works Research-Based Strategies for Increasing Student Achievement


1
Classroom Instruction That Works Research-Based
Strategies for Increasing Student Achievement
  • By Robert J. Marzono
  • Debra J. Pickering
  • Jane E. Pollock
  • Published 2005
  • Expands on the 2000 What Works in Classroom
    Instruction by Marzano, Gaddy and Dean

2
Effect Sizes and Other Exciting Topics
  • Educational research
  • Meta-analysis
  • Standard deviation units
  • Percentile gains
  • Negative effects
  • Normal distribution
  • One size does not fit all
  • The unknown proceed with caution

No, its not that exciting, but your friendly
school psychologist loves this part! Meeting
strict standards for reviewing and comparing
research allows us to feel confident applying it!
3
Three Elements of Effective Pedagogy
Four
Instructional Strategies
Classroom Management
Curriculum Design
Assessment Practices
Effective Pedagogy
4
Big Ideas
  • Applying the Research on Instruction What Works
  • Individual teacher impact much higher than
    previously believed
  • Research-Based Strategies
  • Identifying Similarities and Differences
  • Summarizing and Note Taking
  • Reinforcing Effort and Providing Recognition
  • Homework and Practice
  • Nonlinguistic Representations
  • Cooperative Learning
  • Setting Objectives and Providing Feedback
  • Generating and Testing Hypotheses
  • Cues, Questions, and Advance Organizers

5
Identifying Similarities and Difference
  • Pattern-seeking human brain
  • Making comparisons
  • Classifying
  • Creating metaphors
  • Creating analogies
  • Teacher-directed and student-directed

6
Summarizing and Note Taking
  • Summarize
  • Identify critical information
  • Analyze it deeply
  • Understand the structure of information
  • Take Notes
  • Teach HOW to take notes
  • Review and revise
  • Use as study guide for test

7
Reinforcing Effort and Providing Recognition
  • Belief in effort (not luck, other people, or
    ability) is most important
  • Not all students realize the importance of effort
  • We can change their beliefs to emphasize effort
  • Rewards positive or negative?
  • When is it most effective to reward?
  • What are the most effective rewards?

8
Homework and Practice
  • Opportunity to deepen understanding and sharpen
    skills taught in class
  • Purpose should be clearly articulated to students
    and parents
  • Work towards both accuracy and speed
    (understanding and fluency)

9
Nonlinguistic Representations
  • Reflect on and create mental pictures
  • Interpret and generate graphic representations
  • When tied to linguistic statements, strengthens
    understanding and memory

10
Cooperative Learning
  • Positive interdependence
  • Face-to-face interaction
  • Individual and group accountability
  • Interpersonal and small group skills
  • Group processing

11
Setting Objectives and Providing Feedback
  • Goal setting
  • Narrow the focus
  • Seek generalization
  • Utilize student input in goal setting
  • Feedback is
  • Corrective and instructional (not just right or
    wrong)
  • Timely
  • Specific to skill or knowledge
  • A way of self-monitoring

12
Generating and Testing Hypotheses
  • Applying knowledge
  • Deductive and inductive reasoning
  • Giving written and verbal justification
  • Applicable to many subject areas

13
Cues, Questions, and Advance Organizers
  • Activate prior knowledge
  • Focus on IMPORTANT, rather than unusual
  • Aim for higher order questioning
  • Utilize wait time
  • Incorporate before, during and after
  • Choose the right tool for the situation

14
Looking closer . . .
  • Chapter 2
  • Similarities and Differences

15
Research and Theory on Identifying Similarities
and Differences
  • Explicitly teaching students to identify
    similarities and differences enhances their
    ability to understand and use knowledge

16
Research and Theory on Identifying Similarities
and Differences
  • Providing opportunities for students to
    independently identify similarities and
    differences enhances their ability to understand
    and use knowledge

17
Research and Theory on Identifying Similarities
and Differences
  • Representing similarities and differences in
    graphic or symbolic form enhances students
    understanding of and ability to use knowledge

18
Research and Theory on Identifying Similarities
and Differences
  • Identification of similarities and differences
    can be accomplished in a variety of highly
    interactive ways
  • Comparing
  • Classifying
  • Creating metaphors
  • Creating analogies

19
Comparing Classroom Practice
  • Teacher-Directed Comparison Tasks
  • Items
  • Characteristics for comparison

Identifying the IMPORTANT characteristics is key
when making comparisons
20
Comparing
  • Student-Directed Comparison Tasks
  • Items
  • Characteristics for comparison

Identifying the IMPORTANT characteristics is key
when making comparisons
21
Graphic Organizers for Comparisons
Comparison Matrix
Characteristics Items to be 1 compared 2 Similarities and Differences
1. S D
2. S D
3. S D
4. S D
5. S D
Venn Diagram
22
Classifying Classroom Practice
  • Teacher-Directed Classification Tasks
  • Elements
  • Categories

Critical to the task of classifying is an
understanding of the rules that govern a class or
category Membership.
23
Classifying
  • Student-Directed Classification Tasks
  • Elements
  • Categories

Critical to the task of classifying is an
understanding of the rules that govern a class or
category Membership.
24
Graphic Organizers for Classification
Categories
25
Metaphors
  • Teacher-Directed Metaphors
  • First element
  • Abstract relationship

The key to using metaphors is the understanding
that the two items are connected by an abstract
or nonliteral relationship
26
Metaphors
  • Student-Directed Metaphors
  • First element
  • Abstract relationship

The key to using metaphors is the understanding
that the two items are connected by an abstract
or nonliteral relationship
27
Analogies
  • Teacher-Directed Analogies
  • Discuss and guide analysis of first relationship
  • Add Multiply
  • Discuss and guide analysis of how first
    relationship might apply to second set
  • Subtract Divide
  • Teach whole analogy
  • Add Subtract Multiply Divide
  • Scaffold task

The most complex format, requiring students to
analyze relationships between relationships
28
Analogies
  • Student-Directed Analogies
  • Provide first relationship
  • Add Multiply
  • Students analyze and create second set
  • Subtract Divide
  • Scaffold task

The most complex format, requiring students to
analyze relationships between relationships
29
Graphic Organizers for Analogies
is to
thermometer is to temperature
(relationship) _______________
(relationship) first measures incremental changes
in second
is to
odometer is to distance
as
30
Similarities and Differences
  • Teach directly
  • Have students practice independently
  • Teach and use graphic or symbolic representations
  • Use a variety of activities

31
Looking closer . . .
  • Chapter 3
  • Summarizing and Note Taking

32
Summarizing
  • Research and Theory
  • Determine critical information
  • Delete some
  • Substitute some
  • Keep some
  • Analyze at a deep level
  • Comprehension is critical
  • Understand the structure of the material
  • Components and features
  • Knowing where to look

33
SummarizingRule Based Strategy, Summary Frames,
Reciprocal Teaching
  • Classroom Practice
  • Rule-based Strategy
  • Delete trivial information
  • Delete redundant material
  • Categorize use superordinate terms
  • Select or create a topic sentence

34
SummarizingRule Based Strategy, Summary Frames,
Reciprocal Teaching
  • Classroom Practice
  • Summary Frames
  • Narrative Frame
  • Topic-Restriction-Illustration Frame (expository)
  • Definition Frame
  • Argumentation Frame
  • Problem/Solution Frame
  • Conversation Frame

Pg. 35-41
35
SummarizingRule Based Strategy, Summary Frames,
Reciprocal Teaching
  • Classroom Practice
  • Reciprocal Teaching
  • Summarizing
  • Questioning
  • Clarifying
  • Predicting

36
Note Taking
  • Research and Theory
  • Succinctly explain the critical information
  • Verbatim least effective
  • A work in progress
  • Review
  • Revise
  • Teacher direction
  • Study guides for tests
  • More is better than less for test performance

37
Note Taking
  • Classroom Practice
  • Teacher-prepared notes
  • Clear, organized, accurate
  • Identifies most important content in summary form
  • Understanding of concepts, not just memorization
    of facts
  • Student format for notes
  • Informal outlines
  • 2 column notes
  • Webs/maps
  • Combination notes

38
2-column definitions
  • TERM DEFINITION
  • acute
  • obtuse
  • right
  • complementary
  • supplementary
  • alternate interior
  • alternate exterior

39
2-column note taking from lecture or books
Key Idea Explanations, Examples Bar
graph Shows information in picture form Key
Idea Axis Xy Rule Rule
40
Looking closer . . .
  • Chapter 4
  • Reinforcing Effort and Providing Recognition

41
  • Success is generally attributed to?
  • Ability
  • Effort
  • Other People
  • Luck

42
Research and TheoryReinforcing Effort
  • Attitudes and beliefs impact student performance
  • Not all students realize the importance of
    believing in effort
  • Students can learn to change their beliefs about
    effort

43
Classroom Practice Reinforcing Effort
  • Teaching
  • Keeping track of effort and performance

44
Research and TheoryProviding Recognition
  • Would you be motivated by more money?
  • Would you do it for the teacher of the year
    award?
  • Would you be motivated by increased student
    performance in your classroom?
  • Would you do it to see MEAP/ACT/SAT scores
    improve for your students?

45
Research and TheoryProviding Recognition
  • 1. Rewards do not necessarily have a negative
    effect on intrinsic motivation.
  • 2. Reward is most effective when it is contingent
    on the attainment of some standard of
    performance.
  • 3. Abstract symbolic recognition is more
    effective than tangible rewards.

Pg. 56 chart
46
Classroom PracticeProviding Recognition
  • Personal Recognition
  • Pause, Prompts, and Praise
  • Concrete Symbols of Recognition

47
Looking closer . . .
  • Chapter 5
  • Homework and Practice

48
HomeworkResearch and Theory
  • The amount of homework assigned should vary by
    grade level. (effect pg. 61 quote and
    recommendations pg 62)
  • Parent involvement in homework should be kept to
    a minimum.
  • The purpose should be identified and clearly
    articulated to students and parents.
  • If you assign it, you should comment on it.

49
Classroom PracticeAssigning Homework
  • 1. Establish and communicate a homework policy.
  • 2. Design homework assignments that clearly
    articulate the purpose and outcome.
  • 3. Vary the approaches to providing feedback.

50
PracticeResearch and Theory
  • Mastering a skill requires a fair amount of
    focused practice.
  • While practicing , students should adapt and
    shape what they have learned.

51
Practicing SkillsClassroom Practice
  • Charting Accuracy and Speed
  • Designing Practice Assignments that Focus on
    Specific Elements of a Complex Skill or Process
  • Planning Time for Students to Increase Their
    Conceptual Understanding of Skills or Processes

52
Looking closer . . .
  • Chapter 6
  • Nonlinguistic Representations

53
Nonlinguistic Representations
  • Reflect on and create mental pictures
  • Interpret and generate graphic representations
  • When tied to linguistic statements, strengthens
    understanding and memory

54
Looking closer . . .
  • Chapter 7
  • Cooperative Learning

55
Research and TheoryCooperative Learning
  • Five Defining Elements
  • Positive Interdependence
  • Face-to-face promotive interaction
  • Individual and group accountability
  • Interpersonal and small group skills
  • Group processing

56
Research and TheoryCooperative Learning
  • Three generalizations
  • Organizing groups based on ability levels should
    be done sparingly.
  • Cooperative groups should be kept rather small in
    size.
  • Cooperative learning should be applied
    consistently and systematically, but not overused.

57
Classroom PracticeCooperative Learning
  • Using a variety of criteria
  • Informal, formal and base groups
  • Managing group size
  • Combining cooperative learning with other
    classroom structures

58
Looking closer . . .
  • Chapter 8
  • Setting Objectives and Providing Feedback

59
  • Write it down. Written goals have a way of
    transforming wishes into wants cannots into
    cans dreams into plans and plans into reality.
    Don't just think it - ink it!

60
Goal Setting
  • Process of establishing a direction for learning

61
Goal Setting
  • Most successful people have mastered goal setting
    to help them achieve short term and long term
    desires

62
Goal Setting
  • Instructional goals narrow what students focus on

63
Goal Setting
  • Instructional goals need to be specific, but
    should not be too specific.

64
Goal Setting
  • Students should be encouraged to personalize the
    teachers goal

65
Personalized Goal Setting Helpful Tools
  • Sentence Stems
  • I want to know more about
  • I know that the heart pumps blood through the
    body, but I want to know how a heart attack
    happens.
  • I want to know how I can use a2 b2 c2 in real
    life.
  • I want to know if the intestines are really four
    miles long.
  • I want to know why the answer to multiplication
    of fractions is smaller than either of the
    fractions multiplied.

66
Personalized Goal Setting Helpful Tools
  • Contracts
  • - Contracts allow students the opportunity to
    state the goals they will try to attain and the
    grade they will receive if they do attain them

67
(No Transcript)
68
Classroom Instruction that Works
  • Providing Feedback

69
Providing Feedback
  • The most powerful single modification that
    enhances achievement is feedback. The simplest
    prescription for improving education must be
    dollops of feedback (p.9)

  • John Hattie
  • University of Aukland

70
Providing Feedback
  • Effect sizes on providing feedback are generally
    medium to large
  • _____________________________________
  • .0 none percentile gain of 0
  • .20 small percentile gain of 8
  • .50 medium percentile gain of 20
  • .80 large percentile gain of 29

71
Providing Feedback
  • Feedback should be corrective
  • Provide students with an explanation of what they
    are doing that is correct and what they are doing
    that is not correct

72
Providing Feedback
  • Different ways of giving feedback on tests have
    varied impacts of learning
  • Providing students with an explanation as to what
    is right and what is wrong with their answers (ES
    .53)
  • Allowing them to repeat the task (retake test)
    until they can succeed (ES .53)
  • Providing them with the correct answer (ES .22)
  • Telling students if answer is right or wrong (ES
    -.08) (simply telling them their score)

73
Timing of Feedback
  • Feedback should be timely
  • The more delay that occurs in giving feedback,
    the less improvement there is in achievement
  • In test taking situations,
  • Immediately after a test (ES .72)
  • Delayed after a test (ES .56)
  • Immediately after a test item (ES .19)

74
Timing of Tests
  • Timing of tests
  • One day after learning takes place (ES
    .74)
  • One week after learning takes place (ES .
    53)
  • Longer than one week after learning takes place
    (ES . 26)
  • Immediately after learning takes place (ES
    . 17)

75
Providing Feedback
  • Feedback should be specific to a criterion
  • reference a specific level of skill or knowledge
  • Need to provide feedback on what students have
    learned about the content rather than how they
    stand relative to others or what grade they
    received

76
Providing FeedbackHelpful Tools
  • Students Own Progress Monitoring
  • Students Progress Monitoring of Others
  • Rubrics

77
Providing Feedback
  • Students can effectively provide some of their
    own feedback
  • Students can monitor their own progress
  • Keep track of their performance over time
  • Graph correct number of words (problems) correct
    in a minute
  • Read Naturally - reading
  • Fast Facts - math

78
Providing Feedback
  • Students can effectively provide feedback to each
    other
  • Peer Assisted Learning Strategies
  • Reading and Math

79
Looking closer . . .
  • Chapter 9
  • Generating and Testing Hypotheses

80
Research and Theory onGenerating and Testing
Hypotheses
  • By definition, the process of generating and
    testing hypotheses involves the application of
    knowledge

81
Research and Theory on Generating and Testing
Hypotheses
  • Deductive reasoning
  • Inductive Reasoning

Know general rule
Action or events happen
Shape your understanding of the general rule
Predict future action or event
Refer to Effect Sizes - Pg. 106
82
Research and Theory on Generating and Testing
Hypotheses
  • Explaining the hypotheses and the conclusions,
    particularly in writing, leads to deeper
    understanding of the principles

83
Research and Theory on Generating and Testing
Hypotheses
  • Applicable to many subject areas
  • Specific Mathematics examples

84
Classroom Practice forGenerating and Testing
Hypotheses
  • A variety of structured tasks
  • Systems Analysis
  • Problem Solving
  • Historical Investigation
  • Invention
  • Experimental Inquiry
  • Decision Making

85
Classroom Practice forGenerating and Testing
Hypotheses
  • Deeper understanding develops through the process
    of explaining, orally or in writing, your
    thinking.
  • Teachers can

86
Looking closer . . .
  • Chapter 10
  • Cues, Questions, and Advance Organizers

87
Research and Theory onCues and Questions
  • Activate prior knowledge and you increase
    learning
  • Lets compare the effect sizes on page 112.

88
Research and Theory onCues and Questions
  • Focus on IMPORTANT, rather than unusual
    information

89
Research and Theory onCues and Questions
  • Aim for higher order questioning

90
Research and Theory onCues and Questions
  • Utilize wait time

91
Research and Theory onCues and Questions
  • Incorporate questions before, during and after
    learning experiences

92
Classroom Practice forCues and Questions
  • Explicit Cues

93
Classroom Practice forCues and Questions
  • Questions that elicit inferences

94
Classroom Practice forCues and Questions
  • Analytical Questions

95
Research and Theory onAdvance Organizers
  • Effect sizes, page 117
  • Important, not unusual
  • Higher-level rather than lower-level thinking
  • Information that needs organizing
  • Choose the right tool for the job

96
Research and Theory onAdvance Organizers
  • Expository Advance Organizers (describing the
    content)
  • Narrative Organizers (telling the information in
    a story format)
  • Skimming the text (read the bold print or
    summary)
  • Graphic Advance Organizers

97
Looking closer . . .
  • Chapter 11
  • Teaching Specific Types of Knowledge
  • Vocabulary, Details, Organizing Ideas, Skills and
    Processes

98
Research and Theory on Teaching Vocabulary Terms
  • Students must encounter words in context more
    than once to learn them.
  • Check out effect sizes on page 125. Compare the
    notes youve taken about effect sizes with a
    partner.

99
Research and Theory on Teaching Vocabulary Terms
  • Instruction in new words (prior instruction)
    enhances learning those words in context.
  • Paired language is when you use both the target
    vocabulary word and a student-friendly
    explanation in the same sentence. For example,
    Look for the parallel lines, the ones in the
    same plane that wont ever intersect or cross
    each other, in this exercise.

100
Research and Theory on Vocabulary Terms
  • One of the best ways to
  • learn a new word is to
  • associate an image with it.

Parallel (Pair of lls)
Effect Sizes page 127
101
Research and Theory on Vocabulary Terms
  • Direct vocabulary instruction works.

102
Research and Theory on Vocabulary Terms
  • Teach the most important words for your content
    area.

103
Classroom Practice inTeaching Vocabulary
  • Identify what is critical
  • Teach with a systematic process
  • Student friendly explanation or description
  • Nonlinguistic representation
  • Examples and non-examples
  • Student-generated explanations
  • Student-generated nonlinguistic representations
  • Periodic practice, review, and check for accuracy

104
Classroom Practice inTeaching Vocabulary
  • With mathematical vocabulary is it important that
    you teach, and students understand
  • Synonyms (an axiom, or a postulate, is a rule
    that is accepted as true without proof)
  • Related Terms (kilometers and miles are both
    units of measure but are not identical in length)
  • Superordinate and category terms (a cube is type
    of three-dimensional solid or three-dimensional
    solids include the cube, sphere and cylinder,
    etc.)
  • Opposites (Kdg. example addition is putting
    together, subtraction is taking away)

105
Research and Theory onTeaching Details
  • Systematic, multiple exposure to details
  • Details are remembered better, both immediately
    and one year after instruction, when
    dramatization is added.
  • Figure 11.3, page 130
  • Effect sizes, page 131

106
Classroom Practice for Teaching Details
  • Multiple exposures
  • (Read and discuss page 132)
  • Dramatic Representation
  • What does THAT look like?

107
Research and Theory onOrganizing Ideas
  • Students commonly have misconceptions about
    organizing ideas when they are first introduced
    to them.
  • Correcting misconceptions
  • Discussion
  • Argumentation
  • Effect sizes Page 135

108
Classroom Practice for Organizing Ideas
  • Making sure that students can clearly articulate
    statements of generalizations and principles and
    provide numerous examples
  • Direct instruction
  • Multiple exposures
  • Writing
  • Helping students increase their understanding of
    generalizations and principles and clear up
    misconceptions about them
  • Discussion
  • Argumentation

109
Research and Theory onMental Skills
Discuss with a partner
  • The discovery approach is difficult to use
    effectively with skills.
  • When teachers use discovery learning, they should
    organize examples into categories that represent
    the different approaches to the skill.
  • Skills are most useful when learned to the level
    of automaticity.
  • Tactics -
  • Algorithms -

Take notes from page 137
110
Classroom Practice for Teaching Skills
  • Carefully structure discovery learning to ensure
    that students learn specific skills (organize
    examples)
  • Plan for DISTRIBUTED practice to emphasize the
    importance of a skill

111
Research, Theory, and Classroom Practice on
Processes
  • Students should practice the parts of a process
    in the context of the overall process
  • Teachers should emphasize the metacognitive
    control of processes
  • Plenty of guided practice
  • Self-monitoring by students
  • Encourage generalization

112
Looking closer . . .
  • Chapter 12
  • Using the Nine
  • Categories in
  • Instructional
  • Planning

113
Quick Review of Nine Categories of BEST PRACTICE
  • Identifying similarities and differences
  • Summarizing and note taking
  • Reinforcing effort and providing recognition
  • Homework and practice
  • Nonlinguistic representations
  • Cooperative learning
  • Setting objectives and providing feedback
  • Generating and testing hypotheses
  • Questions, cues and advance organizers

114
At the Beginning of a Unit of Instruction
  • Teacher sets clear learning goals (Chapter 8)
  • Fairly narrow focus, but not too specific
  • Students identify and record their own learning
    goals (Chapter 8)
  • Make connections between the topic of study and
    personal life
  • Interact with peers as they set goals and discuss
    ways to achieve them

115
During a Unit of Instruction
  • Monitor learning goals
  • Provide students feedback and help them
    self-assess their progress toward achieving their
    goals. Teach and use rubrics as a tool.
    (Chapter 8)
  • Ask students to keep track of their effort and
    its impact on achievement. Students share with
    each other. (Chapter 4)
  • Periodically celebrate legitimate progress toward
    learning goals. (Chapter 4)

116
During a Unit of Instruction
  • Introduce New Knowledge
  • Activate prior knowledge (Chapter 2 and 10)
  • Provide an advance organizer (Chapter 10)
  • Expository Advance Organizers
  • Narrative Advance Organizers
  • Skimming as a Form of Advance Organizer
  • Graphic Advance Organizer
  • Compare what is newly learned to what was already
    known (Chapter 2)
  • Compare/Contrast (Chapter 2) and Cooperative
    Learning Discussion (Chapter 7)

117
During a Unit of Instruction
  • Introducing New Knowledge
  • Have students summarize and take notes on the
    information being taught (Chapter 3)
  • Highlight critical information
  • Teach for deep understanding
  • Understand the structure of the information so
    you can better summarize it
  • Topic-Restriction-Illustration Frame (page 37)
  • Definition Frame (page 38)
  • Argumentation Frame (page 39)
  • Problem/Solution Frame (page 40)

118
During a Unit of Instruction
  • Use nonlinguistic representations to teach and
    have students represent what they are learning in
    nonlinguistic ways. (Chapter 6)
  • graphic representations
  • symbols
  • associate an image with new vocabulary (Chapter
    11)

119
During a Unit of Instruction
  • Alternate the mode of learning so that sometimes
    your students work in small cooperative groups
    and other times as individuals. Aim for active
    engagement. (Chapter 7)

120
During a Unit of Instruction
  • Practice, Review, Apply Knowledge
  • Assign homework that requires students to
    practice, review, and apply what they have
    learned however be sure to give students
    explicit feedback on the accuracy of all
    homework. (Chapter 5)
  • Grade important, newly-taught concept work and
    give feedback about conceptual, skill, or process
    errors. (Chapters 4 and 8)
  • Give credit/no credit for most practice and
    review work provide opportunities for
    self-checking (overhead or key) and ask students
    to graph their own accuracy and effort. (Chapter
    5)
  • Provide specific feedback for application of
    knowledge work.

121
During a Unit of Instruction
  • Practice, Review, and Apply Knowledge
  • Engage students in long-term projects that
    involve generating and testing hypotheses.
    (Chapter 9)
  • Inductive vs. deductive reasoning
  • Justifying your rationale, esp. in writing,
    deepens understanding

122
During a Unit of Instruction
  • Notes are a Work in Progress
  • Students revise the linguistic and nonlinguistic
    representations in their notes as they refine
    their understanding of the content. (Chapters 3
    and 6)

123
At the End of a Unit of Instruction
  • Provide students with clear assessments of their
    progress on each learning goal. (Chapters 4 and
    8)
  • Students self-assess on each learning goal and
    compare results to teacher assessments. (Chapters
    4 and 8)
  • Student articulate what they have learned about
    the content and themselves as learners.
    (Chapters 4 and 8)

124
Excellent Instruction is the KEY
  • There is no single determinant of student success
    more critical than the teachers instruction.
  • Mortimore and Sammons (1987) found that teaching
    had 6 to 10 times as much impact on achievement
    as all other factors combined.
  • Odden and Wallace (2003) conclude that improved
    classroom instruction is the prime factor to
    produce student achievement gains.
  • Sanders Horn (1994) found that three years of
    effective teaching accounts on average for an
    improvement of 35 to 50 percentile points.
  • (Schmoker, 2006)
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