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Founding the New Nation


Title: Founding the New Nation Author: dean Last modified by: matthew dean Created Date: 6/4/2009 1:41:18 PM Document presentation format: On-screen Show (4:3) – PowerPoint PPT presentation

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Title: Founding the New Nation

Founding the New Nation
  • c. 33,000 B.C.- A.D.1783

  • I. The Land Bridge theory.
  • End of Ice Age diminished glaciers over North
  • Land Bridge emerged linking Asia NA across
    Bering Sea.
  • People walked across the "bridge" before the sea
    level rose
  • The Land Bridge occurred around 35,000 years ago.
  • II. Many peoples
  • Groups spread across North, Central, and South
  • Tribes emerged with an estimated 2,000 languages.
  • Incas Peru, with elaborate network of roads and
    bridges linking their empire.
  • Mayas Yucatan Peninsula, with their step
  • Aztecs Mexico, with step pyramids and huge
    sacrifices of conquered peoples.

  • Development of corn or maize around 5,000 B.C. in
    Mexico was revolutionary in that
  • Didn't have to be hunter-gatherers, could settle
    down and be farmers.
  • Began to establish permanent settlements
  • 1. No large concentration of pop. Like in
    SA or Mesoamerica
  • 2. Scattered pop. allowed Europeans to
    defeat Native Americans easier
  • Corn arrived in the present day U.S. around
    1,200 B.C.
  • Pueblo Indians
  • 1st American corn growers (12,00 B.C.)
  • They lived in adobe houses and pueblos. Pueblos
    like apartment complex often beneath cliffs.
  • Developed elaborate irrigation systems to draw
    water away from rivers to grown corn.

  • Mound Builders
  • Built huge ceremonial, burial mounds- located in
    the Ohio Valley.
  • Established large settlements after introduction
    of corn
  • Cahokia, near East St. Louis today, held 40,000

  • Eastern Indians
  • Grew corn, beans, and squash in three sister
  • Corn grew in a stalk providing a trellis for
    beans, beans grew up the stalk, squash's broad
    leaves kept the sun off the ground, kept the
    moisture in the soil.
  • This group likely had the best (most diverse)
    diet of all NA Indians and is typified by the
    Cherokee, Creek, Choctaw (South) and Iroquois
  • Iroquois Confederation
  • Hiawatha legendary leader
  • Closest approximation to Mex., SA nation-states
  • The Iroquois Confederation- group of 5 tribes in
    New York state.
  • Matrilineal- authority and possessions passed
    down through the female line.
  • Each tribe kept their independence, met
    occasionally to discuss matters of common
    interest, like war/defense.
  • Political/ military alliance menaced neighbors
    for over a century

II. Earliest Americans
  • Native Americans had different view of things as
    compared to Europeans.
  • Native Americans-no man owned the land, the tribe
    did. (Europeans- private property)
  • Indians- nature was mixed with many spirits.
    (Europeans-Christian and monotheistic)
  • Indians- nature was sacred. (Europeans- nature
    and land to be subdued and put to use).
  • Indians- little or no concept or interest in
    money. (Europeans- loved money or gold)

III. Indirect Discoverers of the New World
  • The 1st Europeans to come to America were the
    Norse (Vikings from Norway).
  • 1000 AD, the Vikings landed in Newfoundland
    (LAnse aux Meadows)
  • No strong nation- state to support other voyages,
    settlements abandoned
  • Growing power of nations, governments wanted
    contact with world for trade or conquest
  • Christian Crusaders fought in Palestine regain
    the Holy Land from Muslims.
  • Mixing of East and West European desire for
    Asian spices, goods

IV. Europeans Enter Africa
  • Marco Polo traveled to China stirred European
  • Desire for spices, East to West (Asia to
    Europe)trade flourished-had to be overland,
    initiated new exploration down around Africa in
    hopes of an easier (all water) route.
  • Portuguese wanted a better way to get to the
    Spice Islands, eventually rounding Africa's
    southern Cape of Good Hope.
  • New developments Caravel, compass, astrolabe-
    allowed sea travel to be safer more reliable
  • Opened sub- Saharan Africa to European
    exploration, exploitation
  • VI. Slave trade begins
  • 1st slave trade across Sahara Desert.
  • Later, along West African coast. Slave traders
    purposely busted up tribes, families in order
    prevent resistance.
  • Slaves wound up on sugar plantations the
    Portuguese had set up on the tropical islands off
    Africa's coast.
  • Spain watched Portugal's success with exploration
    and slaving and wanted a piece of the pie.

V. Columbus Comes upon a New World
  • Convinced King and Queen of Spain to finance
    expedition to bypass Africa route to Asia
  • 1492 discovers America
  • Voyage eventually leads to beginnings of
    interdependent global system
  • Europe would provide the market, capital,
  • Africa would provide the labor.
  • The New World would provide the raw materials
    (gold, soil, lumber).

V. Columbus Comes upon a New World
  • I. Causes biological flip-flop of Old and New
  • traded plants, foods, animals, germs
  • II. Columbian Exchange
  • From the New World (America) to the Old
  • corn, potatoes, tobacco, beans, peppers, manioc,
    pumpkin, squash, tomato, wild rice, etc. also,
  • From the Old World to the New
  • cows, pigs, horses, wheat, sugar cane, apples,
    cabbage, citrus, carrots, Kentucky bluegrass,
  • devastating diseases (smallpox, yellow fever,
    malaria), as Indians had no immunities.
  • The Indians had no immunities in their systems
    built up over generations.
  • An estimated 90 of all pre-Columbus Indians
    died, mostly due to disease.

VII. The Spanish Conquistadores
  • Spain secured claim to Americas from Treaty of
    Tordesillas (1494)
  • 1500s dominant explorers/ colonizers of Americas
  • Conquistadores explored and conquered much of N
    and S America
  • Vasco Balboa "discovered the Pacific Ocean
    across isthmus of Panama
  • Ferdinand Magellan circumnavigates the globe
    (1st to do so)
  • Ponce de Leon touches and names Florida looking
    for legendary Fountain of Youth
  • Hernando Cortes enters Florida, travels up into
    present day Southeastern U.S., dies and is
    "buried in Mississippi River
  • Francisco Pizarro conquers Incan Empire of
    Peruand begins shipping tons of gold/silver back
    to Spain. This huge influxof precious metals
    made European prices skyrocket (inflation).
  • Francisco Coronado ventured into current
    Southwest U.S. looking for legendary El Dorado,
    city of gold. He found the Pueblo Indians.

VII. The Spanish Conquistadores
  • I. Flood of silver from SA, Mexico caused
    inflation in Europe
  • A. Led to rise of capitalism and commercial
    banking, paid for international trade
  • II. Encomienda system established
  • A. Indians "commended or given to Spanish
  • B. The idea was that Indians would work and
    beconverted to Christianity, but it was
    basically just slavery on a sugar plantation
    guised as missionary work.

VIII. The Conquest of Mexico
  • Hernando Cortez conquered the Aztecs at
  • Cortez went from Cuba to present day Vera Cruz,
    then marched over mountains to the Aztec capital.
  • Montezuma, Aztec king, thought Cortez might be
    thegod Quetzalcoatl who was due to re-appear
  • Montezuma welcomed Cortez into Tenochtitlan.
  • The Spanish lust for gold led Montezuma to attack
    on the noche triste, sad night. Cortez and men
    fought their way out, but it wassmallpox that
    eventually beat the Indians.
  • The Spanish then destroyed Tenochtitlan, building
    the Spanish capital (Mexico City) exactly on top
    of the Aztec city.
  • A new race of people emerged, mestizos, a mix of
    Spanish and Indian blood.

IX. The Spread of Spanish America
  1. Spains empire grew quickly
  2. Threats from other European powers- English,
  3. Spanish set up forts (presidios) to protect
    borders- from Florida to California
  4. Rebellions in New Mexico against Spanish (Popes
    Rebellion 1680)
  5. Black Legend The Black Legend was the notion
    that Spaniards only brought bad things (murder,
    disease, slavery) though true, they also brought
    good things such as law systems, architecture,
    Christianity, language, civilization, so that the
    Black Legend is partly, but not entirely,

Planting of the English in America
  • 1500-1733

  • Within 100 years of Columbus landing Americas
    radically transformed
  • 1600 most of North America unclaimed, unexplored
  • In the 1500s, Britain failed to effectively
    colonize due to internal conflicts.
  • 1530s King Henry VIII broke with the Roman
    Catholic Church launched the English Protestant
  • Elizabeth I became queen, Britain became
    basically Protestant, rivalry with Catholic Spain
  • Ireland, Catholics sought Spains help in
    revolting against England, English crushed the
    uprising with brutal atrocity, developed contempt
    for natives.
  • Late 1500s English attack Spanish ships for gold
    (Sir Francis Drake)
  • First English attempts at colonization
    (Newfoundland 1583, Roanoke 1585) failed
  • 1588 English defeat Spanish Armada
  • Allows English to cross North Atlantic
  • Victory gives English reason for
  • Strong government/popular monarch, more religious
    unity, a sense of nationalism
  • Beginning of British dominance at sea (which
    lasts until U.S. tops them, around 1900)

III. England on the Eve of the Empire
  • Reasons for English colonization of the Americas
  • 1500s growing population
  • New enclosure laws less land for poor
  • Wool industry collapsed
  • Population became mobile (looking for jobs)
  • Tradition of primogeniture 1st born son
    inheritsALL fathers land. Younger sons tried
    their luck with fortunes elsewhere, like America.
  • Early1600s, joint-stock company perfected
    (investors put money into the company with hopes
    for a good return), provided financing for
  • Joint-stock companies usually did not exist long,
    stockholders invested to make a profit, then
    quickly sell for profit a few years later
  • Charter gave settlers same rights as Englishmen
  • Joint Stock Company (Virginia Company) given
    charter by King James I to settle in New World

IV. England Plants the Jamestown Seedling
  • On May 24, 1607, about 100 English settlers
    disembarked from their ship and founded
  • Problems included
  • (a) the swampy site of Jamestown, poor
    drinking water, mosquitoes caused malaria and
    yellow fever.
  • (b) men wasted time looking for gold
    rather than doing useful tasks (digging wells,
    building shelter, planting crops),
  • (c) zero women on the initial ship.

IV. England Plants the Jamestown Seedling
  • 1608 Captain John Smith took over control and
    whipped the colonists into shape, gave order and
    discipline, highlighted by his no work, no food
  • Colonists had to eat cats, dogs, rats, even other
    people. One fellow wrote of eating powdered
  • 1610 a relief party headed by Lord De La Warr
    arrived to alleviate the suffering.
  • 1625 out of an original overall total of 8,000
    would-be settlers, only 1,200 had survived.

V. Culture Clash in the New World
  • At first English seen potential allies, relations
    grew worse when English began to raid Indian food
  • De La Warr began total war against Indians
  • Early 1600s clashes decimated Indians pushed
    them westward, removed them from ancestral lands
  • European colonization disrupted way of life
  • Disease took out population
  • Trade intensified competition among tribes
  • Tribes along Atlantic seaboard felt effects the
  • When colonists could grow their own food they
    had little use for Indians, Europeans wanted
    their land

VII. Virginia Child of Tobacco
  • Tobacco savior of Virginia Colony
  • cash crop- Jamestown had found its gold.
  • Tobacco created a greed for land- heavily
    depleted the soil and ruined the land.
  • Representative self-government in Virginia, when
    in 1619, settlers created the House of Burgesses,
    a committee to work out local issues. This set
    America on a pathway to self-rule
  • 1619 first Africans sold as slaves

VIII. Maryland Catholic Haven
  • 1634 founded by Lord Baltimore as Catholic refuge
    (from Protestant English)
  • Second plantation colony
  • Huge estates given to Catholic families, poorer,
    Protestants settled there also, created friction
    between two groups
  • Tobacco main crop, labor source was indentured
    servants (slaves came in late 1600s)
  • Religious toleration
  • Permitted freedom of worship to all Christians
  • 1649- Act of Toleration, guaranteed religious
    toleration to all Christians, but decreed the
    death penalty to Jews, atheists, others who
    didnt believe in the divinity of Jesus
  • More Catholics in Maryland than any English
    speaking colony in the New World

IX. The West Indies Way Station to Mainland
  • Decline of Spanish power led British to secure
    Caribbean Islands
  • Sugar main crop
  • Labor intensive, capital intensive
  • Needed to be wealthy to start plantation
  • Caused large numbers of slaves to be imported
  • Slave Codes established
  • 1700 slaves outnumber settlers 41
  • defined the legal status of slaves and the rights
    of the masters. They were typically strict and
    exacted severe punishments for offenders.
  • Sugar plantation system caused islands to depend
    on American colonies for food, basic supplies
  • Smaller farmers left islands and settled in
    southern colonies
  • 1670 group arrives in Carolina, brings slaves
    from Barbados
  • Slave codes adopted in Carolina 1696
  • Slave codes became model for statutes governing
    slavery across colonies

X. Colonizing the Carolinas
  • Developed close economic ties with sugar
  • Many immigrated from region , brought slave trade
    with them
  • Traded Indian slaves throughout colonies
  • Rice major export crop
  • African slaves had knowledge to grow rice
  • Slaves had natural immunity to malaria
  • Ideal laborers for rice plantations
  • By 1710 majority of people in Carolinas were
    African slaves
  • Charles Town major seaport
  • Diverse tolerant community
  • Attracted French Protestant refugees
  • Caused friction with Spain

XI. Emergence of North Carolina
  • Wild northern expanse of Carolina
  • Outcasts and religious dissenters
  • Raised tobacco and other crops on small farms,
    little need for slaves
  • Distinctive traits irreligious, hospitable to
    pirates, spirit of resistance to authority, ,
    democratic, independent minded, least
    aristocratic of 13 colonies
  • 1712 separated from S.C.

XI. Late Coming Georgia The Buffer Colony
  • 1733-Last colony to be planted
  • Savannah major port
  • Established as buffer between English, Spanish
  • Only colony to receive money from English
  • Founded by prison reform group, major leader
    James Oglethorpe
  • Debtors from England sent there
  • Diverse communities
  • Religious toleration for all except Catholics
  • Least populous colony
  • Restrictive slavery laws

Plantation Colonies
  • Agriculture export based economies
  • Slavery in all colonies
  • Small group owned most of the land
  • Rural population made it hard to establish towns,
    schools and churches
  • Religiously tolerant
  • Agriculture spurred expansion and confrontation
    with Native Americans

Settling the Northern Colonies
  • 1619-1700

  • Established different patterns of settlement than
    plantation/southern colonies
  • Different economies than plantation/southern
  • Different set of values than plantation/southern
  • Distinctive regional characteristics began to
    develop during this time

I. Protestant Reformation Produces Puritanism
  • Social unrest and rise of Calvinism led to
    attraction to Puritanism
  • Many from economically depressed areas,
    Puritanism provided comfort
  • King James I harassed Puritan separatists, went
    to Holland

II. Puritans End their Pilgrimage at Plymouth
  • Looked for haven where they could be free to
    worship and live
  • 1620- Negotiated with Virginia Company, missed
    destination landed in New England
  • Leader Myles Standish
  • Signed Mayflower Compact- set up crude
    government, submit to the will of the majority,
    first step toward self government
  • Male settlers met in open discussion town meetings

II. Puritans End their Pilgrimage at Plymouth
  • First winter took heavy toll (44 of 102
    survived), nobody left colony
  • Next year bountiful harvests, Pilgrims saw some
    sign of success
  • Found economic success in fish, fur, lumber
  • William Bradford early leader
  • Colony never important politically or
  • Significant for moral and spiritual qualities,
    established pattern in New England
  • 1691- Merged with Massachusetts Bay Colony

III. Bay Colony Bible Commonwealth
  • Separatist Puritans wanted purified form of
    Christianity, not welcome in England, still
    members of Church of England
  • 1629 more moderate group secured royal charter,
    formed Mass. Bay Company
  • Used charter as a form of constitution, had
    advantage of being out of the reach of royal
  • Well equipped group settles 1630, larger scale
    than previous settlements
  • Continuing turmoil in England (Great Migration),
    more people left (70,000) only about 20,000 came
    Mass. Many others went to Caribbean
  • John Winthrop gov. of Bay colony for 19 years
    (came because called by God)
  • Important industries fishing, shipbuilding
  • Became biggest, most influential colony in New

III. Bay Colony Bible Commonwealth
  • Benefitted from shared sense of purpose, idea of
    covenant with God
  • We shall be a city upon a hill
  • Believed they had a covenant with God, society a
    model to humanity

IV. Building the Bay Colony
  • Common convictions shaped life
  • All free adult males, that were members of
    Puritan Congregations (Congregational Church) had
    right to vote, participate in political life
  • Three-fifths of adult males enjoyed privileges
  • Town governments were more inclusive, all male
    property holders could participate, all business
    decided by majority vote
  • Was not a democracy
  • All people paid taxes
  • Freemen voted for governor and representative
    assembly (General Court)
  • Religious leaders had enormous influence, govt.
    duty to enforce religious rules
  • Congregations had right to hire, fire ministers
  • Clergy could not hold political office
  • Limited endorsement of separation of church and
  • Protestant ethic emerges- serious commitment to
    work, worldly pursuits
  • For Puritans hellfire was very real

V. Trouble in the Bible Commonwealth
  • Challenge to Puritan orthodoxy from Anne
    Hutchinson, holy life no sure way to salvation,
    why bother with following Gods laws
  • 1638- Banished from colony
  • Roger Williams radical separatist, wanted clean
    break from English church
  • Challenged legality of Bay Colony charter, taking
    land from Indians
  • Did not want civil government to regulate
  • 1635- Banished from colony
  • Williams established religious tolerance in Rhode
  • Most liberal of all colonies
  • Opposed special privilege, provided freedom of
  • Settlements consisted of exiles and malcontents
    from Bay Colony
  • Strongly Independent colony

VII. New England Spreads Out
  • 1635 Connecticut River Valley settled, largest
    area of fertile land in New England
  • 1639 Fundamental Orders of Connecticut- like a
    modern constitution, democratic regime controlled
    by substantial citizens
  • Established unified government in CT
  • First written constitution ion America
  • 1662- More religious colony, New Haven merged
    with Connecticut colony
  • 1677 Maine- absorbed by Mass.
  • 1679 New Hampshire became a royal colony
  • New England colonies began westward expansion
    during this period

VIII. Puritans vs. Indians
  • Spread of English led to conflict with Indians
  • Epidemics left them with no position to resist
  • 1637 Pequot War English destroy Pequot (in CT)
    led to forty years of uneasy peace
  • English tried to convert natives, put them in
    praying towns (early reservations?)
  • Only hope for resistance was in unity
  • 1675 King Phillip (Metacom) led series of attacks
    on English
  • 1676 King Phillips War ended, slowed westward
    advance of English settlement, ended Indian
    resistance in New England

IX. Seeds of Colonial Unity and Independence
  • 1643 New England Confederation (two Mass. And two
    CT colonies)
  • Purpose defense, intercolonial problems
  • England did not provide support b/c of Civil
    Wars, let colonies become semiautonomous
    (salutary neglect)
  • Each colony had two votes
  • Exclusive Puritan club
  • Milestone toward colonial unity
  • 1660 Royalists restored (Stuart Restoration) in
    England, Charles II takes more active role
  • 1662-Gives Connecticut a sea to sea grant,
    legitimized squatter settlements
  • 1663 Rhode Island receives new charter
  • 1684 Bay colony charter revoked

X. Andros Promotes First American Revolution
  • 1686 Dominion of New England established
  • Created by royal authority, controlled from
  • Promoted English Navigation Laws, control trade
    within English colonies to benefit England,
    despised by colonists
  • Colonies existed to benefit mother country
  • Policy known as mercantilism, basically political
    control of the economy by the state
  • 1651-1696 British pass series of Navigation Acts
    that spell out goods to be sold, and put the
    British government in charge of trade
  • Unintended consequence smuggling became popular
  • Sir Edmund Andros head of Dominion
  • Restrictions on courts, press, mail, town
    meetings, schools revoked land titles
  • Tax colonies without consent, enforced Navigation

X. Andros Promotes First American Revolution
  • Glorious Revolution ended Dominion
  • 1691 Mass. Made a royal colony
  • Royal gov. appointed
  • ALL qualified males could vote
  • 1681-1691 colonists resist royal authority
  • Monarchs relax control of colonial trade, begin
    period of salutary neglect again
  • Residue more English officials in America,
    prevented rise of local leaders, resentment
    toward England

XI. Old Netherlanders at New Netherland
  • 17th century Dutch emerged as major commercial,
    naval power
  • Challenged England
  • Leading colonial power
  • 1609 Henry Hudson filed Dutch claim to New York
  • 1623-1624 New Netherland planted (Dutch West
    India Company)
  • New Amsterdam established for fur trade, quick
    profit for stockholders, not democratic
  • cosmopolitan population, landed aristocracy
  • Land granted for people who would settle 50
    people on them (patroons)

XII. Friction With English and Swedish Neighbors
  • Dutch directors incompetent
  • Shareholders wanted profit
  • Indians attacked New Amsterdam (Dutch erected
    wall for defense, later became Wall Street)
  • New England hostile to growth, wanted to attack
    Dutch, stopped by Mass. veto
  • Sweden planted colonies on Delaware R.
  • Dutch attacked Swedes, absorbed into Dutch colony

XII. Dutch Residues in New York
  • Regarded by English as intruders, attacked by
    English navy and surrendered
  • Became New York
  • English had strategic harbor in middle of
  • Autocratic (self- governance) spirit remained,
    also influences of architecture and place names

XIII. Penns Holy Experiment in Pennsylvania
  • Quakers, began in England 1600s
  • quaked with religious conviction
  • Refused to support Church of England with taxes,
    serve in military
  • William Penn establishes an asylum in New World
  • 1681 receives land grant from crown
  • Best advertised of colonies
  • Welcomed all types of settlers
  • Wanted forward looking settlers, liberal land
  • Attracted many immigrants

XIV. Quaker Pennsylvania and Its Neighbors
  • Many settlers already there- along banks of
    Delaware River
  • Philadelphia was well planned city
  • Tolerant of Indians
  • Many came from other regions, non-Quaker settlers
    undermined this treatment

XIV. Quaker Pennsylvania and Its Neighbors
  • Government liberal
  • Representative assembly elected by landowners
  • Freedom of worship for all
  • Death penalty only for treason and murder
  • No plans for military defense
  • Dislike of slavery (important by early 1800s)
  • Liberal policies attracted rich mix of ethnic
  • Quakers good businessmen
  • Exporters of grain, other foodstuffs
  • New Jersey started out as small Quaker
  • 1702 New Jersey made a royal colony
  • Delaware had own assembly, under control of
    Pennsylvania until Revolutionary War

Philadelphia Boston Compared
XV. The Middle Way in the Middle Colonies
  • Middle colonies had fertile soil, known as bread
  • Rivers- ease of travel, brought people to
  • Landholdings were intermediate in size
  • Ethnically diverse, religious toleration
  • Economic, social democracy found in middle

America 1720
  • Population growing
  • Permanent settlements established
  • Transportation, communication improving
  • British kept hands off policy
  • Colonists developed own churches, governments,
    networks of trade

American Life in the 17th Century
  • 1607-1692

I. Unhealthy Chesapeake
  • Disease took toll on population
  • Caused region to grow slowly
  • Men outnumbered women 61
  • Hard to form families
  • Eventually resistance to disease, presence of
    more women allowed regions population to grow

II. Tobacco Economy
  • Chesapeake good for growing tobacco
  • exhausted soil, constant movement looking for
    more fertile land
  • production depressed worldwide prices
  • Needed labor- Indians died too quickly, African
    slaves too expensive
  • England had surplus of laborers, turned to
    indentured servitude
  • By 1700 more than 100,000 indentured servants
    came to the region
  • Eventually prime land became scarce, land owners
    did not want to give up land
  • Freed workers had to hire out for low wages

II. Tobacco Economy
  • Headright System
  • Each Virginian got 50 acres for each person whose
    passage they paid.
  • Indenture Contract
  • 5-7 years.
  • Promised freedom dues land, money
  • Forbidden to marry.
  • 1610-1614 only 1 in 10 outlived their
    indentured contracts

III. Frustrated Freeman and Bacons Rebellion
  • Landless, penniless freemen
  • Single, young
  • No women, money
  • Only land in backcountry
  • VA Gov. Berkeley- friendly policies toward
    Indians, monopoly on fur trade
  • Did not retaliate after Indian attack
  • 1676 Nathaniel Bacon and followers, attacked
    Indians , chased gov. from Jamestown and burned
  • Bacon dies from disease, Berkeley captures and
    hangs 20 rebels

Results of Bacons Rebellion
  • Exposed resentments between inland
    frontiersmen/landless former servants against
    gentry on coastal plantations.
  • Socio-economic class differences/clashes between
    rural/urban communities would continue throughout
    American history.
  • Upper class planters searched for laborers less
    likely to rebel- black slaves

IV. Colonial Slavery
  • Majority of African slaves arrive after 1700
  • Wages rise in England, shrink pool of laborers
  • Mid-1680s black slaves outnumber whites in
    plantation colonies
  • Most from west Africa, high death rate on slave
  • Newport, R.I. and Charlestown, S.C. large slave
  • South, British and New England merchants all
    benefitted from trade

IV. Colonial Slavery
  • Some early slaves gained freedom, as numbers
    increased white colonists reacted to perceived
  • 1662 first slave codes in VA (blacks and
    children property, could not learn to read,
  • Slavery transformed from economic to economic and
    racial institution.
  • Early 1600s ? differences between slave and
    servant were unclear

V. Africans in America
  • Deep south slave life severe
  • Rural plantations conditions poor, needed to
    import more slaves for labor
  • Different in Virginia, tobacco farming easier,
    plantations closer together
  • Families grew faster, population grew through
    natural increase
  • Stable, distinctive culture
  • SC- Gullah language
  • Religious traditions
  • Cleared land for development
  • 1712 slave revolt NY
  • 1739 Stono River rebellion SC
  • Slaves more reliable labor source than indentured

VI. Southern Society
  • Social hierarchy develops by late 1600s
  • Plantation owners (first families of Virginia)
  • Small farmers largest group
  • Landless whites, many former indentured servants
  • Oppressed black slaves
  • Few cities, urban professional class slow to
  • Life revolved around plantation
  • Transportation by rivers, poor roads

VII. The New England Family
  • Climate healthier than south
  • Migrated to region as families, population grew
    by natural increase
  • Family stability, intergenerational continuity
    (concept of grandparents)

Women New England and the South
  • South
  • Fragility of family gave women economic
  • Women could own, inherit property
  • New England
  • Authoritarian male father figures controlled each
    household.Recognition of property rights
    undermine marriage
  • Laws established to defend integrity of marriage

VIII. Life in New England Towns
  • Tight knit society based on communities
  • Surrounded by other colonial powers, Puritan
    unity of purpose
  • Society grew in orderly fashion, distribution of
    land by town fathers
  • Towns of more than 50 had to provide elementary
    education in Mass.
  • Democracy in church govt, political govt.

Land Division inSudbury, MA 1639-1656
XI. Half-Way Covenant and the Salem Witch Trails
  • Factors growing population, migration from
    towns, less religious zeal, decline of
  • 1662 Half Way Covenant, weakened distinction
    from elect and others
  • Results wider religious participation, more
    women as church members
  • 1692 Salem, MA women accused of bewitching
    others, 20 put to death
  • Resulted from social prejudices- Puritan ideas
    vs. Rising Yankee commercialism (many accused
    from prosperous part of town), mistrust of
    outsiders (Quakers, Baptists accused by Puritan
    settlers)), cultural mistrust of women (most
    accused were old women)

XII. New England Way of Life
  • Lack of good farmland led to frugality of
  • Region less ethnically mixed
  • Diversified industry, experts in ship building
    and commerce
  • Slavery not profitable
  • Saw duty to improve land, clearing, planting,
  • Religion, soil, climate led to purposefulness,
    self- reliance, resourcefulness

Colonial Society on the Eve of Revolution
  • 1700-1775

I. Conquest by the Cradle
  • 1775- British had 32 colonies in NA
  • 13 original colonies not the wealthiest
  • Average age 16
  • Most population east of Alleghenies, Appalachian
  • By 1775 some had moved west
  • 90 lived in rural areas
  • Shifted balance of power between colonies and

II. Mingling of the Races
  • Mostly English
  • Germans- 6 mostly Protestant, settled mainly in
  • Scots- Irish- 7, most important non-English
  • Became squatters, quarreled with Indians, white
  • 1720s first moved into backcountry in NC, VA,
    MD, PA
  • Were squatters on land
  • Tradition of violence, individualistic
  • 1764- Paxton Boys protest Quaker treatment of
  • Late 1760s Regulator Movement in NC,
    insurrection against eastern dominance of
    colonies affairs
  • 5 other groups- French Huguenots,, Welsh, Dutch,
    Swedes, Jews, Irish, Swiss, Scots-Highlanders
  • African slave trade contributed to population
  • Laid foundations for multi-cultural American
    national identity

III. Structure of Colonial Society
  • America land of opportunity
  • No titled nobility
  • Social structure very fluid
  • By mid 1700s- class differences emerge small
    group of aristocrats had most power
  • Wars in 1700s enriched a few merchants, made
    orphans and widows (mostly in NE)

III. Structure of Colonial Society
  • Southern Social Pyramid
  • Plantation owners at top (planters) had many
  • Small farmers, owned land, few slaves
  • Landless whites, some indentured servants
  • Black slaves at the bottom

IV. Clerks, Physicians, Jurists
  • Ministry most well respected profession
  • Physicians poorly trained, medical knowledge was
    limited and crude
  • Epidemics, plague feared by people
  • Lawyers not respected at first, criminals
    represented themselves in court
  • By 1750 lawyers seen as useful, played an
    important role in American history

V. Workaday America
  • Agriculture leading industry
  • Chesapeake staple crop tobacco
  • Middle colonies- grain
  • Fishing major industry in NE
  • Yankee seamen good sailors, international
  • Triangular trade- goods from American colonies,
    travel to Africa (or Europe) traded for slaves,
    then to West Indies traded for sugar, sold to
    Americas, huge profits made on each leg of trip

V. Workaday America
  • Manufacturing not as important
  • Some small industry- rum, iron making, spinning
    weaving (by women)
  • Lumber most important mfg. activity (for
  • British navy depended on American colonies to
    supply them
  • Americans demand more British products (b/c fast
    growing pop.)
  • British could not buy enough American goods
  • Colonists seek foreign markets
  • Trade imbalance between colonies, British
  • 1733- Parliament passes Molasses Act to stop
    American trade with French West Indies
  • American merchants bribe and smuggle their way
    around law, creates resentment toward British

VI. Transportation and Religion
  • Roads dangerous, poor in 1700s, only connected
    large cities
  • Towns clustered around water sources
  • Taverns, bars along roads places of gossip, news
  • Mail system set up by mid-1700s, unreliable,
    postmen not trustworthy
  • Two established (tax supported) churches by 1775
    Anglican, Congregational
  • Anglican- NY,NC,SC,GA,VA,MD
  • Closely connected with monarchy in England
  • Congregational- NE except in RI.
  • Many ministers dealt with political issues, early
    rumblings of revolution from Cong. ministers

VIII. Great Awakening
  • Religion lost steam in 1700s , New ideas
    challenged old ways (predestination), new ideas
    of free will
  • 1730s and 1740s -Great Awakening
  • Started in Mass.- Jonathan Edwards
  • Deeply emotional sermons, well reasoned, Message
    of human helplessness, divine omnipotence
  • Most famous sermon Sinners in the Hands of an
    Angry God
  • George Whitfield- emotional sermons, style of
    shaking, heaping blame on sinners imitated by
  • Orthodox clergy old lights skeptical of
  • New Light ministers defended role in
    revitalizing religion
  • Split congregations, increased number and
    competitiveness of religions
  • Direct spirituality undermined older clergy
  • New Light universities Princeton, Brown,
    Rutgers, Dartmouth
  • First mass movement of American people
  • Contributed to sense that Americans were common
    people united by shared experience

IX. Schools and Colleges
  • Education more important in New England
  • Towns established primary, secondary schools, had
    to be able to read Bible
  • High number of college graduates
  • South- rural population, could not effectively
    establish schools
  • Education done on plantations by private tutors,
    wealthy sent children abroad for higher education
  • College Education- originally to prepare people
    for ministry
  • New England est. first colleges (Harvard first
  • By 1750s move toward other subjects
  • First nondenominational college University of
    Pennsylvania est. by Ben Franklin

X. Pioneer Presses
  • Many small newspapers, pamphlets, journals around
  • Powerful agents for airing colonial grievances,
    rallying opposition
  • Peter Zenger Case 1734-1735
  • New York printer
  • Accused of seditious libel for writing about
    royal governor
  • Case not about if statements were true or not,
    but fact that they were printed
  • Found not guilty, allowed for freedom of the
    press, open public discussion, eventually led to
    freedom to print responsible criticisms

XI. The Great Game of Politics
  • Variety of governments in 13 colonies
  • By 1775 8 had royal governors appointed by king,
    3 run by proprietors and chose own governors, 2
    had self governing charters
  • All had two house legislatures (upper
    house-appointed, lower house- elected)
  • Had to own property to be a voter
  • Self taxation through representation cherished
  • Some governors corrupt
  • Most had trouble with colonial legislatures, saw
    gov. as British mouthpiece
  • Colonial legislatures held money from royal
  • South- local government on county level (run by
  • New England town meeting, direct democracy
  • Almost half of all males disenfranchised
  • Property requirements to vote, ease of acquiring
    land made this attainable

XI. American Colonies in 1775
  • By 1775 America more democratic than Europe
  • Basically English in language and custom
  • Protestant religion
  • Democratic ideas of tolerance, educational
    advantages, equality of economic opportunity,
    freedom of speech, assembly and representative
    government emerged in this period