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Press in Sub- Continent


Press in Sub- Continent MCOM 309: Media History First newspapers The first printed newspaper of sub-continent appeared in 1780, Hicky Gazette , published by ... – PowerPoint PPT presentation

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Title: Press in Sub- Continent

Press in Sub- Continent
  • MCOM 309 Media History

First newspapers
  • The first printed newspaper of sub-continent
    appeared in 1780, Hicky Gazette, published by
    James August Hicky.
  • November 1781, a newspaper with name of India
    Gazette was introduced which was pro Government
    and against Hickey
  • With this haphazard changing scenario, many new
    newspapers came on the scene. Some supported the
    government and others strived for freedom

Indian World
  • William Duane was one of those editors who
    struggled hard for freedom of press.
  • He was a fanatical editor of Bengal Journal, but
    the government violently removed him with force.
  • He started his own newspaper, Indian World
    which was more authentic and openly critical to
    East India Company.
  • The British released two consecutive newspapers
    to combat it, but failed.

Indian World
  • Circulation of Indian World increased more than
  • It was alarming for the Company that this Indian
    paper could get to England and may defame the
    Company in England.
  • William Duane once criticized on judiciary
    therefore, he was exiled and his investment of
    thirty thousand was seized by force.
  • He was a valiant journalist. He went to America
    through England and continued his practice.

Progress Development
  • Within twenty years of the installation of
    printing press in sub-continent, dozens of
    (English language) newspapers and periodicals
    appeared in the cities of Calcutta, Bombay and
  • Readership was limited to British because of
  • These newspapers in general included poetry,
    tales, and short compositions, translated Persian
    stories and sometime even the translated odes of
    native-poets Sadi and Hafiz.
  • They brought to light the culture, qualities and
    mischief of the British residents of that time.

Newspapers of Lahore
  • First Urdu newspaper of Lahore was Koh-e-Noor,
    started in 1850.
  • Continued for more than half a century.
  • Munshi Harsukh Raey was its founder who was
    specially called by the British after invasion in
  • He was financially supported by British in
    establishing a printing press and a newspaper.
  • It was a pro Government newspaper, but keeping
    the idea of freedom under the umbrella of force,
    it sometime criticized the government also.

Newspapers of Lahore
  • It provided not only news and views, but enormous
    educative material for educators.
  • Koh-e-Noor had largest circulation in all the
    Urdu papers of the sub-continent.
  • In fifty years of its existence, a various
    editors worked for its betterment.
  • The second chief newspaper of Lahore was
    Darya-e-Noor which could not continue because
    it openly condemned the British rule. It had a
    very short but lively life.

Characteristic of Urdu Journalism
  • In early stages of journalism, the readership of
    Urdu newspapers was not very remarkable.
  • Statistical information tells that Koh-e-Noor had
    highest circulation with three hundred and fifty
    copies a day.
  • Syed-ul-Akhbar had the lowest circulation of only
    twenty seven copies.
  • Majority of the newspapers produced nearly fifty
    copies per day.
  • Some papers even sold two hundred copies because
    the British used to take fifty to hundred copies
    for officials and schools on permanent basis.

Characteristic of Urdu Journalism
  • The reason behind low readership was that most
    newspapers at that time cost fifty cents (8
    aaney) per copy. We can safely assume that only
    well-off people were able to afford.
  • Secondly, literacy rate was considerably low.
  • At least forty customers were required to make
    self-govern (independent) a weekly.
  • Regional, national and international news were
  • News of educational reforms had exceptional
    emphasis in Urdu newspapers.

Characteristic of Urdu Journalism
  • Sources of news were other hand-written news
    sheets of emperors stringers, English newspapers
    and contemporary Urdu and Persian newspapers.
  • Editorials were not included.
  • Notes or comments were given at the end of
  • Editors suggestions and interpretations were
    also put in under separate column.
  • Newspapers were not very goof-looking or
  • Pictures were not used, however, a little bit
    hand-made pictures were printed sometimes.

Characteristic of Urdu Journalism
  • Newspapers had no well arrange material in order
    or sequence.
  • Koh-e-Noor was the only Urdu newspaper, in which
    material was arranged in a definite series.
  • One most enhanced quality of Koh-e-Noor was
    printing of annual Index, through which concerned
    news items could be easily searched out.
  • Not all Urdu newspapers criticized the