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Environmental Health

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Title: PowerPoint Presentation Author: Michelle Smith Last modified by: Michelle Smith Created Date: 8/11/2013 5:27:50 AM Document presentation format – PowerPoint PPT presentation

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Title: Environmental Health


1
Environmental Health
2
Congestion Charging Program in London
1952- air pollution killed 4,000
Green Bld.
3
  • Reduced traffic
  • Traffic delays cut by 25
  • Travel speed increased by 30
  • Bus use increase by 40

4
The atmosphere
  • Atmosphere the thin layer of gases that
    surrounds Earth
  • Provides us with oxygen
  • Absorbs solar radiation and moderates climate
  • Burns up incoming meteors
  • Transports and recycles water and nutrients
  • 78 nitrogen gas, 21 oxygen gas, 1 other gases
  • Human activity is changing the amounts of some
    gases.
  • Carbon dioxide, methane, ozone
  • The atmosphere has several layers.

5
The first two layers of the atmosphere
  • Troposphere bottommost layer 11 km (7 mi) high
  • Air for breathing, weather
  • Temperature declines with altitude
  • Stratosphere 11-50 km (7-31 mi) above sea level
  • Drier and less dense, with little vertical mixing
  • Temperature warms with altitude
  • Contains UV radiation-blocking ozone, 17-30 km
    (10-19 mi) above sea level

6
The atmospheres four layers
7
The EPA sets standards
  • Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) sets
    nationwide standards for pollutant emissions.
  • States monitor air quality and develop,
    implement, and enforce regulations.
  • If a states plans are not adequate, the EPA can
    take over enforcement.
  • The EPA and states focus on six criteria
    pollutants.
  • Criteria pollutants pollutants judged to pose
    great threats to human health

8
Three criteria pollutants
  • Carbon monoxide (CO)
  • Sulfur dioxide (SO2 )
  • Nitrogen dioxide (NO2 )

9
Criteria pollutants tropospheric ozone
  • Tropospheric ozone (O3) a colorless gas with a
    strong odor
  • A secondary pollutant created from interactions
    of sunlight, heat, nitrogen oxides, and volatile
    carbons
  • A major component of smog
  • Poses a health risk as a result of its
    instability
  • Most frequently exceeds the EPA standard

10
Criteria pollutants particulate matter and lead
Mexico City 1986
Mexico City 2009
11
Volatile organic compounds (VOCs)
Carbon-containing chemicals emitted by vehicle
engines and industrial processes that can react
to produce ozone
12
Volatile organic compounds (VOCs)
13
Air pollution has decreased since 1970
14
Air pollution has decreased since 1970
15
Reasons for the decline in U.S. pollution
  • Cleaner burning fuels
  • Scrubbers
  • Phase out lead gas

16
Burning fossil fuels produces industrial smog
Coal factories in China
17
Chemical and biological environmental hazards
  • Chemical hazards synthetic chemicals such as
    pesticides, disinfectants, pharmaceuticals
  • Harmful natural chemicals also exist.

18
Common Hazardous Waste Products
  • Bug spray
  • Floor care products
  • Furniture polish
  • Metal polish with solvent
  • Swimming pool acid
  • Glue (solvent based)
  • Paint, oil based
  • Paint, auto
  • Paint, model
  • Paint thinner
  • Fertilizer
  • Fungicide
  • Herbicide (weed killer)
  • Insecticide
  • Rat poison
  • Artists paints, mediums
  • Ammunition
  • Dry cleaning solvents
  • Lighter fluid
  • Mercury batteries
  • Moth-balls
  • Old fire alarms
  • Photographic chemicals (unmixed)
  • Antifreeze
  • Automatic transmission fluid
  • Battery acid (or batteries)
  • Brake fluid
  • Car wax with solvent
  • Diesel fuel
  • Gasoline
  • Kerosene
  • Motor oil

19
Kapaa Quarry
20
Hawaii Clean Energy Initiative
  • Must supply 70 clean energy by 2030.
  • 40 from renewable
  • 30 from efficiency

Landfill gas (Kapaa)
Waste to energy
21
Harmful Natural Chemicals
ciguatera
HAB
botulism
22
Medical Waste
Waimanalo Gulch Landfill overflowed into
Koolina Jan 2011
23
Harmful Natural Chemicals
metals (Al, Mg, Na, K, Cu, Zn, Cd, HG, Pb) gases
H2O, H2S, HCl, HBr, SO4, NO2, CO2
VOG
24
Cultural environmental hazards
  • Biological hazards result from ecological
    interactions
  • Viruses, bacteria, and other pathogens
  • Infectious (communicable, or transmissible)
    disease other species parasitize humans,
    fulfilling their ecological roles

E. coli
HIV
25
Dengue fever Apr 2011 4 confirmed cases
Leptospirosis
Avian flu (2013)
WCC
26
Point and non-point source water pollution
Turtle Bay
6/13/06 Alawai 48 million gallons raw sewage
Maui
Ala wai
27
Cultural environmental hazards
  • Cultural (lifestyle) hazards result from the
    place we live, our socioeconomic status, our
    occupation, our behavioral choices
  • Smoking, drug use, diet and nutrition, crime,
    mode of transportation

28
Tobacco
  • There are over 4,000 chemicals found in tobacco
    smoke and over 400 toxins.
  • There are over 60 carcinogens proven to cause
    cancer in humans.
  • Causes 1 in 5 deaths in U.S.
  • Leading cause of cancer deaths

29
Hawaii Stats
of Adults who smoke by race/ethnicity 2010
HI US
White 12.7 17.4
Black NSD 19.1
Hispanic NSD 14.1
Asian/Pacific Islander 10.2 8.1
American Indian/Native Alaskan NSD 32.8
Other 21.1 21.2
  • Smoking
  • Obesity (2010)
  • - 22.7 HI (5th lowest)
  • Diabetes
  • - 28.5 million U.S. (8.7)
  • - 100,000 in HI (8.3)

30
Disease is a major focus of environmental health
  • Despite our technology, disease kills most of us.
  • Disease has a genetic and environmental basis.
  • Cancer, heart disease, respiratory disorders
  • Malnutrition, poverty, and poor hygiene can
    foster illnesses.

31
Infectious diseases kill millions
  • Infectious diseases kill 15 million people per
    year.
  • Half of all deaths in developing countries
  • Developed countries have better hygiene, access
    to medicine, and money.
  • Vector an organism that transfers pathogens to a
    host

32
Many diseases are increasing
  • Tuberculosis, acquired immunodeficiency syndrome
    (AIDS), and the West Nile virus are increasing.
  • Our mobility spreads diseases.
  • Some diseases are evolving resistance to
    antibiotics.
  • Climate change will expand the range of diseases.
  • Habitat alteration affects the abundance,
    distribution, and movement of disease vectors.

33
Environmental health hazards exist indoors
  • Radon a highly toxic, colorless, undetectable
    radioactive gas
  • Builds up in basements
  • Can cause lung cancer
  • Lead poisoning from lead pipes, paint
  • Damages organs, learning problems, behavior
    abnormalities, death
  • Asbestos insulates against heat, cold, sounds,
    and fire
  • Asbestosis scarred lungs dont function
  • Also causes a type of lung cancer

Not a problem in Hawaii
problem in Hawaii (lt1978)
Asbestos removal can also be dangerous
Renovation issues
34
A recently recognized hazard
  • Polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs) has
    fire-retardant properties
  • Used in computers, televisions, plastics, and
    furniture
  • Persist and accumulate in living tissue
  • Affect thyroid hormones, may cause cancer, and
    affect brain and nervous system development
  • The European Union banned them in 2003.
  • The U.S. has not addressed this issue.

35
Types of toxicants based on health effects
  • Carcinogens cause cancer
  • Mutagens cause DNA mutations
  • Can lead to severe problems, including cancer
  • Teratogens cause birth defects
  • Neurotoxins assault the nervous system
  • Heavy metals, pesticides, chemical weapons
  • Allergens overactivate the immune system
  • Endocrine disruptors interfere with the
    endocrine (hormone) system

36
Central Case Lake Apopka alligators
  • In 1985, alligators in Lake Apopka, Florida, had
    bizarre reproductive problems
  • Non-viable eggs, depressed or elevated hormone
    levels
  • The lake had high levels of agricultural
    chemicals and fertilizers that were disrupting
    the endocrine systems of alligators during
    development in the egg.
  • Endocrine disruptors compounds that mimic
    hormones and interfere with the functioning of
    animals endocrine (hormone) systems

37
Endocrine disruption may be widespread
  • Theo Colburn wrote Our Stolen Future in 1996.
  • Synthetic chemicals may be altering hormones

38
Evidence for hormone disruption
  • Frogs also have gonadal abnormalities.
  • Male frogs exposed to very low levels of atrazine
    became feminized.
  • Levels were below EPA standards for human health.
  • The shocking drop in mens sperm counts may be
    due to endocrine disruptors.

39
Endocrine disruption research is controversial
  • Scientific uncertainty is inherent in any young
    field.
  • Negative findings pose economic threats to
    chemical manufacturers.
  • Bisphenol-A, used in plastics, causes birth
    defects, but the plastics industry protests that
    the chemical is safe.
  • Pthalates affect male fetuses but are still used
    in toys and makeup in the U.S.

40
Routes of chemical transport
41
Routes of chemical transport Air Ocean
42
Pesticides, Herbicides other organochlorines
  • PCBs
  • DDT

Bioaccumulation biomagnification
43
Common pesticides
44
Toxic chemicals
Polychloronated biphenyls (PCBs)
Concentrations of polychlorinated biphenyls
(PCB's) in killer whales and humans.
45
Toxicants can accumulate and biomagnify
Biomagnification
46
Toxic Metals
Heavy metals resist biodegredation Natural
occurrence- volcanoes
  • Mercury (Hg)
  • Copper (Cu)
  • Lead (Pb)
  • Cadmium (Cd)

47
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48
Heavy Metals
  • Minamata Disease (1953-1960) Japan
  • Industrial pollution from plastic plant dumped
    mercuric chloride into bay
  • Ingestion of Hg tainted shellfish ? 43 dead and
    700 permanently disabled

49
Toxic chemicals
  • Cu
  • Tributyl tin (antifouling paint for boats)
  • Banned in U.S. 1980s
  • Acts as an immunosuppressor
  • Accumulations unusually high in small whales
  • May be associated with strandings

50
Toxic chemicals
  • Pb
  • Leaded gasoline invented 1920s
  • Enters water from automobile exhaust, runoff and
    atmospheric fallout of industrial waste and
    landfills, mines, dumps
  • Leaded gas banned in US in 1980s has reduced
    pollution in ocean

Bioaccumulation ? biomagnification
51
Some toxicants persist
  • Toxins can degrade quickly and become harmless.
  • Or they may remain unaltered and persist for
    decades.
  • Rates of degradation depend on temperature,
    moisture, and sun exposure.
  • Persistent chemicals have the greatest potential
    for harm.
  • Breakdown products toxicants degrade into
    simpler products
  • May be more or less harmful than the original
    substance
  • i.e., DDT degrades into DDE, which is also highly
    persistent and toxic

52
Not all toxicants are synthetic
  • Chemical toxicants also exist naturally and in
    our food.
  • Dont assume natural chemicals are all healthy
    and synthetic ones are all harmful.
  • Scientists are debating just how much risk
    natural toxicants pose.
  • Plants produce toxins to ward off herbivores.
  • When we consume meat, we take in toxins the
    animals have ingested.
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