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F.L. Lewis, Assoc. Director for Research

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Title: F.L. Lewis, Assoc. Director for Research


1
Sponsored by IEEE Singapore SMC, RA, and Control
Chapters
Organized and invited by Professor Sam Ge, NUS
Wireless Sensor Networks for Monitoring
Machinery, Human Biofunctions, and BCW Agents
F.L. Lewis, Assoc. Director for
Research Moncrief-ODonnell Endowed Chair Head,
Controls, Sensors, MEMS Group
Automation Robotics Research Institute
(ARRI) The University of Texas at Arlington
2
F.L. Lewis, Assoc. Director for
Research Moncrief-ODonnell Endowed Chair Head,
Controls, Sensors, MEMS Group
Automation Robotics Research Institute
(ARRI) The University of Texas at Arlington
Wireless Sensor Networks
http//ARRI.uta.edu/acs
3
Wireless MEMS Sensor Networks
Mems_at_uta.edu http//mems.uta.edu
New Initiative at ARRI 180K in ARO/ UTA/ Texas
funding to set up ARRI MEMS lab 240K in MEMS
Network related Grants from NSF and ARO
CC User Interface for wireless networks-
Contact Frank Lewis Lewis_at_uta.edu http//arri.uta.
edu/acs
4
Wireless Sensor Networks
Vehicle Monitoring
Animal Monitoring
Medical Monitoring
Machine Monitoring
Wireless Data Collection Networks
Wireless Sensor
Wireless Sensor
BSC (Base Station Controller, Preprocessing)
BST
Ship Monitoring
Management Center (Database large storage,
analysis)
Data Acquisition Network
Data Distribution Network
Roving Human monitor
transmitter
Online monitoring
Printer
Server
Wireland (Ethernet WLAN, Optical)
Wireless (Wi-Fi 802.11 2.4GHz BlueTooth Cellular
Network, - CDMA, GSM)
PDA
Any where, any time to access
Cellular Phone
Notebook
PC
5
Paul Baran, Rand Corp.
Network of Networks
6
Principal Problems in Army Communications
Paul Baran, Rand Corp.
7
Wireless CBM Research Areas
  • COTS Wireless Sensors
  • Berkeley Crossbow
  • Microstrain
  • Wireless Networks
  • Cellular network
  • WLAN
  • Other short range RF networks
  • Multiple linked networks
  • Sensor Technology
  • MEMS ?
  • Node Technology
  • DSP
  • Power
  • RF link
  • Remote Access Terminals
  • Wireless PDA, Wireless Laptop
  • Cellphone, Internet
  • Data management
  • Sensor data storage
  • DSP
  • Data Access
  • Fault Diagnostic Decision-Making
  • Alarming

8
Which Technology?
  • Cellular Technologies
  • 2G Systems 
  • 2.5G Systems 
  • 3G Systems
  • Wireless LAN Technology
  • 2.4 GHz Wireless LAN 
  • 5 GHz Wireless LAN
  • Ad-hoc Mode
  • Infrastructure Mode
  • Other Short-range Technologies
  • Home RF 
  • Bluetooth
  • IrDA 
  • IEEE 802.11
  • Long Range Technologies
  • Cordless Telephony (cellphone)
  • Internet

IEEE 1451 Standard for Smart Sensor Networks
9
Which Hardware?
Berkeley Crossbow Sensor
Berkeley Crossbow Sensor
Crossbow transceiver
Crossbow transceiver
Crossbow Berkeley Motes
10
Microstrain Wireless Sensors
Microstrain G-Sensor
Microstrain G-Sensor
Microstrain V-Link Transceiver
Microstrain Transceiver Connect to PC
Microstrain Transceiver Connect to PC
Microstrain V-Link Transceiver
http//www.microstrain.com/index.cfm
RFID node
11
http//www.pctechguide.com/29network.htm
Network Topology
FDDI- Fibre Distributed Data Interface specifies
a 100 Mbit/s token-passing, dual-ring LAN using
fibre-optic cable.
Self Healing Net Dual Ring
12
Network Topology
Interconnections Between Different Network Types
Bus Network with Backbone
Self-healing Ring Topology Two rings
Token Ring Network Topology
Star Network Topology
http//www.fiber-optics.info/articles/its-networks
.htm
13
Moshe Zalcberg and Benny Matityaho, Tel Aviv
University http//www2.rad.com/networks/1994/netwo
rks/preface.htm
Ethernet LAN
FDDI Fiber Distributed Data Interface 100 Mbps
14
Paul Baran, Rand Corp.
The Spider Web Net
15
Paul Baran, Rand Corp.
Network Topology
Neighbor Connectivity and Redundancy
Centralized, Decentralized, Distributed
16
Paul Baran, Rand Corp.
Connectivity and Number of Links
Number of links increases exponentially
17
Mesh Networks
Basic 4-link ring element
Two ways to interconnect two rings
New Topology Alternating 1-way streets
Standard Manhattan
Edge Binding- J.W. Smith, Rand Corp. In any
network, much of the routing power of peripheral
stations is wasted simply because peripheral
links are unused. Thus, messages tend to reflect
off the boundary into the interior or to move
parallel to the periphery.
Two 2-D mesh networks
18
The Problem of Complexity
Communication Protocols in a network must be
restricted and organized to avoid Complexity
problems
Think of the military chain of command
e.g. in Manufacturing The general job shop
allows part flows between all machines The
Flow Line allows part flows only along specific
Paths
We have shown that the job shop is
NP-complete but the reentrant flow line is of
polynomial complexity
19
Hierarchical Networks
Disable some links
Dual-Ring Hierarchical Structure for level 2
Designation of Primary Communication Ring
4 x 4 Mesh Net
Hierarchical Clustering
Same structure-- Consistent Hierarchy
Hierarchical Clustering of 8x8 mesh showing all
four communication rings
Hierarchical Clustering of 8x8 mesh showing level
3 primary communication ring
20
Disable some links to reduce complexity
The disabled links can be used as backups in case
of failures
Note- this dual ring structure Is a self-healing
ring
21
http//www.pctechguide.com/29network.htm
Ethernet Ethernet was developed in the mid 1970's
by the Xerox Corporation, and in 1979 Digital
Equipment Corporation DEC) and Intel joined
forces with Xerox to standardise the system.
The Institute of Electrical and Electronic
Engineers (IEEE) released the official Ethernet
standard in 1983 called the IEEE 802.3 after the
name of the working group responsible for its
development, and in 1985 version 2 (IEEE 802.3a)
was released. This second version is commonly
known as "Thin Ethernet" or 10Base2, in this case
the maximum length is 185m even though the "2"
suggest that it should be 200m.
Fast Ethernet Fast Ethernet was officially
adopted in the summer of 1995, two years after a
group of leading network companies had formed the
Fast Ethernet Alliance to develop the standard.
Operating at ten times the speed of regular
10Base-T Ethernet, Fast Ethernet - also known as
100BaseT - retains the same CSMA/CD protocol and
Category 5 cabling support as its predecessor
higher bandwidth and introduces new features such
as full-duplex operation and auto-negotiation.
22
http//www.pctechguide.com/29network.htm
Token Ring In 1984, IBM introduced the 4 Mbit/s
Token Ring network. Instead of the normal plug
and socket arrangement of male and female
gendered connectors, the IBM data connector (IDC)
was a sort of hermaphrodite, designed to mate
with itself. Although the IBM Cabling System is
to this day regarded as a very high quality and
robust data communication media, its large size
and cost - coupled with the fact that with only 4
cores it was less versatile than 8-core UTP - saw
Token Ring continue fall behind Ethernet in the
popularity stakes. It remains IBM's primary LAN
technology however and the compatible and almost
identical IEEE 802.5 specification continues to
shadow IBM's Token Ring development.
FDDI Developed by the American National Standards
Institute (ANSI) standards committee in the
mid-1980s - at a time when high-speed engineering
workstations were beginning to tax the bandwidth
of existing LANs based on Ethernet and Token Ring
- the Fibre Distributed Data Interface (FDDI)
specifies a 100 Mbit/s token-passing, dual-ring
LAN using fibre-optic cable.
23
http//www.pctechguide.com/29network.htm
Gigabit Ethernet The next step in Ethernet's
evolution was driven by the Gigabit Ethernet
Alliance, formed in 1996. The ratification of
associated Gigabit Ethernet standards was
completed in the summer of 1999, specifying a
physical layer that uses a mixture of proven
technologies from the original Ethernet
Specification and the ANSI X3T11 Fibre Channel
Specification
Use of the same variable-length (64- to 1514-byte
packets) IEEE 802.3 frame format found in
Ethernet and Fast Ethernet is key to the ease
with which existing lower-speed Ethernet devices
can be connected to Gigabit Ethernet devices,
using LAN switches or routers to adapt one
physical line speed to the other.
24
Client-Server Client-server networking
architectures became popular in the late 1980s
and early 1990s as many applications were
migrated from centralised minicomputers and
mainframes to networks of personal computers. The
design of applications for a distributed
computing environment required that they
effectively be divided into two parts client
(front end) and server (back end). The network
architecture on which they were implemented
mirrored this client-server model, with a user's
PC (the client) typically acting as the
requesting machine and a more powerful server
machine - to which it was connected via either a
LAN or a WAN - acting as the supplying machine.
25
Peer-to-peer In a Peer-to-peer networking
architecture each computer (workstation) has
equivalent capabilities and responsibilities.
There is no server, and computers simply connect
with each other in a workgroup to share files,
printers, and Internet access. It is practical
for workgroups of a dozen or less computers,
making it common in many SOHO environments, where
each PC acts as an independent workstation that
stores data on its own hard drive but which can
share it with all other PCs on the network.
P2P computing By early 2000 a revolution was
underway in an entirely new form of peer-to-peer
computing. Sparked by the phenomenal success of a
number of highly publicised applications, "P2P
computing" - as it is commonly referred to -
heralded a new computing model for the Internet
age and had achieved considerable traction with
mainstream computer users and members of the PC
industry in a very short space of time. The
Napster MP3 music file sharing application went
live in September 1999, and attracted more than
20 million users by mid-2000
26
IEEE 802.11 The Institute of Electrical and
Electronics Engineers (IEEE) ratified the
original 802.11 specification in 1997 as the
standard for WLANs. That version of 802.11
provided for 1 Mbit/s and 2 Mbit/s data rates and
a set of fundamental signalling methods and other
services. The data rates supported by the
original 802.11 standard were too slow to support
most general business requirements with and did
little to encourage the adoption of WLANs.
Recognising the critical need to support higher
data-transmission rates, the autumn of 1999 saw
the IEEE ratify the 802.11b standard (also known
as 802.11 High Rate) for transmissions of up to
11 Mbit/s.
27
http//www.erg.abdn.ac.uk/users/gorry/course/intro
-pages/osi-example.html
OSI- Open Systems Interconnection
The OSI reference model specifies standards for
describing "Open Systems Interconnection" with
the term 'open' chosen to emphasise the fact that
by using these international standards, a system
may be defined which is open to all other systems
obeying the same standards throughout the world.
The definition of a common technical language has
been a major catalyst to the standardisation of
communications protocols and the functions of a
protocol layer.
28
http//www.cs.cf.ac.uk/User/O.F.Rana/data-comms/co
mms-lec1.pdf
29
http//ieee1451.nist.gov/intro.htm
IEEE 1451 Standard for Smart Sensor Networks
Problem Transducers, defined here as sensors or
actuators, serve a wide variety of industry's
needs- manufacturing, industrial control,
automotive, aerospace, building, and biomedicine
are but a few. Many sensor control networks or
fieldbus implementations are currently
available. A problem for transducer
manufacturers is the large number of networks on
the market today. Currently, it is too costly for
transducer manufacturers to make unique smart
transducers for each network on the market.
Therefore a universally accepted transducer
interface standard, the IEEE P1451 standard, is
proposed to be developed to address these issues.
Objective of IEEE 1451 The objective of this
project is to develop a smart transducer
interface standard IEEE 1451. This standard is to
make it easier for transducer manufacturers to
develop smart devices and to interface those
devices to networks, systems, and instruments by
incorporating existing and emerging sensor- and
networking technologies.
30
http//ieee1451.nist.gov/intro.htm
  • History of IEEE-1451
  • In September 1993, the National Institute of
    Standards and Technology (NIST) and the Institute
    of Electrical and Electronics Engineers (IEEE)'s
    Technical Committee on Sensor Technology of the
    Instrumentation and Measurement Society
    co-sponsored a meeting to discuss smart sensor
    communication interfaces and the possibility of
    creating a standard interface. The response was
    to establish a common communication interface for
    smart transducers. Four technical working groups
    have been formed to address different aspects of
    the interface standard.
  • P1451.1 working group aims at defining a common
    object model for smart transducers along with
    interface specifications for the components of
    the model.
  • P1451.2 working group aims at defining a smart
    transducer interface module (STIM), a transducer
    electronic data sheet (TEDS), and a digital
    interface to access the data.
  • P1451.3 working group aims at defining a
    digital communication interface for distributed
    multidrop systems.
  • P1451.4 working group aims at defining a
    mixed-mode communication protocol for smart
    transducers.
  • The working groups created the concept of smart
    sensors to control networks interoperability and
    to ease the connectivity of sensors and actuators
    into a device or field network.

31
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32
Hardware interface
Network Independent
33
Conway Heffernan, Univ. Limerick http//wwww.ul.
ie/pei
IEEE 1451 Standard for Smart Sensor Networks
34
Node Relative Positioning Localization
Ad hoc network- scattered nodes
Nodes must self organize
Calibrated network- Each node knows its
relative position
TDMA frame for both communication protocols and
relative positioning
35
Integrating new nodes into relative positioning
grid
One can write the relative location in frame O of
the new point 3 in two ways. The triangle shown
in the figure is a closed kinematic chain of the
sort studied in Liu and Lewis 1993, 1994. The
solution is obtained by requiring that the two
maps T13 and T123 be exact at point 3.
Kinematics transformation
Recursive closed-kinematic chain procedure for
integrating new nodes
36
UWB
Ultra Wideband Sensor Web
where w(t) is the basic pulse of duration approx.
1ns, often a wavelet or a Gaussian monocycle, and
Tf is the frame or pulse repetition time. In a
multi-node environment, catastrophic collisions
are avoided by using a pseudorandom sequence cj
to shift pulses within the frame to different
compartments, and the compartment size is Tc sec.
Data is transmitted using digital pulse position
modulation (PPM), where if the data bit is 0 the
pulse is not shifted, and if the data bit is 1
the pulse is shifted by d. The same data bit is
transmitted Ns times, allowing for very reliable
communications with low probability of error.
Precise time of flight measurement is possible.
  • Use UWB for all three
  • Communications
  • Node Relative positioning
  • Target localization

37
Multi-Static Radar Target Localization
Uses time of flight
Intersection of two ellipses with semimajor and
semiminor axes
Simultaneous solution of two quadratic equations,
one for each ellipse
gives position of target.
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