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FROM SCIENTIFIC COMMUNICATION TO PUBLIC KNOWLEDGE: THE SCIENTIFIC ARTICLE WEB PUBLISHED AS A KNOWLEDGE BASE ICCC 9th International Conference on electronic publishing

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Title: FROM SCIENTIFIC COMMUNICATION TO PUBLIC KNOWLEDGE: THE SCIENTIFIC ARTICLE WEB PUBLISHED AS A KNOWLEDGE BASE ICCC 9th International Conference on electronic publishing


1
FROM SCIENTIFIC COMMUNICATION TO PUBLIC
KNOWLEDGE THE SCIENTIFIC ARTICLE WEB PUBLISHED
AS A KNOWLEDGE BASEICCC 9th International
Conference on electronic publishing ElPub
2005Katholieke Universiteit Leuven, Belgium
  • Carlos H. Marcondes
  • marcon_at_vm.uff.br 
  • Information Science Department, Information
    Science Post-graduate Program, Universidade
    Federal Fluminense, Brazil

Research funded by CNPq the Brazilian Council
for the Development of Science and Technology
2
PROBLEM
  • The role of scientific journals in scientific
    communication
  • The potentialities of IT has been applied to
    provide access to full-text documents
  • The scientific communication process depends on
    text production, reading, interpretation and
    citation
  • Web-published scientific journals are still based
    on the paper print publishing model

3
QUESTIONS
  • Can an author publish a scientific article both
    as a text and also in a machine readable format
    containing the new knowledge addressed by the
    article?
  • How would the structure of the new knowledge
    contained in a scientific article be?
  • What would be the consequences of this
    publication model to scientific communication and
    to the development of Science?

4
ASSUMPTIONS
  • Web publishing scientific articles can be new a
    cognitive tool
  • Growing availability of scientific Web ontologies
  • Science has a formal method of reasoning the
    Scientific Method
  • Scientific articles have a highly structured text
    format
  • The Semantic Web Initiative proposes machine
    readable documents that can be processed by
    software agents

5
THE HYPOTHESIS
  • The text of observational and experimental
    articles is usually (but not necessarily) divided
    into sections with the headings Introduction,
    Methods, Results, and Discussion. This so-called
    IMRAD structure is not simply an arbitrary
    publication format, but rather a direct
    reflection of the process of scientific
    discovery (http//www.icmje.org)
  • Not only does the scientific article contain a
    formal text structure (named here assurface
    structure), but it also contains a deep
    structure, composed of the Scientific
    Methodology elements, such as facts, statement of
    the problem, methodology, assumptions, contextual
    conditions, hypotheses, results, conclusions and
    citations

6
OBJECTIVE
  • To propose a model of the deep structure of
    scientific articles
  • This model will be the base to enhance authoring,
    validation and retrieval tools

7
PROPOSED MODEL context / applications
A IMPOR Eas kjjsd dj sdk skdkl skls a fd g gfg
ggfgg g
Researcher/author
A IMPOR Eas kjjsd dj sdk skdkl skls a fd g gfg
ggfgg g
A IMPOR Eas kjjsd dj sdk skdkl skls a fd g gfg
ggfgg g
Authoring tool
Other scientific articles Web published
Semantic citations
A IMPOR Eas kjjsd dj sdk skdkl skls a fd g gfg
ggfgg g
Semantic relations
scientific article Web published - text
deep structure new knowledge
Public knowledge bae/Web (ex UMLS)
Reading, retrieval, validating, annotating tools
Researcher/referee/ reader
8
Hypothetic-Deductive Method, based on Lakatos
Marconi (2004, p.75).
Previous knowledge Existing Theories
1
Gaps, contradictions, problems, new phenomena
Assumptions, solutions or hypotheses
Deductions, consequences
Testing techniques
Tests
2
Analysis of results
Evaluation of the hypotheses
Refusal
Ratification
New theory
New gaps, contradictions, problems
9
Hypothetic-Deductive Method, based on Lakatos
Marconi, 2004, p.75.
  • step 1- facts or, more precisely, problematic
    facts
  • step 2- formalization of a research problem or
    question
  • step 3 - development of a hypothesis, which is an
    (temporary) answer to the research problem
  • step 4- empirical testing of the hypothesis
  • step 5 - analysis of the test results
  • step 6 - conclusion hypothesis ratification or
    refusal

10
ltscientific_article_deep_structuregt ltfactgt...
lt/factgt ...
(new phenomena) ltproblemgt ... lt/problemgt
(question)
ltmethodgt ltmethodologygt ... lt/methodologygt
lt/methodgt ltassumptiongt ...
lt/assumptiongt lthypothesesgt
(provisory
answer) ltcontextual_conditiongt ... lt/
contextual_condition gt ... ltcausegt
... ltlink to knowledge basegt ... ltlink to
knowledge basegt lt/causegt ... ltconsequencegt
... ltlink to knowledge basegt ... ltlink to
knowledge basegt lt/consequencegt ...
lt/hypothesesgt ltresultgt ... lt/resultgt
... (data resulting of controlled
experiences or empirically collected also a
link to datasets of results)
ltconclusiongt ... (hypotheses
ratification or refusal) ltlink to knowledge
basegt ... ltlink to knowledge basegt
lt/conclusiongt ... ltcitationgt ltbibliographic_r
eferencegt ... lt/bibliographic_referencegt
ltlink to bibliographic referencegt ...
lt/link to bibliographic referencegt
ltreason_to_citegt ... lt/reason_to_citegt
lt/citationgt ... lt/scientific_article_
deep_structuregt
11
RESEARCH DEVELOPMENT AGENDA
  • Empirical research
  • analyze scientific articles in Health Science to
    validate the model
  • Theoretical research
  • establish the relations between the different
    elements of the articles deep structure
  • enhance the representation of the articles deep
    structure represent it as an ontology - RDF?,
    DAMLOIL?

12
REMAINING QUESTIONS
  • Is the deep structure common to all scientific
    areas?
  • What kind of inferences can be made based on a
    scientific articles deep structure ?
  • Is a Scientific Methodology Markup Language
    SmML feasible ?
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