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Self-evaluation of skills requirements: Female graduates in the Jordan

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Title: Self-evaluation of skills requirements: Female graduates in the Jordan


1
Self-evaluation of skills requirements Female
graduates in the Jordan
2
The aim of the study
  • The aim is to explore the extent female
    university graduates in the Hashemite Kingdom of
    Jordan have acquired important skills so as to
    enter and improve their position in the labour
    market

3
The structure of the presentation
  • Methodology of the study
  • Main findings from the analysis of the
    questionnaires
  • Main findings from the analysis of the university
    curricula
  • Policy implications and recommendations

4
Theoretical Considerations
  • The highly educated women constitute a human
    capital of high value for the country for social
    and economical reasons.
  • Highly educated women by being integrated more
    easily into the labor market contribute a lot
    into a gradual transformation of the
    stereotypical representations about the role of
    woman in society.
  • Mothers qualification is one of the most
    important factors determining the cultural
    capital of a family, which in turn affects
    significantly the chances for success of the next
    generations.
  • No human resources are lost in the attempt
    Jordanian society to adapt to globalized
    knowledge society functioning under the
    conditions of new economy.

5
Methodology of the study
  • Literature review of existing studies and
    information
  • Distribution of a structured self-administered
    questionnaire during the period from March to
    October of 2006 to a sample of four hundred
    female graduates of 20 Jordanian universities.
    The sample was drawn using systematic strata
    random sampling technique.
  • Analysis of the curricula of sixty seven optional
    and obligatory courses offered in the Applied
    Science Private University and the University of
    Jordan along the dimensions of
  • Their type (obligatory or optional)
  • The scientific field they fall into (humanities,
    social sciences or sciences engineering)
  • The skill(s) that is (are) cultivated through
    their content
  • The skill(s) that is (are) cultivated through
    their method of teaching

6
Target Group
  • Jordanian Universities female graduates
  • Graduated since 1998 and onwards
  • Employed by the government, private and NGO
    sectors
  • With experience no less than one year in the
    Jordanian Labor market

7
The Profile of the respondents
Feature Range or Categories with high frequency distribution Median or dominant category
Age 20-48 26
Area of residence Amman (84.9), Elsewhere (15.1) Amman (Capital)
Family income Less than 250 JDs (44.1), 251-500JDs (45.4) 251-500JDs
Marital status Single (58.9), Married (40.9), Single
Type of school they graduated themselves Governmental schools (64.9), Private schools (34.1) Governmental schools
University they graduated from Jordan University (32.8), Hashemite University (8.8), Yarmouk University (8.6) Jordan University
Field of study Social sciences (66.8), Sciences-Engineering (27.3), Humanities (5.9) Social sciences
Postgraduate studies No (90.7), Masters (7.6) No
8
(No Transcript)
9
The Questionnaire
  • Thirty five questions (mainly closed) organized
    in five sections
  • Background Information
  • Studies in higher education
  • Current or past experiences in the labor market
  • Career expectations and their future orientations
    in the labor market
  • Self-evaluation of acquisition of skills (ICT
    skills, English language skills, communication
    skills, interpersonal skills, leadership skills
    and problem solving skills)

10
Limitation of the study
  • There were certain constraints in getting filled
    questionnaire from different organizations due to
    the technique used for data (people are not
    committed and un-interested)
  • The size of the sample was not attained due to
    the problems mentioned above
  • For an integrated understanding of the dynamic of
    the labor market, there should have been a focus
    group discussion with the employers
  • The analysis of the curriculum has to be further
    investigated

11
Research Findings
12
Reasons for choosing the current job
I choose my current job because I am interested in this kind of a job 34.2
I choose my current job because it's too much related to my study 44.4
I choose my current job because it gives me the chance to develop 24.2
I choose my current job because the salary I gain compared to the job I do is tempting 4.1
I choose my current job because I have no choice 27.8
I choose my current job because for other reasons 2.7
13
The five most important issues for choosing a job
Fair management 91.3
Acquiring new skills 89.5
Pleasant people to work and cooperate with 88.8
Good health insurance and other benefits 80.8
Creative work 78.5
14
Self evaluation of competence in the six skills
(very and rather competent)
ICT skills 72.4
English language 66.6
Communication skills 79.7
Interpersonal skills 82.3
Leadership skills 77.8
Problem solving skills 73.3
15
Current or past experiences in the labour market
(I)
  • More than 9 in 10 women have a full time job
    which in most of the cases (almost 7 in 10) is of
    high status (legislators, official managers,
    professionals).
  • The graduates though in the field of sciences and
    engineering seem to be more likely to obtain high
    status jobs and more relevant to their studies
    jobs than those in the fields of social sciences
    and humanities.
  • The high status jobs that the vast majority of
    the female graduates have, could possibly explain
    the high level of satisfaction they take from
    them in almost 9 in 10 cases.
  • Among the most important reasons for choosing
    their current job are its relevance to their
    studies (4 in 10), their interest for it (3 in
    10) as well as the chances it provides them to
    develop (2 in 10).

16
Current or past experiences in the labour market
(II)
  • Almost 7 in 10 consider their current job as very
    relevant or rather relevant to their studies.
    About 30 (those working in lower status jobs) do
    not find these jobs very relevant to their
    studies. Besides, the relevance to the studies is
    positively related to the satisfaction from the
    job.
  • The graduates, despite their young age, are quite
    mobile in the labor market (half of them have
    worked in the past). About 7 in 10 have achieved
    upward mobility, only 1 in 10 had downward
    mobility) and 3 in 10 seem to have been trapped
    to lower status jobs. The graduates in sciences
    and engineering seem more easily to achieve
    upward mobility.
  • The most important reasons for quitting a job,
    seem to be those related to the issue of personal
    development (43.9) followed by issue of the poor
    working conditions (23.6).

17
Career expectations and future orientations (I)
  • The future career plan for almost 7 in 10 is
    related to the rather secure prospect of working
    as an employee. Only 2 in 10 women seem to have
    entrepreneurial orientations.
  • Married women tend more to start their own
    business than working as employees.
  • They consider the labor market as very
    competitive since for over than 6 in 10
    considered as absolutely helpful the mastery of
    more than two skills. The women though who want
    to start their own business or are indeterminate
    tend to consider it as more demanding since they
    regard two or more skills as helpful while those
    planning to work as employees tend to consider as
    helpful just one skill.

18
Career expectations and future orientations (II)
  • The skills that most of the female graduates
    consider as helpful in achieving their future
    plans are the a) interpersonal skills (33.3)
    and b) the ICT skills (32.8).
  • Half of the women in the sample claim that they
    have acquired the core required skills through
    both academic study and previous job while in
    addition to that one in four claim that they have
    acquired them through academic study only.
  • The female graduates underemphasize issues which
    have to do with practical aspects of their job,
    in favor of aspects that have to do with the
    quality of their working environment as well as
    the opportunities offered for personal
    development.

19
Self evaluation of the acquisition of skills (I)
  • The vast majority of the graduates consider as
    important or very important for entering the
    labor market all six of the core skills.
  • The graduates consider themselves as quite
    competent in all six skills in percentages
    exceeding 65 (from 66.6 in English language up
    to 82.3 in interpersonal skills). A slight
    tendency was though observed to evaluate
    themselves as rather more competent in the non
    formally accredited skills rather than in the
    formally accredited skills of ICT and English
    language skills
  • Those who have done postgraduate studies are also
    more likely to feel confident in more skills than
    those who have not.

20
Self evaluation of the acquisition of skills (II)
  • According to the respondents the ICT skills and
    the skills in English language have been mainly
    acquired through the attendance of academic
    courses in University. The non formally
    accredited skills ( communication, interpersonal,
    leadership, problem solving skills) though have
    been mainly acquired through experiences in
    previous jobs.
  • Despite the fact that the respondents state that
    they have mainly acquired only the formally
    accredited skills of ICT and English language on
    average each individual graduate regards the
    university courses as helpful in acquiring about
    4 skills of the six in total.

21
Curricular Analysis of the Universisty Courses (I)
  • Through the rough analysis of the content of 67
    courses in total, it was found that the skills
    that are cultivated are the a) problem solving
    skills (12 instances), b) interpersonal skills
    (12 instances), c) communication skills (10
    instances), d) ICT skills (5 instances), e)
    English language skills (3 instances) and f)
    leadership skills (2 instances).
  • The ICT skills and the skills in English language
    in particular are mainly cultivated by delivering
    specialized relevant courses. The problem solving
    skills are mainly cultivated through calculation
    based courses, while the interpersonal and the
    communication skills seem to be cultivated
    together by courses dealing with selfs
    attributes and human behavior like those related
    to aspects of Psychology.

22
Curricular Analysis of the University Courses (II)
  • One could tentatively conclude that the optional
    courses tend more than the obligatory ones to
    cultivate generic skills (this happens in 9 out
    of the 21 cases of optional courses and in 2 out
    of 7 cases of obligatory courses).
  • Furthermore, it was found that the content of all
    five of the courses in the field of sciences and
    engineering analyzed promote at least one kind of
    skills while only 16 out of the 41 courses in the
    field of social sciences and 5 out of the 15
    courses in the field of humanities do the same.

23
Policy implications and Recommendations (I)
  • Relevance to female graduates studies is a
    criterion of high priority for women to choose a
    job, it is recommended that more schemes aiming
    at the career guidance of women should be
    implemented.
  • The importance of the issue of personal
    development for determining the preferences of
    the female graduates in the labor market suggests
    that special motives should be provided to the
    organizations of both private and public sector
    for re-skilling through special training schemes
    for educated female employees.
  • Extensive and thorough investigations should be
    arranged so as to explore the specific social or
    other conditions that seem to be responsible for
    the fact that almost 30 of the female graduates
    do not work in jobs suitable for their
    qualifications. Remedial polices should be
    devised on the basis of the results of these
    investigations.

24
Policy implications and Recommendations (III)
  • 4. The fact that a great number of the female
    graduates states that most of the core skills
    have been acquired from previous experiences in
    the labor market leads to the suggestion for more
    practical training schemes during the main course
    of the university studies so as more women to
    gain the practical experience and the skills they
    need earlier.
  • More highly educated women should be encouraged
    to start their own business either through the
    implementation of special schemes for
    entrepreneurship of youth or through the
    establishment of special financial incentives
    (low interest loans for starting a new business,
    tax reductions, etc).
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