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Critique of an English study

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Critique of an English study Presented by : Fatma Abu EL-khair Submitted by : Dr Awad Keshta 2012-2013 Critique of an English study Haboush, Z. Y. (2010). – PowerPoint PPT presentation

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Title: Critique of an English study


1
Critique of an English study
Presented by Fatma Abu EL-khair
Submitted by Dr Awad Keshta
2012-2013
2
Critique of an English study
Haboush, Z. Y. (2010). The Effectiveness of Using
a Programme Based on Multiple Intelligences
Theory on Eighth Graders English Reading
Comprehension Skills. Islamic University of Gaza,
Gaza Strip, Palestine.
3
This is a critique of an English study entitled
The Effectiveness of Using a Programme Based on
Multiple Intelligences Theory on Eighth Graders
English Reading Comprehension Skills, written by
Mr. Ziyad Yousif Haboush in 2010. It contained
from 200 pages its language is clear and the
size and the type of the font are clear and
standard. The purpose of the study is clear .It
discusses how teachers can improve eighth grade
students English language reading comprehension
skills through the use of multiple intelligences
theory. The researcher adopts quasi- experimental
approach in preparing this study to reach the
results of this study. The following is a
detailed critique for the elements of this study,
clarifying the points of its strengths and
weakness.
4
The title of the thesis is The Effectiveness of
Using a Programme Based on Multiple Intelligences
Theory on Eighth Graders English Reading
Comprehension Skills ". I think the title is
clear, comprehensive , appropriate and
indicative. It consists of 14 words which is an
acceptable. It also includes the independent
variable" Using a Programme Based on Multiple
Intelligences" and the dependent one "Ss.'
English Reading Comprehension Skills. The
population of this thesis is Eighth Graders while
the place limit is not clear and specified in the
title. In addition, these thesis contains of five
chapters back ground, literature review,
methodology and procedures, results analysis of
data as well as findings discussion, conclusion,
pedagogical implications and recommendations.
Complete Arabic and English abstract are included
at the beginning of the thesis while list of
appendices, list of tables, list of
abbreviations, list of figures are included at
the end of it.
5
I think the abstract is specific ,
representative of thesis and written in correct
form .On the other hand, I notice that the
abstract is too long and includes some of the
required points (aim sample- instrumentation-
the most important result and recommendation).
But , it does not tell us about the (methodology,
questions of the study).
6
The first chapter, background study, includes the
following elements introduction, statement of
the problem, research questions, research
hypotheses, purpose of the study, significance of
the study, limitations of the study, definition
of operational terms and abbreviations. The
researcher presents his introduction in four
pages he starts talking about
7
more general points to less general. For example,
he talks about language in general then he talks
about English language as it has the lion share
in the modern life. After that, he mentions the
importance of teaching English, talks about
reading skill and how it involves all the
intelligences of Gardener and mentions some
studies related to and supported his topic.
Finally, he justifies his topic as it is
significant to activate as many of these
intelligences as possible to achieve skillful
learning. In addition, he made the purpose of his
study clear in the introduction , he formulates
the problem of the research obviously and
completely and included the independent variable"
Using a Programme Based on Multiple
Intelligences" and the dependent one "Ss.'
English Reading Comprehension Skills.
8
He poses one main question To what extent does
Multiple Intelligences (MI) theory improve Grade
Eight students English reading comprehension
skills?. I think it is clear ,appropriate ,
presented and related to the title of the study
From the above mentioned question, the following
sub-questions are derived 1) Are there
statistically significant differences at (a
0.05) between the performance of the control
group and that of the experimental one in
relation to the total post test marks?, 2) Are
there statistically significant differences at (a
0.05) between the performance of the control
group and that of the experimental one in
relation to skimming in the post test?, 3) Are
there statistically significant differences at (a
0.05) between the performances of both groups
in relation to scanning in the post test? 4)
Are there statistically significant differences
at (a 0.05) between the performances of both
groups in relation to inferences in the post
test?, 5) Are there statistically significant
differences at (a 0.05) between the
performances of both groups in relation to
knowing the meaning of words through context in
the post test? As well as 6) Are there
statistically significant differences at (a
0.05) between the performances of both groups in
relation to sequencing in the post test?.
9
He formulates all above mentioned sub-questions
statistically under the research hypothesis the
following null hypothesis are formulated in order
to be tested 1) There are no statistically
significant differences at (a 0.05) between the
performance of the control group and that of the
experimental one in relation to the total post
test marks , 2) There are no statistically
significant differences at (a 0.05) between the
performances of both groups in relation to
skimming in the post test, 3) There are no
statistically significant differences at (a
0.05) between the performances of both groups in
relation to scanning in the post test. 4) There
are no statistically significant differences at
(a 0.05) between the performances of both
groups in relation to inferences in the post
test, 5) There are no statistically significant
differences at (a 0.05) between the
performances of both groups in relation to
knowing the meaning of words through context in
the post test, 6) There are no statistically
significant differences at (a 0.05) between the
performances of both groups in relation to
sequencing in the post test.
10
In my point of view, the number of the hypotheses
is equal to the number of the questions. This is
considered a point of strength. I think that
the purpose of the thesis should have been stated
in points in a number equals to the number of the
questions. The significance of this study
indicates that , it is the first study, as the
researcher is concerned, to be conducted in the
field of English language in Palestine and add
information to the knowledge . He provides the
practical significance for Curriculum
designers-Teachers- Students and Parents. In my
point of view, the researcher does not mention
that his study may add to the previous knowledge
and that it may be used as a guide for further
studies.
11
The researcher does not name the limitations he
just puts them in isolated points as the
following it is a six-week study in the first
term of 2009-2010 scholastic years, it is
conducted on grade eight male students enrolled
at Az-Zaitoun Prep. A Boys School which is
run by UNRWA in Gaza Strip, it is conducted using
the following sub-skills of reading skimming,
scanning, inferences, sequencing and knowing the
meaning through context, it employs 6
intelligences only which was supported with a
suggestion of university professors. He also
adopts the following operational definitions as
they are comprehensive, clear and direct to the
point and this is acceptable (Reading-
Comprehension- Intelligence - Linguistic
intelligence - Logical/Mathematical intelligence
- Bodily/Kinesthetic intelligence- Spatial/Visual
intelligence- Interpersonal intelligence -
Intrapersonal intelligence).
12
I believe that the definitions are derived from
the title . He adds a list of all the
abbreviations used in his study after the
definition of the operational terms and this is
not acceptable .He does not define the 8th
graders but he clarifies it under the
limitations and he also does not define the
suggested program within the definitions of the
operational terms.
13
The literature review is the second chapter it
is divided into two sections ( Literature review
and the previous studies ). The first section is
literature review and the headlines in this
section are derived from the title of the study
are Reading (its definition types reading
in Islam Comprehension- Factors that affect
reading comprehension- skills- Reading problems
facing EFL learners- Solutions of those problems-
Reading in English for Palestine- How to teach
reading) as well as Intelligence( its definition
- Multiple Intelligences Theory- MI theory and
Education- MI theory and teaching reading-
Comments on the use of MI-based teaching ) . The
second section is about the previous studies. The
researcher classify the previous studies into
three parts1- Twelve studies that used MI in
reading (9 are relatively new and 3 are before
2000), 2- Seven Studies that used MI in EFL, ESL
and Science Classes (only 6 studies are updated)
and 3- Six studies that examined other
variables (than MI) on Reading ( only 5 studies
are new).
14
He comments on the information he had collected
about reading and intelligence and this is a good
point. I think that there is no need for the
third category of the previous studies as the
current research examines the effectiveness of
the independent variable (MI) only on reading
comprehension. Most of the studies are relatively
new (after 2000). He arranges the studies inside
each part from the most newest to the oldest. He
introduces complete abstracts about each of the
previous studies. He comments on each section
alone then he makes a general comment on all the
previous studies. In his comment, he points out
the similarities and the differences between the
studies such as (tools- methodology-reading sub-
skills results) and clarifies the benefits he
got from those studies just like (obtaining group
equivalence and weekly quizzes as formative
evaluation).Moreover, he comments on the whole
chapter as a whole and this is a point of
strength.
15
The third chapter talks about the methodology and
procedures. The researcher adopts
quasi-experimental approach as he chooses the
school purposefully where he has worked as an
English teacher. To achieve the aim of this
study, two groups were chosen, an experimental
and a control group. The experimental group was
taught reading according to the MI-based
programme. And the control group was taught
reading through the traditional method. The
population of the study consisted of all eight
male graders enrolled at UNRWA schools of the
eastern Gaza educational area. He mentions the
exact number of his population, 14963 students.
The representative sample of the study consisted
of 65 grade-eight students divided into two
classes at Az-Zaitoun Preparatory A Boys School
but he does not mention the type of his sample.
The research instruments are a checklist of
reading skills, an achievement test (pre and post
test), an MI-based analysis of the reading texts
and a suggested programme. He measures the
validity of the test through content validity,
referee validity and internal consistency
validity. He also measures the reliability of the
test through Kooder-Richardson (K_R20), Split
Half Method. He conducts a piloting test on a
randomly selected group of students, 30, who had
similar characteristics to the target groups,
control and experimental. These three groups
studied at the same school and were from the same
cultural and environmental background in order to
examine the suitability and appropriateness of
the test in terms of time, difficulty and
discrimination coefficients. The results show
that the discrimination, time and difficulty
factors are acceptable.
16
the reliability of the achievement test. He
finishes the chapter with talking about Research
procedures. Then the researcher states the
suggested program in the third chapter this part
of the chapter provides a description of the
suggested program, in terms of its definition,
objectives, resources/teaching and learning aids,
content, evaluation, validity and time. He uses
the following statistical treatment percentages,
relative means, T-test and frequencies are used
to determine the level of achievement of the
control and the experimental groups, Pearson
correlation is used to compute the validity of
the achievement (pre and post)test by computing
its internal consistency and Split half and
Kooder-Richardson techniques are used to
determine
17
In my point of view, a quasi-experimental design
is used in this study. He describes the
methodology part thoroughly and in a satisfactory
manner which enables further studies to be built
on this current study. He uses different tools
to reach the results of his study. In full
details, the researcher explains the steps of
building each tool this is supported with tables
and complete explanations as well as the tools
are attached in appendices.
18
The fourth chapter of this study is entitled
results analysis of data. The researcher starts
the fourth chapter with a brief introduction
about the information will be presented through
the whole chapter .The statistical treatment is
mentioned in this chapter both descriptive and
inferential statistics. He utilizes different
statistic formulas such as means of frequencies,
percentages and t-test to show the final results
of the collected data. Tables and bar graphs are
also used to present and clarify the data. The
effect size through T(?2) is used to measure and
to obtain the extent to which the independent
variable, the programme, had an effect on the
dependent variable, the experimental groups
achievement. Charts and diagrams are provided in
this study to illustrate the findings the
researcher reached.
19
At the beginning of this chapter, the researcher
presents the results of the formative evaluation
on both the control and experimental group in a
systematic and organized way. He introduces a
colored chart, explaining the differences between
the control and experimental group in the
formative evaluation. He formulates all questions
statistically, uses T-test, for two independent
samples, compares between the experimental group
and control group by using the means of each
group and implements the effect size equation to
show the effects size of the program on
students reading comprehension.
20
Then, he discusses the results he reached and
justifies them with many reasons from the
theoretical framework. He also connects the
results to the findings of other studies which
provided evidence for the positive Effectiveness
of Using a Programme Based on Multiple
Intelligences Theory on Eighth Graders English
Reading Comprehension Skills. This is another
good point and considers as a point of strengths.
He presents most of the results clearly and
logically as well as discusses these results
deeply ad in a good and satisfactory manner the
inference of the study is emerged from the
results of the study reasonably.
21
However, the justification and the reason
provided by the researcher for the hypothesis
number four, five and six are illogical and
unconvincing. He justified that there was no
significant differences between the control group
and experimental group due to the psychological
effects of Gaza war because the experiment was
administered in 2009-2010 .The same reasons for
different hypothesis are repeated either by using
the same words or using the synonyms of these
words to convey the same meaning and intention
.This is considered as a point of weakness.
22
Next, the fifth chapter is entitled as findings
discussion, conclusion, pedagogical implications
and recommendations. The researcher begins this
chapter with an introduction, clarifying the
headings he will be tackled through this chapter.
Then, he summarizes all the results he reached in
3 paragraphs. The researcher provides reasons for
the results of each hypothesis. Next, he
interprets the results of each hypothesis by
providing reasons and relating the results with
the findings of other previous studies. After
that, the researcher writes a conclusion
paragraph that summarized all the results
mentioned above .The researcher states the
results and justifies it with many reasons from
the theoretical framework. The inferences of this
study follow the findings of the study and are
presented logically and obviously. The findings
of this study are based on the findings of other
previous studies and are discussed completely and
in a satisfactory manner though the whole
chapter. However, some paragraphs are repeated
when the researcher discussed his results and
provided the same reasons for nearly 3 results.
23
He summarizes the most important information and
results in the conclusion. Thus, the conclusion
is complete, and clear. Pedagogical implication
is included in this chapter and the most
important one of which is It is an encouraging
theory to the extent that low-achieving students
can participate since there are activities that
are designed according to their levels or
strengths as well as Teachers should be aware of
their students intelligences. This is because
identifying students intelligences, through a
survey or an inventory of multiple intelligences,
will assist those teachers design suitable
activities or exercises that coincide with each
type of intelligence. He offers some
recommendations on the basis of the findings of
his study and the most important of which are
Other researchers can conduct evaluative studies
based on MI to examine to what extent English for
Palestine encompasses the types of intelligences
as well as It is also recommended that
researchers conduct other MI-based research on
other language skills. I think these
recommendations are beneficial and based on the
findings of the study so they lead to further
studies and they are derived from the results of
this study.
24
Finally, the researcher prepares a list of
references and appendices at the end of the fifth
chapter. The researcher uses a variety of
references as books, journals, websites, MA
thesis, PHD dissertations he uses 90 foreign
resources and 17 Arabic resources most of his
recourses are new except a few ones are old they
are arranged alphabetically and documented
according to APA. There are seven documents
attached in the appendices at the end of the
study which are Appendix ( 1 ) A Checklist of
Reading Comprehension Skills , Appendix ( 2 )
Achievement Reading Comprehension Test , Appendix
( 3 ) Referees List, Appendix ( 4 ) MI-based
Analysis Card, Appendix ( 5 ) The Suggested
Programme , Appendix ( 6 ) Formative Evaluation
Quizzes , Appendix ( 7 IIUG and UNRWA
Permissions. In my opinion, the researcher varies
his references and this is a point of strength.
25
To conclude, this study is an newest one, its
topic is new and it supports the idea of
improving reading comprehension skill through the
use of multiple intelligences theory. The
language of the study is simple there are no
ambiguous terms and the message can be understood
easily. There is no random work it follows
systematic procedures. The tables are numbered
and titled in bold. This study is empty from
wrong words, wrong grammar and the researcher
used the punctuation mark in correct form .
26
Thank you very much for your listening
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