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Title: Applying Technology-enhanced Assessment in Secondary English Classrooms


1
????????????????? Applying
Technology-enhanced Assessment in Secondary
English Classrooms
  • ????????????? ???

2
Outline
  1. Technology, Education and Assessment
  2. Technology-enhanced Assessment
  3. Automated English Writing Assessment

3
1. Technology, Education and Assessment
4
Are these pictures familiar to you or NOT
Technology has become a part of our professional
lives!
5
Technology and Education (1)
  • Knowledge and information is the basis of
    economic growth.
  • Those societies that successfully harness
    information technologies to the learning process
    will become the economic leaders of the 21st
    century.

6
Technology and Education (2)
???????????????? China National Educational
Reform and Development Plan (2010-2020?)
  • ???? ?????????
  • ????????????????,?????????
  • ???????????????????,????????????2020?,????????????
    ??????????,??????????????????
  • ?????????????????????,??????,??????,???????
  • ???????????????????,?????????????????

7
When education hits the headlines, it is always
  • Chinese pupils top global education league table
  • http//www.bbc.co.uk/worldservice/news/2010/12/10
    1208_china_education_wt_sl.shtml
  • The survey was carried out by the Programme for
    International Student Assessment (Pisa), which is
    part of the Organisation for Economic
    Co-operation and Development (OECD)
  • PISA focuses on young peoples ability to use
    their knowledge and skills to meet real-life
    challenges.
  • Three subjects are tested Reading, Maths, and
    Science.

8
Recent trends assessment for learning
  • There has been a renewed interest in recent years
    in examining the aspect of assessment that is
    directly linked with learning, that is, area of
    formative assessment.
  • Formative assessment has been deemed as a central
    element of learning for the feedback students
    receive will enable them to develop and extend
    themselves in ways that end-point assessment
    cannot.

9
What research reveals
  • Research evidence has indicated that development
    of formative assessment is conducive to raising
    the standards of achievement.
  • Black, P. Wiliam, D. (1998a) "Assessment and
    classroom learning." Assessment in Education,
    5(1)7-74.
  • Black, P. Wiliam, D. (1998b). Inside the black
    box raising standards through classroom
    assessment. http//www.pdkintl.org/kappan/kbla9
    810.htm (17 January, 2005)

10
Research with students
  • Research into student learning has consistently
    positioned assessment at the center of students
    thinking how they use their time for study, what
    to focus, and what learning approaches to adopt.
  • In the light of these study results, assessment
    has been reconceptualized as the engine that
    drives and shapes learning, rather than an
    end-of-term event that grades and reports
    performance.

11
Pedagogical implications
  • Assessment should be designed, first, to support
    worthwhile learning
  • Aims and objectives content teaching and
    learning activities assessment
  • Explore technology potential in scaffolding and
    providing formative feedback to students to
    improve learning.

12
Technology and assessment (1)
  • Information and Communications Technologies
    (ICTs) now have the capacity to enhance learning
    and assessment in that they could provide new
    opportunities for sharing information, resources
    and expertise, as well as for networking with
    student peers and tutors.

13
Technology and assessment (2)
  • The online technology at the level of synchronous
    communication (e.g. audio and video
    e-conferences), asynchronous communication (e.g.
    forums) and online tests offers an invisible
    mechanism to support the type of scaffolded
    learning, the learning of linking formative
    assessment with summative grades.

14
2. Technology-enhanced Assessment
15
Questions
  1. What are the benefits of technology-enhanced
    assessment?
  2. Have you ever used any types of
    technology-enhanced assessment?

16
Benefits of technology-enhanced assessment
  • Teachers
  • Relieve burden of marking
  • Obtain various reports
  • Know strengths and weaknesses in teaching
  • Students
  • Immediate scoring and feedback once a response
    has been made.
  • Online support such as tools, examples,
    tailor-made dictionaries.
  • Various reports.
  • Motivating
  • Scaffolding learning

17
Technology-enhanced assessment practices an
overview
  • Many standardized language proficiency tests, few
    achievement tests. However, the latter is
    attracting more attention for its contribution to
    learning.
  • Computer-based to Internet-based
  • Combine learning with assessment, therefore the
    program is both a learning resource, also an
    assessment tool.
  • Online learning tools provided.

18
Technology-enhanced assessment practices some
examples
  • 1. New Standard English Computer-based Testing
    System ??????????????
  • An assessment resources bank
  • An efficient assistant to teachers in setting up
    exams and providing exam reports
  • 2. IELTS online testing system
  • 3. TOEFL-iBT course

19
??????????????-?? http//test.nse.cn/
  • ??????????????????????,????WORD????????,??????????
    ???????
  • ????????,???????
  • ???????MP3????????????,???????????????????
  • ???????????????,???????????????????
  • ?????????,??????????10,000??,??????80????????????

20
????? http//test.nse.cn/
  • ???????????? ???????
  • ????????????????????????
  • ??????????????,????????????,??????????
  • ????????
  • ????,???? ?
  • ?????

21
????
?????? http//www.nse.cn/
?? NSE ???? ??http//test.nse.cn/
22
???????? IELTS online assessment system (1)
  • For the students
  • It consists of practice part and assessment part.
  • In the practice part, students can choose
    whatever skills/ whatever themes/ whatever
    exercise types to practice.
  • System can record students performance each time
    and pace their learning.
  • Online immediate feedback and score report.
  • Motivating students can view each others
    progress and feel peer pressure to improve.

23
???????? IELTS online assessment system (2)
  • For the teachers
  • They check students progress.
  • They can find out the areas for improvement and
    offer remedial teaching.
  • They can trace each individual learner for their
    performance.
  • They can trace students performances on each
    item.

24
Students can choose to practice.
??
??
25
Students can get their performance reports.
????
??
26
Teachers can know the group performance on each
question.
???
27
Teachers can trace each student performance on
each question
??
??
???
28
???????? TOEFL Online Tests---An Overview
  • Simulate IBT-TOEFL in format and question types
  • A learning resource exercises built around
    sub-skills of listening, reading, speaking and
    writing
  • Innovative use of technology in item types
  • Online scoring
  • Automated Speaking Assessment

29
  • 3. Automated English Writing Assessment

30
  • 3.1 (??)?????????
  • Importance of Teaching English Writing
  • at Secondary Schools

31
Writing An Essential Skill for Native Speakers
  • According to the National Center for Education
    Studies and the National Assessment Governing
    Board in America
  • Writing is an essential skill in order for
    students to understand, organize, and communicate
    their ideas.
  • To become good writers students need frequent
    practice and feedback.
  • In 2002, only 2431 of the students performed
    at or above the Proficient level on the NAEP
    writing assessment.

32
Writing An Important Skill for Non-native
speakers of English
  • With the advent of English as a global language,
    the ability to write well in English across
    diverse settings and for different audiences has
    become an imperative in second language education
    programmes throughout the world.

Yet the teaching of second language writing is
often hindered by the great amount of time and
skill needed to evaluate repeated drafts of
student writing.
33
Writing in Zhongkao and Gaokao
  • An important component in Zhongkao and Gaokao
  • Zhongkao Writing (25) Reading (44)
  • Gaokao Writing (35) Reading (40)

34
??????????
A. ???
  • ???????????????????????
  • ???????????
  • ?????? ??????
  • ??????????? - ??????
  • ????????? ????????
  • ????????
  • ?????????

35
??????????

???
  • ?????????????
  • ?????????????
  • ??????????????????
  • ?????????????
  • ????????????
  • ?????????????,???????????

36
  • 3.2 ???????????
  • Challenges of Teaching English Writing in China

37
???????????
  • ?????? ???
  • ??? ???????
  • ???? ?????????
  • ???????? ????????
  • ??????? ??????
  • ????????? ???
  • ?????? ????

38
  • 3.3 ??????????????????
  • How to Deliver
  • Efficient and Effective English Writing Classes

39
????????? ?????????
  • ???
  • Reading maketh a full man conference a
    ready man and writing an exact man.
  • -
    Francis Bacon
  • ?????????????
  • sufficient input and output

40
???????????
MOE Research Project ???????????????????? GFA09
7005 (2009-2012) ---- ?????????-?????????
  • ????????

41
??????
  • ??????,????,????,?????????
  • ????
  • ?????,3-4??????????????????
  • ??
  • ????????????(60?)
  • ???????????(12?)
  • ????
  • Writing Roadmap ??????????

42
?????????
43
????-??(7-9??)
???? ????? ????
???? ? ???? ????? 3?????? 8??? 8??? ??? ??? ???
1? ?????150-200?????? 2? ?????????????????,??
?????? 3? ????????????
??????? ???????????,?????????? ????? 24??????
24???????? ??12?????
44
????-??(10-12??)
???? ????? ????
???? ? ???? ????? 3??????? 8??? 8??? ??? ??? ??? ???
1????300-400??????????,?????? 2?????????????,????
???? 3????????????????
??????? ???????????,?????????? ????? 24??????
24???????? ??17?????
45
Project schedule
  • 2009-2010 Project launch, design, case selection
  • 2010-2011 Pilot, Training, Intervention
  • 2011-2012 Data analysis and report writing

46
Research Objectives
  • Investigate procedures and potential issues in
    the process of applying Automated Formative
    Assessment to China EFL
  • Explore the impact of Automated Formative
    Assessment on English language teaching and
    learning at the primary, secondary and tertiary
    levels
  • Examine relationship between formative and
    summative assessment.

47
  • 3.4 ?????????????????
  • Preliminary Findings from MOE Research
    Project
  • ????????????????????
  • GFA097005 (2009-2012)

48
Study participants
  • ???
  • 2 Dalian Districts
  • (9 primary schools and 3 middle schools)
  • 1 key high school in Beijing
  • ????
  • 10 universities and colleges

49
Study participant list
  • University participants
  • Hefei Normal University, Anhui ??????
  • Beijing Jiao Tong University ??????
  • Beijing Foreign Studies University ???????
  • Beijing Information Science and Technology
    University ????????
  • Luoyang Normal University, Henan ??????
  • Renmin University of China ??????
  • Southwest Petroleum University ??????
  • Yan Bian University, Ji Lin ????
  • China Womens College, Beijing ??????
  • Beijing Agricultural Vocational College ????????

50
Study participant list
Basic education
Dalian Dalian Xigang District ?????
4 primary schools 4???  ???? ???? ???? ?????
3 middle schools 3??? ?????? ????? ??????
Dalian Kai Fa District ?????
5 primary schools 5??? ???? ???? ????? ???? ???? Beijing ?? High School affiliated to Renmin University ????

51
2010 Research Pilot Preliminary Findings
  1. Student perceptions from the post experiment
    survey
  2. Teacher observations
  3. Writing score gain report
  4. Issues for attention and implications

52
Finding 1 Students Keen on Practicing Writing
in WRM
  • ?????????,??????????,??????????????????????,?30??
    ????????,?????,?????,???????????,???????????
  • ???????????????,??????????????????????????,???????
    ??????,???????????,????????????????
  • ???????? ????,?????????????,?????????????????????
    ????? XXX ZXY
  • ??????????????????????????????????WRM?????????????
    ??,????????,????? XXX GY
  • Students (regardless of their
    language proficiency levels) showed strong
    interest in using WRM to write essays. Even those
    weak students were keen on using the system, they
    actively recalled the new words that they had
    learnt and sought teacher and students for help
    during the writing process. They were eager to
    have their essays shown in WRM and to learn the
    score and feedback provided by the system.

  • (Teacher A, ABC
    Primary School)

53
Finding 2 A Learning Opportunity for Teachers
  • ????,????????,???????,????????????,?????????,?????
    ?????????????,???????????,?????????????,??????????
    ??????????????????????????????????Narrative
    Feedback??????????,?????????tutor?tree?????
  • ??,??5?25?????????????,???????????My favorite
    Season,????????????,??????,?????????,??????????,??
    ?????????????????????????????,????,????????????
  • I sweated a lot in the first class with WRM. Not
    all the students were familiar with the computer,
    and some of them practically knew nothing about
    WRM. They experienced problems in logging into
    the system, writing conventions, etc. I used my
    limited knowledge explaining the system and the
    different tools available. We did much better in
    the second class. Its good learning experience
    for us. (Teacher B, XYZ Primary School)

54
Finding 3 Student perceptions about WRM
  • Students tend to write more and better.
  • Students tend to revise more.
  • 85 students liked to use WRM.
  • 72 students maintained that they could write and
    revise more after using WRM.
  • Nearly 90 of students reported revising their
    essays in WRM before submitting them to teachers
  • 37 students reported that they had revised five
    times or more in the system.
  • Nearly 80 held that feedback from WRM helped
    them revise their essays.

55
?????- ?????-????
  • My favourite thing
  • My favourite thing is a tea cup. It is my
    favourite because this cup is nice to use.It's
    also very colourful and beautiful,it was bought
    in Singapore as a present,and my father give it
    to me.Now,my father is working in Singapore and
    he can't come back very often, so when I see this
    cup, I will remember my father ang read his love
    well.I know, even he is far from me,but his heart
    is with me.By the way, it is beautiful in the sun
    shine and it can make me happy when I am sad.So I
    love this cup very much.  It can carry lots of
    water or tea or any other thing, so it's very
    big. It is as blue as the sky, and on the cup, it
    sits a gilr with long brown hair and two
    beautiful  big eyes,she sis on a big and round
    bubble and there is a lovely cat in her arm. it
    is white and has long tail, it has four black
    feet, ha, that just looks like that it wears four
    small shoes!!  The gilr on my cup can sing!
    That's true! And it sings beautiful!!
  • I'm not telling a lie! When I hold up the
    cup and drink, it always sing for me.The song is
    beautiful, and it can make me have less
    stressful, after I listen the song,  I think that
    the life is challenge.After listening to the
    song, I will know, even the life is full of ups
    and downs, but I must smile to the life.I love
    this cup, it is just like my father is staying
    with me, when it is singing, it's just like that
    my father is talking to me.I always clean it
    after I use it.I never use anything dirty to
    clean it, when I drink the water in it, the water
    is just like run to my heart. I like my cup very
    much and I'll never break it or throw it out, it
    is my cup forever.

56
?????- ????
  • LOCAL BUSINESS MAN ARRESTED By from
  • Sep.15th, 2010
  • Police have arrested local business man, Mr.
    Mario Bonetti and Town Councilor, Mr. Luca
    Pagani. Mr. Bonetti made an illegal business
    agreement with Mr. Pagani and burned his
    brothers farm in order to get that piece of land
    and make a lot of money by selling it. Mr.
    Bonettis brother died this summer, leaving his
    son the inheritance of some farming land. His
    son, a young man called Roberto Bonetti, was
    going to keep the farm but his uncle, Mr. Mario
    Bonetti, wanted Roberto to sell it to him,
    because Mario had made a secret business
    agreement with Pagani that if Mario got that
    land, Pagani would help him turn it into building
    land. A big computer company was going to build
    their office building near the farm and, through
    the agreement, both Mario and Pagani could make a
    fortune. However, Mr Roberto Bonetti would not
    like to sell his farm to his uncle. To get the
    land, Mario set fire to the farm, which caused
    great damage and nearly killed Roberto. Roberto
    was lucky to survive, but, not having enough
    money to rebuild the farmhouse, he finally agreed
    to sell the farm. Fortunately, Robertos
    girlfriend, Miss Conti, was accepted by the
    Architects Office of Town Planning Department in
    June and she found out the illegal plan Mario and
    Pagani had made. Miss Conti called the police and
    stopped Roberto from signing the contract. Mr.
    Bonetti used to be a successful business man and
    he owned the most expensive restaurant in town.I
    didnt mean to kill my nephew and I didnt really
    want to set fire...I shouldnt have made the
    business agreement with Pagani!... said Mr.
    Bonetti when he was sent into the police car. His
    business company, Mr. Pagani, was nearly put into
    prison not long before. He got payment from a
    local business man who produced dangerous
    chemicals. Police are now searching for further
    proofs of his illegal business agreements with
    other business men. Bonetti and Pagani will be
    in prison for more than 20 years. They committed
    the crimes not only of willful and malicious
    injury, but also of abuse of power. When we asked
    about his feeling toward that, Mr. Roberto
    Bonetti said, I cant believe it...I feel
    neither happy nor sad. Im too shocked to feel
    anything!

57
Some statistics 85 students liked writing using
WRM.
58
72 students write more.
59
80 students feel more confident.
60
85 students felt that WRM helped me to improve
writing.
61
97 students revised their essays before
submission.
62
68 students understand the score feedback.
63
29 students do not think the scores are fair.
64
Finding 5 Change in Teachers Role
  • Desirable outcome from using WRM in classroom
    sample teacher journal
  • Change of classroom teaching mode, from lecture
    to discussion
  • Teacher role has changed from a deliverer and
    source of knowledge to a classroom tutor,
    facilitator, observer, consultant, and even a
    co-learner
  • Increase teacher-student interaction and
    collaboration, improve teacher-student
    relationship
  • Help teachers better understand students
    learning needs
  • Reduce teachers burden of grading essays

65
Finding 6 Enhance Students 21C Learning skills
  • Desirable outcome documented from sample teacher
    journal
  • Students were extremely motivated to be in charge
    of their learning by online writing
  • Students role change from passive listeners and
    homework doer to independent researcher outside
    classroom, organizer in classroom group
    discussion, review and comment on each others
    writing, and presenter
  • Students receive feedback from WRM, students,
    teacher, and self-reflection from each writing
    assignment

66
Finding 7 University teachers were positive
about WRM.
  • Assign 6 essays in 6 weeks, not possible without
    using WRM tool
  • Help teachers with grading and record keeping
  • Students build confidence in writing using WRM
    tool
  • Students do not feel losing face with computer
    scores.
  • Students pay attention to computer feedback more
    than to teacher feedback due to the desire to
    improve scores.

  • From XXX (2010)

67
(No Transcript)
68
Student writing scores tracking -- example
??/?? ??? ??? ??? ??? ??? ??? ??? ??
???? 4.9 4.7 4.7 4.6 4.8 5.0 5.0 0.1
???? 5.0 4.9 5.0 4.8 4.8 5.1 5.2 0.2
?? 5.1 4.9 4.7 4.8 4.9 5.0 5.1 0.0
?? 4.9 4.6 4.8 4.7 4.8 5.2 5.2 0.3
????? 4.8 4.8 4.7 4.9 4.9 5.1 5.2 0.4
????? 5.0 4.5 4.9 5.0 4.7 5.2 5.2 0.2
?? 5.1 4.8 4.7 4.9 5.0 5.1 5.3 0.2
69
Dalian Xi Gang Primary School
70
  • 3.5 ????????????
  • ??????????
  • How does AES Work?

71
????????????
  • ????50??????????????????
  • ???????(???????)
  • ???????????

72
What is Automated Essay Scoring?
  • Based on a sample of student writing, the system
    would
  • Assign a numerical score to reflect overall
    quality of writing.
  • Provide specific, diagnostic feedback to help
    student improve writing along a number of key
    dimensions
  • Grammar, usage, spelling, capitalization, and
    punctuation
  • Word choice
  • Sentence structure
  • Development and organization of ideas
  • Domain specific content
  • Writing style

73
????????????????
  • ??A?B ?C? D? E????????????????????,???????????????
    ?

74
????,????
  • ??????????167?????????
  • Kappa?? ???? ??
  • Organization 0.85 56 97
  • Development 0.82 41 98
  • Sentence structure 0.84 56 96
  • Word choice 0.79 48 95
  • Mechanics 0.82 52 96

75
?????????
76
????????TOEFL?IELTS ? SAT
  • ??????????????
  • ??4-6??
    ?? ??
    ?? ??????
  • ????????

??? ??? ??? ???
77
Writing Roadmap??????????
??
??
??
??
78
(No Transcript)
79
(No Transcript)
80
Teacher report example
?????????????????????????????????????,69?????????
????30????????????
81
  • 3.6 ????????????
  • How it can help English teachers?

82
???????????????
  • ???????????????
  • ?????????????????
  • ????????????????
  • ???????????
  • ?????????????

83
???????????????
  • ???????????
  • ????????????
  • ??????????????????

84
3.7 ???????? Understanding Writing Rubrics

85
Writing Rubrics
  • Ideas and Content
  • Organization (structure and development of ideas)
  • Voice
  • Word choice
  • Fluency
  • Conventions

86
Prompt 1
  • Essay topic Brave or Shy
  • Essay mode Narrative
  • Essay level Gr.5-6
  • Essay prompt Are you brave or shy at all? Do
    you admire others courage if you are shy?
    Write a story about your brave or shy doings
    (when where who what why how). How to be braver?

87
Sample Essay 1 Grade 7 Junior-high School
  • Student Response                   
  • My
    Brave Deed  
  •  I made a brave decision and it changed my
    mind.
  •  I was shy when I studied in primary school.Why
    was I so shy?Because everyone in my class was so
    shy.So our classrooms were always so quiet.Even
    no one answered teacher's question in the
    class.Our teachers always felt embarrassed.They
    were too difficulty to lecture because everyone
    was in a boring learning environment.Our Chinese
    teacher once told us the answer to the
    question.But to my opinion that it was not
    exactly. But it was crazy to find out teacher's
    mistake to everyone."Put up your hand way up
    high.Don't be shy!"That's ok. My teacher and
    classmates gave me a clap at last.Everyone
    shouldn't be shy.Show your opinion to others in a
    loud voice.Let's be a brave man!

88
Machine Scores of My Brave Deed
  • Holistic Score 3.4 out of 5
  • Conventions 3.3
  • Fluency 3.3
  • Word Choice 3.3
  • Voice 3.3
  • Organization 3.2
  • Ideas And Content 3.9

89
  • A Live Demo of WRM

90
Assignment
  • 1. Browse NSE online testing bank and reflect on
    ways how it might help you with teaching and
    write up an action plan.
  • ???? http//test.nse.cn/
  • ??? beiwaiwangyuan
  • ??123456
  • ???? 1 ??

2. Experience Writing Roadmap and reflect how
automated writing assessment can be used to
enhance the teaching of English writing in your
class and your research agenda. WRM
Demowww.writingroadmap2.com Student Login in
Site Code  BS02-0006 User name practice
Password testing Teacher Log in Site Code
CU84-0001 User name ctbuser11 Password
wrmteach
91
  • Thank very much!
  • Questions are welcome!
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