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New Threats to Security Challenges and Responses

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New Threats to Security Challenges and Responses Dr. Fred Tanner Geneva Centre for Security Policy Structure of Presentation What is security today? – PowerPoint PPT presentation

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Title: New Threats to Security Challenges and Responses


1
New Threats to SecurityChallenges and Responses
  • Dr. Fred Tanner
  • Geneva Centre for Security Policy

2
Structure of Presentation
  • What is security today?
  • Security Actors
  • Threat Assessments
  • Internationalisation of Policing
  • Role of governance and democratisation
  • Conclusions

3
What is Security?
  • Security as the absence of threats to core values
  • survival
  • welfare
  • identity
  • how we choose to see ourselves (culture, values)
  • how we choose to organise our lives (political
    and judicial institutions)

4
Traditional Understanding of Security
  • Whose security ?
  • ? State
  • Type of threat?
  • ? military
  • Origin of threat?
  • ? external (other States)
  • Response to the threat ?
  • ? increase in military power, unilaterally or
    through military alliances
  • Main security actors
  • ? States
  • ? Defence ministries
  • ? Military alliances

5
The New Security Environment
  • Whose security is important? States, regions,
    groups, individuals
  • What actors are important in discussing security
    states, non-state actors, MNCs, multilateral
    organizations.
  • Where do threats come from in the contemporary
    security environment terrorists, bandits,
    criminals, WMD
  • Are military threats still the most important
    focus in the analysis of security? clearly not.
  • Most of the New Threats are not so much threats
    to the survival of the state, but to society and
    to individuals

6
Deepening and Widening of Security
  • Vertical
  • State
  • Society
  • Human
  • Sectoral
  • Health
  • Economy
  • Environment
  • Poverty

Defence
7
  • Deepening
  • global
  • regional
  • Broadening
  • economic environment food health etc.
  • societal
  • human

8
Societal security
  • Threats not to sovereignty but to the
    identity of a social group
  • Two examples
  • Ethno-national conflicts
  • migration

9
Human security
  • People-centered security agenda freedom from
    fear
  • Includes threats from a state against its
    citizens
  • Practical examples
  • Land mines
  • Small arms
  • Security sector reform
  • Child soldiers
  • Conflict goods (diamonds, etc.)

10
What Is Globalisation?
  • The processes whereby the peoples of the world
    are incorporated into a single world society
    (Albrow 1990)
  • The intensification of worldwide social relations
    linking distant localities such that local
    happenings are shaped by events far away and vice
    versa. (Giddens 1990)
  • Colonisation (Khor 1995)
  • A process that embodies a transformation in
    spatial organisation of social relations and
    transactions (Held 1999)
  • Processes whereby many social relations have
    become relatively de-linked from territorial
    geography, so that human lives are increasingly
    played out in the world as a single whole
    (Scholte 2002)

11
  • Security Actors

12
Actors in Global World
  • States
  • MNCs
  • Criminal Organisations
  • Terrorists
  • Civil Society
  • Media
  • Multilateral Institutions
  • The growth in numbers
  • The multiplication of functions
  • The expansion of powers to regulate interstate
    transactions and the internal policies of states

13
New Security Actors within Governments
  • Interior/justice ministries
  • Finance ministries
  • Environment ministries
  • Energy ministries
  • Health ministries
  • ? Importance of inter-ministerial
    cooperation/coordination

14
Multilateral Security Actors
  • International Organisations
  • - the UN and peace operations
  • - specialised agencies
  • Regional Organisations
  • - military operations
  • - peace-building
  • - multilateral police missions

15
Private Security Actors
  • NGOs
  • Multinational corporations
  • Transnational criminal networks
  • Terrorist groups
  • Private military companies

16
  • Threat assessments

17
Where Do Threats Come From?
  • Threats are multidirectional (from outside and
    from within)
  • There are increasing numbers of global threats
    (terror, crime, illicit migration, proliferation)
  • Natural threats are increasingly important

18
UN High Level PanelA more secure world our
shared responsibility (December 2004)
  • Poverty, infectious disease, environmental
    degradation
  • Inter-state Conflict
  • Conflict within states, including genocide and
    gross violations
  • Nuclear, radiological, chemical, biological
    weapons
  • Terrorism
  • Transnational organised crime

19
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20
Deadly cycle
  • Poverty, infectious disease (malaria, Aids, SARS)
    environmental degradation and war feed one
    another in a deadly cycle
  • Poverty is strongly associated with civil war
  • Disease and poverty are connected to
    environmental degradation (climate change)
  • Environmental stress caused by large populations
    and shortages of land and other natural resources
    can contribute to civil war

21
The link to globalisation
  • Many new threats involve transnational flows
  • Many involve transnational actors
  • The global nature of many threats draws into
    question the capacity of the state to do its job
  • Many newer states have little capacity to cope

22
European Security StrategyA Secure Europe in a
Better World (12 December 2003)
  • Root causes of conflicts
  • Poverty, bad governance, weak institutions
  • Terrorism
  • Proliferation of WMD
  • Failed states
  • International Organised Crime

23
NATO Strategic concept 1999
  • The last ten years have () seen the appearance
    of complex new risks to Euro-Atlantic peace and
    stability, including oppression, ethnic conflict,
    economic distress, the collapse of political
    order, and the proliferation of weapons of mass
    destruction

24
NATO Prague Summit 2002
  • Terrorism as strategic threat
  • WMD proliferation (including missile threats)
  • Instability in Wider Europe
  • Cyber attacks

25
US National Security Strategy
  • Enemies in the past needed great armies and
    great industrial capabilities to endanger
    America. Now, shadowy networks of individuals can
    bring great chaos and suffering to our shores for
    less than it costs to purchase a single tank
  • (National Security Strategy of the US, 2002)

26
Fears of EU citizens
27
  • Policy Responses

28
Implications for Policy responses
  • States must cooperate to fight global threats
  • Issues are interrelated
  • e.g. money-laundering, trafficking in drugs and
    persons, and corruption.
  • Security policy engages a larger number of actors
    within states (military, home affairs, police)
  • International efforts to stem the problem are
    only as strong as the weakest link.
  • New threats create an increasing and changing
    demand for institutions and for multilateral
    cooperation
  • Institutional frameworks may need substantial
    reform
  • Current frameworks may not be appropriate ones
    for addressing the imperatives of security policy
  • Limited role of the use of force

29
Events such as Tsunami require Multi-dimensional
Response
  • Local authorities (disaster relief, food, housing
    etc.)
  • NGOs and international organisations (ditto,
    protection of vulnerable persons children,
    other forms of assistance)
  • Militaries (rescue operations, transport, etc.)
  • Private airline companies (transport)
  • Forensic teams (victim identification)

30
Blurring of Internal and External Security
  • Transnational challenges, such as cross-border
    organised crime or transnational terrorism?
    blurring of separation between internal and
    external security
  • ? convergence of police and military functions
  • Increasing involvement of military forces in
    domestic security missions (critical
    infrastructure protection, border control etc.)
  • Internationalisation of policing

31
Internationalisation of Policing
  • Law enforcement cooperation / information
    exchange
  • Global Interpol
  • Regional, e.g.
  • - Europol
  • - SECI Centre (Southeast European
    Co-operativeInitiative Regional Centre for
    Combating Trans-border Crime)
  • Police missions in peace operations, e.g.
  • - IPTF (Bosnia)
  • - EUPM (Bosnia)
  • - UNMIK (Kosovo)
  • - Proxima (Macedonia)

32
Interpol (International Police Organisation)
  • Established in 1923 (under the name International
    Criminal Police Commission I.C.P.C.)
  • Headquarters in Lyon (since 1989)
  • 181 member countries
  • Main purpose enhance co-operation and
    information exchange between law enforcement
    agencies of member countries in the fight against
    international crime
  • No executive powers (does not conduct criminal
    investigations)

33
Europol (European Police Office)
  • Established in 1994
  • Focuses on all forms of serious crime. Main
    priorities are drug trafficking, illegal
    immigration/trafficking in human beings,
    counterfeiting of the euro and counter terrorism.
  • Main activities
  • - Information exchange
  • - Provision of operational analysis in support
    of members states operations
  • - Elaboration of strategic reports (threat
    assessments)
  • No executive powers (not European FBI)

34
SECI Centre, Bucharest
  • Established in 2000 in framework of Stability
    Pact
  • Regional focal point for information exchange on
    cross-border crime (human trafficking, drug
    trafficking, arms trafficking etc.)
  • 15 liaison officers (police and customs officers)
    from 9 SECI countries
  • Participating States include Albania,
    Bosnia-Herzegovina, Bulgaria, Croatia, Greece,
    Hungary, Moldova, Romania, Slovenia, former
    Yugoslav Republic of Macedonia, Turkey and Serbia
    and Montenegro

35
Arc of reformRisks vs benefits of
democratisation
  • HLP global values of HR, responsibility to
    protect
  • EU externalisation of civilian and liberal
    model belief in multilateralism
  • European neighbourhood policy (ENP)
  • Council Policy of containment (terrorism, IOC,
    migration)
  • Commission liberal and free market ideology
  • US forward strategy of freedom
  • Democratic peace
  • Risk of Algerian syndrome

36
Conclusion
  • The broader the concept, the less useful to
    policy-makers and analysts
  • Security in a global world is as strong as its
    weakest link
  • Blurring between external and internal security
    has profound institutional and policy
    consequences
  • Regional responses (e.g. EU, NATO) are necessary
    but not sufficient
  • Emerging importance of law enforcement, declining
    importance of the use of force
  • Is total or absolute security possible?

37
Conclusion
  • In focusing on new threats and agendas, we should
    not ignore old ones in new forms
  • The impartial socialization of the Russian
    Federation
  • US unipolarity and alleged unilateralism
  • The rise of new poles of power (China, Europe)
  • The decay of old relationships
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