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Introduction to Information Technology

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Title: Introduction to Information Technology


1
Introduction to Information Technology
  • BIS 100

2
Definition for IT
  • Information Technology (IT) is a broad subject
    concerned with the use of technology in managing
    and processing information, especially in large
    organizations
  • IT deals with the use of electronic computers and
    computer software to convert, store, protect,
    process, transmit, and retrieve information
  • Information Technology is also known as
    Information Communication Technology (ICT)

3
Why is it Important ?
  • Rapid deployment and set-up
  • Access to critical real time decision support
    information
  • Delivery of high value and high quality
    information matched against pre-defined
  • Ease of use and flexibility for operating in a
    high stress, limited resource environment.
  • Systems that run in a connected and stand-alone
    mode
  • Systems that facilitate information sharing and
    communication locally and internationally
  • Open systems, flexible, scalable, and secure
    application and technology solutions.
  • Comprehensive and flexible report generation
  • Adapting systems to meet regulatory, cultural,
    social, skill and usage requirements.

4
What is a Computer?
  • A Computer is a programmable, multipurpose
    machine that accepts data (e.g. raw data, facts
    figures) and processes, or manipulates it into
    information we can use, such as summaries or
    totals

E.g. An automatic teller machine (ATM) computes
the deposits and withdrawals to give you the
total in your account.
5
Why Computers are Needed?
  • Fundamental Characteristics, to Increase
  • Accuracy
  • To process data with high precision
  • Speed
  • To manipulate data with high speed compared to
    manual processes
  • Storage capacity
  • To increase storing capability

6
Why Computers are Needed?
  • The three fundamental characteristics enable the
    following by
  • Increased Productivity
  • Efficient Decision Making
  • Cost Reduction

7
Why Computers are Needed?
  • Hand over our recursive tedious work to the
    computer
  • Typewriter Word Processor/Printer
  • Card file Database Management System

8
Why Computers are Needed?
  • letter e-mail
  • phone dialler Communication Management program

9
Functions of a Computer
  • Input Operations
  • Arithmetic Operations
  • Logic Operations
  • Output Operations
  • Storage Operations

10
Functions of a Computer Contd.
  • Input Operations
  • computer can accepts data instructions.
  • Arithmetic Operations
  • Computer can process arithmetic operations such
    as Addition, Multiplication, Subtraction
    Division
  • Logic Operations
  • Computer can perform logic operation such as
  • AND, OR, NOT .

11
Functions of a Computer Contd.
  • Output Operations
  • Computer can produce an output as a screen view,
    as a hard copy, as a sound output.
  • Storage Operations
  • Computer can store a large amount of data
    programs permanently perform tasks later.

12
Components of a Computer System
13
Components of a Computer System Input Units
  • Input units are used to feed data and
    instructions to the computer system.
  • Input units provide the interface between the
    outside world and the computer system.

14
Components of a Computer System Input Units
  • The most common examples for the input units are
  • Keyboard
  • Mouse
  • Other pointing devices.

15
Components of a Computer System Output Units
  • The output units of a computer systems, are used
    to produce the results of the operations
    performed by the computer.
  • Displays various other messages to the user.

16
Components of a Computer System Output Units
  • The most common examples for the output units are
  • Display monitors
  • Printers

17
Components of a Computer System Internal Storage
  • This is also called as the main memory, and most
    commonly RAM (Random Access Memory).
  • Volatility is one of the specific features of the
    main storage. That is, it requires continuous
    supply of electrical power to retain information.

18
Components of a Computer System Internal Storage
  • The internal store is used to
  • Receive the commands and data from the input
    units.
  • Store the information ready to be sent to the
    output units.
  • Store the currently running program(s).
  • Store the data required for the currently running
    program(s).
  • Store the intermediate data generated by the
    currently running program(s).

19
Components of a Computer System External Storage
  • The external storage units are non-volatile.
  • They are used to store programs and data for
    future use.
  • They are also used when the capacity of the
    internal storage is insufficient to keep the
    currently running program(s) and the data
    required.

20
Components of a Computer System Arithmetic
Logic Unit
  • Both the Arithmetic Logic Unit (ALU) and the
    Control Unit of a computer system are
    collectively called as the Central Processing
    Unit (CPU) of a computer system.
  • When all the electronics required to implement
    the functions of the CPU are included in a single
    Integrated Circuit(IC) chip, it is called a
    Microprocessor.

21
Components of a Computer System Arithmetic
Logic Unit
  • The ALU performs all the arithmetic and logical
    operations required during the execution of the
    programs.

22
Components of a Computer System Control Unit
  • Main function of the control unit is to issue the
    control signals to all the components to activate
    the role of each of them during the process of
    running a program.

23
Components of a Computer System Control Unit
  • It receives the individual instructions in a
    program one by one and then decodes them to
    identify the type and the sequence of the control
    signals to be generated.
  • The control unit is responsible for the overall
    control of the system.

24
Hardware, Software and Firmware
  • Hardware
  • Consists of all machinery and equipments which
    comprise a computer system .
  • All tangible items in a Computer system fall into
    the category of hardware.
  • That is, in a Computer system the hardware
    includes, among other devices, the Keyboard, the
    Screen, the Printer and the Computer or
    processing devices itself.

25
Hardware, Software and Firmware...
  • Software
  • Intangible in nature.
  • Consists of the step-by-step instructions that
    tell the computer what to do.
  • Needs some media to exist.
  • Runs on top of hardware making the hardware
    usable.
  • Software is divided into two basic categories
  • Application Software
  • System Software

26
Hardware, Software and Firmware...
  • Firmware
  • Inbuilt software which has been installed by the
    manufacture.
  • The permanent pieces of software which are not
    supposed to be altered by the users are presented
    in this form.
  • Firmware brings some flexibilities in the
    manufacturing process of the computer systems.
  • E.g. Machine-language programs stored
  • on ROM chip

27
System Software
  • System Software provides the interface between
    the hardware and the application software.
  • In this context it hides the hardware
    complexities and also brings the different
    hardware configurations into common platforms.

28
System Software
  • Enables the Application software to interact with
    the computer help it manage its internal
    resources.
  • System software make the hardware of the computer
    system accessible by the application programs and
    the users.

29
System Software
The systems software consists of several
programs, one of the most important of which is
the operating system. The operating system acts
as the master control program that runs the
computer.
30
Application Software
  • Application software may be either customized or
    Packaged
  • Customized Software
  • is the Software designed for a particular
    customer according to their needs.
  • Packaged Software
  • Also called as Software Package, is the kind of
    Off-the-Shelf program developed for the general
    use.

31
Packaged Software
Word Processing The Most popular kind of
applications program, allows a person to use a
computer to create, edit, save and print
documents. Used to prepare letters, memos,
reports, manuscripts, etc. E.g. Microsoft Word
32
Packaged Software
Spreadsheet Allows a person to use rows, columns
and formulas to display, analyse and summarise
data, mostly numerical data. Used to do budgets,
sales projections, financial plans, etc. E.g.
Microsoft Excel, Lotus 1-2-3
33
Packaged Software
Database Manager Allows a person to use a
computer to define files, records within files
and data elements within records in a relatively
easy manner and provide a convenient method to
access, update and create reports from the data
managed in multiple files. Used to manage
employee lists, student list letters, etc. E.g.
Microsoft Access, dBase, SQL Server
34
Packaged Software
Graphics Allows a person to present information
in the form of charts and graphics or to create
complex freehand artwork. Used for
presentations. Simple graphics are provided by
spreadsheet software, while others are more
sophisticated s/w. E.g. Microsoft PowerPoint,
Adobe Illustrator
35
Packaged Software
Communications Allows a person to manage the
transformation of data between computers over
wired or wireless channels. Used for E-mail,
Internet, FTP, etc. E.g. ProComm, Smartcom,
Crosstalk
36
Customised Software
Accounting, Sales and Distribution,
Manufacturing, Management Sciences, Medical and
Health Care, Real Estate, Personal Investor, Tax
Manager, Time Scheduler, etc. e.g.
ACCOUNTING Inventory Control Accounts
Receivable Payroll General Ledger
37
Evolution of Computers
  • 1st Generation Computers
  • 2nd Generation Computers
  • 3rd Generation Computers
  • 4th Generation Computers

38
First Generation (1951-58)
  • Vacuum tubes for internal operations
  • Low-Level languages for programming (machine
    language)

39
First Generation (1951-58)
  • Magnetic drums for primary memory.
  • Primary memory limited.
  • Heat and maintenance problems.
  • Punch cards for input and outputs.
  • Slow input and output
  • e.g. UNIVAC I, EDVAC

40
Second Generation (1958-64)
  • Transistors for internal operations.
  • Increased use of high level languages.
  • Magnetic cores for primary memory.
  • Increased memory capacity.
  • Binary coded data.
  • Increasing processing speed.
  • Magnetic tapes and disks for secondary storage
  • e.g. IBM 1620, UNIVAC 1108.

41
Third Generation (1965-70)
  • Integrated circuits (ICs) on silicon chips for
    internal operations.
  • Increased memory capacity.
  • Common use of minicomputers.
  • Emergence of software industry.
  • Reduction in size and cost.
  • Increase in speed and reliability.
  • e.g. HONEY WELL-6000 SERIES

42
Fourth Generation (1971-today)
  • Large Scale Integration (LSI) and Very Large
    Scale Integration (VLSI) for internal operations.
  • Development of the microprocessor.

43
Fourth Generation (1971-today)
  • Introductions of micro and super computers.
  • Increase in speed,power and storage capacity.
  • Parallel processing.
  • Artificial intelligence and expert systems.
  • Robotics
  • Increased use of Micro/Personal Computers.
  • e.g. Apple II, IBM PC, Micro Computers

44
Fifth Generation (1981-1990s)
  • A project to develop intelligent computers.
  • They are computers with artificial intelligence.
  • Symbolic manipulation and symbolic reasoning is
    required.

45
Classification of Computers
  • Mainframe Computers.
  • Minicomputers.
  • Microcomputers.
  • Special Purpose Computers.

46
Types of Modern Computers
  • Microcomputers
  • Workstations and Personal Computers
  • Minicomputers
  • Mainframe Computers
  • Parallel Processing Computers
  • Supercomputers

47
Microcomputers
  • Based on a microprocessor - single silicon chip
    CPU.
  • Enables the integration of sound, video,
    graphics, as well as text into software
  • 'Multi-media' systems now available.

48
Microcomputers
  • Appeared mid-to-late 70s.
  • E.g. Apple II, TRS-80, Sinclair Spectrum,
    Commodore PET
  • Peripherals connected via ISA, PCI, EISA,
    PCMCIA/PC Card e.g. CD-ROM sound card, speakers,
    microphone
  • Portable models now available

49
Microcomputers
  • Small computers that can fit on a desktop or
    briefcase.
  • Two types
  • Personal Computers (PC)
  • Workstations

50
Personal Computer (PC)
  • Desktop or portable (laptop, notebook, palmtop).
  • Used in most organisations and at homes.
  • Commonly used for easy-to-use programs such as
    word processing, spreadsheets.

51
Workstations
  • Powerful and expensive than a PC.
  • Often connected to large computer system.
  • Designed to work with large or complex
    applications.
  • Used by engineers and scientists.
  • e.g. drafting, engineering design, 3D-graphical
    models

52
Minicomputers
  • Scaled down mainframe. (refrigerator-size)
  • Designed to meet the computing needs of a
    department or small company. Typically 4-100
    concurrent users.

53
Minicomputers
  • Usually run without a special environment.
  • Can support a number of concurrent applications
    and often uses a time-sharing operation system
    that aims to keep the users busy.

54
Minicomputers
  • Lesser processing speed and data-storing
    capabilities than mainframes and used by
    medium-sized companies for specific purposes.
  • Low-end mainframes and high-end microcomputers
    can overlap.

55
Mainframe Computers
  • A multi-user computer designed to meet the
    computing needs of a large organization.
  • Originally the term referred to the metal cabinet
    housing the CPU.
  • Generally refers to computers of the 1950s and
    1960s.

56
Mainframe Computers
  • A Large number of dumb terminals were used for
    input/output and it had a large number of
    peripherals attached.

57
Mainframe Computers
  • Can process a number of applications
    concurrently.
  • Used by large organisations to handle millions of
    transactions.
  • Usually housed in specially wired air-conditioned
    rooms.
  • Less powerful than supercomputers.

58
Supercomputers
  • Sophisticated, expensive computers, using
    state-of-the-art technology.
  • Provide processing speeds, many times that of
    powerful workstations.
  • Particularly used in the simulation and modeling
    of complex systems.
  • e.g. weather, chemical processes, the US economy,
    motion of galaxy

59
Evolution of Intel Microprocessors
60
Evolution of Intel Microprocessors
61
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