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TECHNOLOGY: An Introduction

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Title: TECHNOLOGY: An Introduction


1
TECHNOLOGY An Introduction
2
TECHNOLOGY EDUCATION is . . .
  • A study of technology, which provides an
    opportunity for student to learn about the
    processes and knowledge related to technology
    that are needed to solve problems and extend
    human capabilities. (R1, pg.242)

3
AREAS OF TECHNOLOGY
  • COMMUNICATION
  • CONSTRUCTION
  • MANUFACTURING
  • POWER AND ENERGY
  • TRANSPORTATION
  • BIOTECHNOLOGY

4
TECHNOLOGY IS . . .
  • Human innovation that involves the generation
    of knowledge and processes to develop systems
    that solve problems and extend human
    capabilities. (R1, pg.242)

5
TECHNOLOGY IS NOT . . .
  • Things from Nature
  • trees
  • birds
  • fish
  • These things are impacted by technology, but not
    examples of technology

6
TECHNOLOGICALLY LITERATE means . . .
  • The ability to use, manage, understand, and
    access technology. (R1, pg.242)

7
Communication Systems Systems that change
information into messages that can be
transmitted. These systems include a sender,
message, receiver, and feedback.
8
Communication Systems Model The message is
encoded (made into a symbol) so it can be
transmitted through a channel. The message is
then received and decoded so it can be
understood. Interference or noise can cause a
breakdown in communication. Feedback allows you
to determine if the message that was sent was
communicated accurately
9
Structural Systems Systems that use goods and
materials to build structures that will resist
external force, support a load, and hold each
structural element in a relative position to
other parts.
10
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11
Manufacturing Systems Systems using materials and
processes to produce usable products.
12
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13
Energy, Power and Transportation Systems
Systems that convert energy into mechanical,
fluid, electrical, radiant, chemical, and thermal
energy.
14
Science tells us that energy can neither be
created nor destroyed. However, a great deal of
human action is devoted to converting energy from
one form to another form. For example, we burn
fuels to change water into steam, which contain
energy in the form of heat.
15
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16
IMPACTS OF TECHNOLOGY
  • Society
  • Culture
  • Economy
  • Environmental
  • Politics
  • Ethical Considerations

17
Society -Having to do with the ways in which
communities of people live. For example,
Communication technology has changed the way
people spend their leisure time. (TV, Internet,
and ipods.)
18
Culture - Having to do with the skills and arts
developed during a given period. For example,
What about our attitudes toward violence? Have
they changed because of TV. When we see battles
in bloody detail on the evening news each night,
does it have an impact on our feelings about war?
19
Economy - Having to do with the economy. Today,
businesses rely on computers, high tech
telephones, fax machines, and local area computer
networks. These systems have a real effect on the
economy.
20
Environmental - Relating to our physical
environment. Communication tends to be a clean
technology. Compared to smokestack industries,
like steel production, communication industries
are easier on the environment. However, this does
not mean there are fewer environmental impacts
involving communication technologies. A cleaner
environment is an impact.
21
Politics -Relating to the government. Long ago
someone wrote, The pen is mightier than the
sword. His point was that the written word could
bring about more political and social change than
violence or war. The mass media (TV, radio,
newspaper, magazines, and books) have a real
impact on our political system.
22
Ethical Considerations Relating to matters of
right and wrong Things that are unethical may not
necessarily be against the law. However most
people agree they are wrong. You can now copy
music without paying for it. Is this ethical?
23
Impacts of Technology
  • Technology is increasing at an exponential rate.
  • Impacts can be positive or negative and intended
    or unintended

24
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25
Trade-off is accepting the benefits of a
technology despite negative or undesirable
aspects. For instance cars pollute, but we love
having the independence to travel where we desire.
26
Questions about Impacts of Technology Cutting
down trees to build a parking lot is an example
of how technology affects the Environment Socie
ty Culture Economy Determining whether or not
cloning is right is what type of
concern? Moral Ethical Economic Environmental
27
Questions about Impacts of Technology Johns
religion does not allow medical intervention.
This is an example of what type of
impact? Environmental Cultural Economic Societ
al The assembly line enabled various products to
be mass-produced. This is an example of what
type of impact? Aesthetic Cultural Economic Et
hical
28
Questions about Impacts of Technology Laws that
govern human cloning are Environmental Politica
l Biotechnical Historical The fact that we
tolerate some technologies, even though they have
negative impacts on us is a Trade-off Socializa
tion Obstacle of process Product obsolescence
29
  • Questions about Impacts of Technology
  • An unexpected impact of technology might include
    which one of the following?
  • Birth defects caused by industrial pollution.
  • A positive impact of technology.
  • Improved fuel efficiency in a newly developed
    automobile.
  • Production cost override.
  • Weighing the tradeoffs to determine if the
    technology is feasible, or for the best, refers
    to which part of technology?
  • impacts.
  • negative aspects.
  • positive aspects.
  • steam power

30
  • Questions about Impacts of Technology
  • Which of the following is an example of a
    desirable impact of technology?
  • Air pollution from automobiles
  • Waste disposal of obsolete products
  • Affordable products for the masses
  • Development of ozone gases

31
The Technology Student Association is a
non-profit national student organization devoted
to teaching technology education to young people.
TSA's mission is to inspire its student members
to prepare for careers in a technology-driven
economy and culture. The demand for technological
expertise is escalating in American industry.
Therefore, TSA's teachers strive to promote
technological literacy, leadership, and problem
solving to their student membership
32
Major Historical Developments Stone
Age Approximately 250,000 B.C.- 3,000 B.C.
During the Stone Age most tools were made of
stone. Shaping rocks into sharp edges for arrows,
spears, and knifes was very time consuming and
the tools would easily wear with use. Most tools
were used for agriculture and hunting
33
Major Historical Developments Bronze
Age Approximately 3000 B.C. - 1200 B.C. Bronze
is a metal alloy made of copper and tin. People
found it easier to shape tools if metal was
melted then shaped by using a mold. The metal
tools were not only easier to shape, but were
more durable and useful than stone tools. Most
technological developments were for improved
agriculture practices, growing industries and
military applications
34
Major Historical Developments Iron
Age Approximately 1200 B.C. - 500 A.D. Iron is
metal, and when alloyed with other materials is
stronger than bronze. Again, most technological
developments were brought about to improve
agriculture, trade and military weapons.
35
Major Historical Developments Middle
Ages Approximately 500 A.D. - 1500 A.D. The
Middle Ages brought about a number of
technological developments that led to
industrialization. The agricultural advances
produced a surplus of crops, which led to
increased trade. Increased trade created bigger
markets with more products. The spinning wheel
was one of the jumpstarts of a growing textile
industry.
36
Major Historical Developments Renaissance Approx
imately 1450 A.D -1700 A. D. the Renaissance was
a time of rebirth in the arts. Gutenburg
invented the printing press with moveable type,
which enabled information to be disseminated
throughout the world. At first, the printing
press was used for the distribution of the Bible,
but as time progressed, it was used to produce
other literature. Leonardo da Vinci created
drawings and written descriptions of things that
were later developed in the 20th Century. The
first screwdriver was invented as gunsmiths tried
to adjust their gun mechanisms. The camera
obscura, telescope, the submarine, and hydraulic
press were also developed during this time
period.
37
Major Historical Developments Industrial
Age Approximately 1700 - 1940. The Industrial Age
marks the point in history in which factories
took over the production of most products. People
began to buy items and migrate toward cities for
jobs. The growing number of factories drove the
need for technological improvements in machinery
and systems. Trade over long distances increased
which created a bigger demand for fast, reliable,
efficient transportation systems. Communication
advances accelerated information and coordination
systems at an alarming rate. Structural systems
were forced to improve as cities began to grow up
instead of out.
38
Major Historical Developments Information
Age Approximately 1940 - present. The Information
Age is a period of time where technological
developments have and will continue to occur at
an exponential rate. New developments are often
outdated before the finished product arrives at
the store for purchase. The microchip
revolutionized the world of electronics and has
made communication systems faster, cheaper, and
more powerful than ever. Constant research occurs
in energy systems to make them more efficient and
less harmful to the environment. Manufacturing
systems are highly technical and require
specialized education. Structural systems are
constantly changing to incorporate new materials
and creative approaches to efficient building.
39
Stone Age 250,000 B.C. - 2500 B.C. Development
Approximate Date Significance Control of fire
500,000 B.C. Cooking, making pottery,
lighting, heat Hand ax 500,000 B.C. Used for
hunting Bow and arrow Unknown Used for
hunting Spears Unknown Flint rock or bone and
used for hunting and fishing Animal oil
lamps Unknown Lamps that burn on animal
fat Needles 18,000 B.C. Made of bone to
produce clothing Agriculture 8000 B.C. Humans
planned the growth of plants and animals
for food Bricks 7000 B.C. Building
materials Irrigation 5000 B.C. Humans planned
the watering of agricultural
crops Wheel 3500 B.C. Increased human power
for agriculture and transportation of goods
40
Bronze Age 3000 B.C. - 1200 B.C. Development
Approximate Date Significance Wooden ships
3000 B.C. Used for trade and
transportation Pyramids 2700 B.C.
Remarkable applications of architecture
and mathematics Improved wheels 2000 B.C.
Spokes made wheels lighter, thus easier
to transport goods. Chariots 2000 B.C.
Ground transportation and military
vehicles Glass 2000 B.C. Used for jewelry
and ornaments Casting of metals 1400 B.C.
Pouring hot metals in a mold to form
shapes
41
Iron Age 1200 B.C. - 500 A.D. Development
Approximate Date Significance Alphabet 1000
B.C. Important for communication and
trade Arabic Numbers 800 B.C. Important for
communication and trade Water Wheel 700
B.C. Grind grains such as corn Spinning
wheel 500 B.C. Used to make yarn and
thread for cloth Great Wall of China 221
B.C. Built to prevent invasion Glass blowing
100 B.C. Easier to shape glass Calendar 45
B.C. Important for communication, trade
and agriculture Glass 50 A.D. First
used in windows Cement 400 A.D. Used as a
building material
42
Middle Ages 500 A.D. - 1450 A.D. Development
Approximate Date Significance Windmills 600
Used to pump water for irrigation and
milling grain Rockets 1232 Used as a
military Gunpowder 1242 First explosive with
both military and building uses
43
Renaissance Approximately 1450 A.D -1700 A.
D. Development Approximate Date
Significance Leonardo da Vinci 1452
1519 Designed flying machines,
helicopter, machine gun, turbines Printing
press 1454 Improved communication
through the mass production of
books Railroad 1500 Used in mining to
transport heavy loads Galileo 1596
1610 Heat measurement, laws of
gravitation, observed the solar
system Newton 1600s Laws of gravitation,
optics, and physics
44
Industrial Age 1700 - 1940 Development
Approximate Date Significance Factory system
1700's Mass production of
products Steam engine 1769 Changes steam
into mechanical energy to operate
machines Cotton gin 1793 Made cotton
a profitable industry Machine tools 1795
Made it possible to produce precision
parts for manufacturing Erie Canal 1825
Opened shipping routes between the Great
Lakes Atlantic Ocean
45
Industrial Age (cont.) 1700 - 1940 Development
Approximate Date Significance Telegraph
1837 Improved long distance
communications Transcontinental 1869
Fast, reliable Railroad Railroad
transportation for people and
goods Suez Canal 1869 Shortened shipping
routes between east and west
Africa Telephone 1877 Improved
communications without the use of
coded messages Phonograph 1877
Recording device
46
Industrial Age (cont.) 1700 - 1940 Development
Approximate Date Significance Radio 1895
Long distance (transatlantic) voice
communications Airplane 1903 Greatly
improved long distance transportation of
people/goods
47
Information Age 1940 - Present Development
Approximate Date Significance Television
1923 Fast visual communications Compu
ter 1940s Facilitates the processing
control capabilities of people Geodesic
dome 1947 Structure of lightweight
materials without reinforcing
members Transistor 1948 Smaller and more
reliable than vacuum tube Space
exploration 1950s Responsible for
countless technological advances
through research
48
Information Age (cont.) 1940 - Present Development
Approximate Date Significance Integrated
circuit 1959 Contains thousands of
components that are cheap and
efficient Facsimile 1970s Transmits
documents over telephone lines Cellular
telephone 1978 Mobile telephone
communications Internet 1984
Individual access to enormous
quantities of information Fiber optics
1980s Fast, frictionless communication
s through a glass tube Solar energy
Undefined Converting energy from the
sun for use in modern energy
systems Nuclear reactors 1980s Alternative
sources of energy
49
Technology and Other Disciplines
Discipline How Technology Relates to the
Discipline Language Arts a) Desktop
Publishing b) Computer support of oral
presentations c) Technical reports d)
Software used for grammar and spell check on
word processors
50
Technology and Other Disciplines
Discipline How Technology Relates to the
Discipline Science a) Science uses technology to
help make new discoveries. For example, the
Hubbell Space telescope represents electronic,
satellite, communication, and transportation
technology that scientists have used to learn
more about the universe than ever before b)
Genetic engineering of new agricultural
products. c) Development of anti-cancer
products. d) Application of electromagnetism
51
Technology and Other Disciplines
Discipline How Technology Relates to the
Discipline Mathematics a) Application and use of
measurement techniques b) Use of
measurement tools
52
Technology and Other Disciplines
Discipline How Technology Relates to the
Discipline Social Studies a) Historical
Developments b) Impacts on Society
53
Technology Assessment
  • Describes a variety of techniques for
    determining the effects of the interaction of
    technology and society.

54
Process for determining trends
  • Collect Information and evaluate Its Quality
  • Compare and contrast the information
  • Examine relevancy
  • Investigate the background of experts
  • Synthesize the Information and Draw Conclusions

55
Process for determining trends
  • Takes into account the historical events, global
    factors, economic factors, risks that can be
    incurred, and tradeoffs.
  • Assessment
  • Choose the best course of action
  • Forecast possible trend

56
  • Two types of Forecasting
  • Normative forecasting helps people determine a
    path to take in the development of technology in
    order to arrive at an ultimate goal. Basically,
    the path is comprised of a series of subordinate
    goals to achieve the ultimate goal.

57
Flow Diagram is developed from the relevance
tree. It shows the steps needed to achieve the
ultimate future goal via a path.
58
Two types of Forecasting 2. Exploratory helps
people look into the future buy using past and
present conditions to predict future events and
developments. Exploratory forecasting involves
identifying trends and extending them into the
future.
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