Native American tribes existed in Latin America before the arrival of the Europeans. The Native Americans came from Asia across the Bering Strait (possibly a land bridge at one time) around 15000 BCE - PowerPoint PPT Presentation

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Native American tribes existed in Latin America before the arrival of the Europeans. The Native Americans came from Asia across the Bering Strait (possibly a land bridge at one time) around 15000 BCE

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Title: Native American tribes existed in Latin America before the arrival of the Europeans. The Native Americans came from Asia across the Bering Strait (possibly a land bridge at one time) around 15000 BCE


1
History
Native American tribes existed in Latin America
before the arrival of the Europeans. The Native
Americans came from Asia across the Bering Strait
(possibly a land bridge at one time) around 15000
BCE 3 civilizations were very important. Maya Az
tec Inca
2
Maya
Capital Tikal. Agriculture, trade, math,
glyphs, calendars, solar eclipse. Abandoned the
cities. 6 Million Maya live in Guatemala and
Mexico (Yucatan Peninsula).
3
Aztec
Mexico. Capital Tenochtitlan. Class system,
grew food on floating islands called chinampas,
calendars, bridges. Conquered by Cortes.
4
Peru. Capital Cuzco. Terrace farming with
irrigation, roads, and temples. Used quipu
(knotted cords of various lengths and colors to
keep financial records. Pizarro conquered.
Inca
5
Cacao - Chocolate
  • The Maya and Aztec mixed ground cacao seeds with
    various seasonings to make a spicy, frothy drink.

Ancient Maya drawing of a god being presented
chocolate drink.
6
AGE OF EXPLORATION Period from the 1400s to
the early 1600s. European ships traveled around
the world in search of new trade routes.
Advances in cartography, navigation, and ship
building made it possible for Europeans to travel
out of the calm Mediterranean across the more
turbulent Atlantic.
7
1492 Christopher Columbus sails for Spain in
search of a western route to the spice islands.
He lands in the Bahamas which he names San
Salvador. First European to come in contact with
chocolate, but thought it was a useless bean.
8
Columbus voyages started the COLUMBIAN EXCHANGE
the widespread exchange of agricultural goods,
livestock, slave labor, communicable diseases,
and ideas between Europe (Old World) and the
Americas (New World).
9
Amerigo Vespucci
  • Chief navigator for Spain
  • America named for him
  • Claimed Americas were the 4th
  • continent Asia, Africa, Europe
  • and now Americas

10
Months after Columbus returns to Europe the Roman
Catholic countries of Spain and Portugal went to
Pope Alexander VI on a way to divide the new
land. He set the line at the 38º W longitude
line. (all the way to the other side of the
earth in the Pacific Ocean) Line of
Demarcation. Portugal and Spain met again in
1494 and signed the TREATY OF TORDESILLAS that
divided the lands of the New World at the 46º 37
W. All land to the west belongs to Spain all
the land to the east belongs to Portugal. This
is why Portugal only has Brazil in the area.
11
1519 - Hernando Cortes defeated the Aztecs in
Mexico and established the area for Spain. He is
the first European to take cacao to Europe
12
1519 Ferdinand Magellan begins circumnavigation
of the world. He is killed in the Philippines,
but 18 of his sailors do return to Spain. Sir
Francis Drake (England) will be the first captain
to complete the trip in 1577.
13
Conquistadors
  • Spanish word for conqueror soldiers, explorers,
    and adventurers.
  • Cacao valued by rich
  • people in Europe
  • seeds regularly sent
  • back from New
  • World

14
encomiendas
  • Spanish labor system during colonization.
  • the crown granted a person a specified number of
    natives for whom they were to take
    responsibility.
  • The receiver of the grant was to protect the
    natives and teach them Spanish and how to be
    Roman Catholic
  • They could exact tribute from the natives in the
    form of labor, gold or other products, such as in
    corn, wheat or chickens. Basically slave labor.

15
Before the French and British even began to
settle North America The Spanish had set up
Spanish society in Latin America.
Hispanoles / Peninsulares Spaniards born in
Europe Creoles Spaniards born in the New
World Mestizos Spanish and Native American
mix Mullotoes Spanish and African mix Indios
Native Americans Africanos African slaves
Top
Bottom
The top of society had all the land and all the
money.
16
Viceroys
  • A royal official who runs a country, colony, or
    province (or state) in the name of and as
    representative of the Monarch.
  • Latin America was split into the Viceroyalties of
    La Plata, New Spain, and New Granada

17
Late 1600 1700s Triangle Trade sugar, rum,
and slaves were the main commodities. Slaves were
needed to work on sugar, tobacco, and cacao
plants.
18
haciendas
  • Large plantations owned by the wealthy and worked
    by indigenous people (almost slaves)
  • Conquistadors given large land grants for
    conquering the area

19
1804 Haiti becomes the first country in Latin
America to gain independence from colonial powers
(France)
20
Cacao - Chocolate
  • Industrial Revolution at the end of the 1700s
    leads to new machinery cacao press and conching
    machine make it possible to make solid chocolate
  • Latin America becomes one of the main producers
    of cacao. Workers paid very little.
  • Consumers are in the developed world.

21
1807 Simon Bolivar begins his revolutionary
movement. Eventually, he will help in
revolutions in Venezuela, Colombia, Ecuador,
Peru, Panama, and Bolivia. He is known as El
Libertador The Liberator. He later serves as
president of Greater Colombia, Peru, and Bolivia
22
Jose de San Martin
  • Helped revolutions in southern
  • South America Chile, Peru
  • and Argentina

23
Miguel Hidalgo y Costilla
  • Sept 16, 1810 he rings the bell of the church in
    Dolores, Mexico and proclaims an end to Spanish
    rule in Mexico and calls for equality for
    Mexicos various races and redistribution of
    land. The Cry of Dolores has great appeal to the
    poor.
  • 9/16 is Mexicos
  • Independence day.

24
Agustin de Iturbide
  • General that brought about the end of the Mexican
    War of Independence
  • Named emperor of Mexico
  • The Army of the three guarantees equality,
    Roman Catholicism, and independence from Spain
  • Abdicates, leaves, returns, executed

25
1810 Mexico declares independence from Spain.
Chile and Colombia become independent of
Spain. 1811 Paraguay and Venezuela become
independent of Spain Spain abolishes slavery.
26
Caudillos strongmen dictators ruled many
Latin American countries after independence.
These men were revolutionaries that planned coup
d'états. Governments were very unstable in this
region
27
1902 US grants independence to Cuba. US had
taken control of the island in 1898 because Spain
could not keep the violence under control.
28
1902 - US buys the Panama Canal Zone from France.
The US works to finish the project. Colombia is
not happy with US intervention in the area.
29
US wanted to control the Panama Canal area, but
Colombia would not agree to the US terms. The US
backed the rebels against Colombia. In 1903,
Panama declared independence from Colombia.
Panama then grants the US permission to complete
the canal and control it until 1999. Opens in
1914
30
Poverty Gap
  • 30 of people lack land, adequate food, shelter,
    and basic education. The elite have affluence
    and wealth.
  • In some countries up to 85 of the land and
    wealth belongs to only 1 of the citizens.
  • Free enterprise everyone has the ability to
    make a living.
  • Democracy outlet for protest and opposition
  • Education the best way to improve the lives of
    citizens.

31
1910 Mexican Revolution. Revolutionaries such
as Pancho Villa and Emiliano Zapata fought
against the Presidential forces of Porfirio Diaz.
The revolutionaries wanted reforms (especially
land reform). 90 of the wealth was controlled
by 1 of the people.
32
1949 1989 Cold War power struggle between
the communist world, led by the USSR, and the
non-communist world led by the US. There were no
actual battles in this war, but Vietnam, Korea,
and Cuba could be considered part of the Cold War.
33
1959 Fidel Castro overthrows the government of
Fulgencio Batista in Cuba. He begins
collectivism and a move to communism. Unable to
get support from the US he turns to USSR.
34
1962 Castro allows USSR to base nuclear weapons
in Cuba. President John F. Kennedy orders a
blockade of Cuba. This situation came very close
to starting World War III. Jamaica becomes
independent of Britain.
35
TODAY
Latin American countries rely on cash crops
need more skilled labor, money, and natural
resources. Urbanization is occurring in Latin
America and US Canada. People are moving to
urban areas to find jobs. Many Latin American
industries are owned by foreign
companies. Deforestation of the rainforest is of
international concern. Some US companies have
begun buying parcels of land for reforestation
and conservation projects.
36
Debt for Nature swap
  • Many Latin American nations are burdened by
    tremendous international debt. They borrowed
    money to improve living conditions.
  • Environmental agencies and organizations are
    paying of some of the debts in return the
    governments must set aside rainforest land.

37
Hugo Chavez
  • Move to the left toward communism. As well as
    Cuba Venezuela (Chavez), Bolivia, Ecuador,
    Brazil, and Paraguay have moved left and are
    disengaging ties with the US.
  • Chavez nationalized the petroleum industry.
  • Media is censored
  • He would like a united
  • Latin America with him as leader.
  • Anti-US

38
Raul Castro
  • After nearly 50 years as dictator Fidel handed
    over command to his brother Raul in 2008.
  • Possible move to the center and better relations
    with the US
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