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The Renaissance

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Title: The Renaissance Author: MPS Last modified by: MPS Created Date: 6/27/2000 3:08:54 PM Document presentation format: On-screen Show (4:3) Company – PowerPoint PPT presentation

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Title: The Renaissance


1
  • 1500-1660

2
The Renaissance
  • Intellectual movement
  • Rebirth of scholarship based on classical
    learning and philosophy
  • Spread from Italy

3
Rebirth of human spirit the Individual!
  • Realization of human potential for development
  • Lead to discoveries in
  • literature
  • science
  • religion
  • philosophy
  • invention
  • geography

4
The Rise of the Renaissance in England
  • 1500-1558

5
Henry VII
  • 1485--End of the Wars of the Roses
  • Henry Tudor became Henry VII
  • Married Elizabeth of York
  • United the two warring factions
  • Brought peace and tranquility
  • Began to replenish the treasury

6
Henry the VIII
  • 2nd son (Arthur dies young)
  • Wasted treasury
  • Needed Cash
  • Needed a Male Heir
  • Broke with the Catholic
  • Church

7
Act of Supremacy
  • 1534
  • King declared Head of Church of England
  • Seized Catholic Churchs properties
  • Steady movement of population to cities

8
Henrys Wives
  • Divorced, beheaded, died
  • Divorced, beheaded, survived

Catherine of Aragon
Anne Boleyn
Jane Seymour
Anne of Cleves
Catherine Howard
Catherine Parr
9
Edward the VI
  • 1547 Henry VIII Dies
  • Edward VI ascends throne
  • 10 years old/Pawn of powerful men
  • weak and sickly physical constitution
  • 1549--Book of Common Prayers published
  • Died in 1553 of consumption or over-medication

10
Mary I
  • Daughter of Catherine of Aragon
  • Devoted Catholic
  • Known as Bloody Mary
  • 300 Protestant victims
  • Died childless

11
The Height of the
  • 1558-1603

12
Elizabeth I
  • 1558--ascends throne at 25
  • Protestant
  • Never married
  • 45 years as Queen made royal history!
  • Established 100 free grammar schools
  • great patron of the arts a poetess herself
  • Middle class educated and gained power
  • Defeated the Spanish Armada England becoming a
    super power.

13
The Court of Elizabeth
  • Educated courtiers
  • Music and dancing
  • Masques (flamboyant musical dramas)
  • Entertainment included public hangings, witch
    burnings, bearbaitings, elevated discussions, and
    Italian poetry
  • Golden Age of English drama (Marlow, Jonson, and
    Shakespeare)
  • Civic and Religious leaders viewed theatre as
    evil

14
Evolution of Elizabethan Theatre
  • At first
  • No elaborate sets
  • countryside -- on makeshift platforms
  • London -- performed in taverns and inns
  • considered traveling vagabonds
  • content of plays changes from strictly religious
    to more secular plots and settings.
  • Church withdrew its support

15
Changes in Theatre
  • Popularity lead to purpose built playhouses
  • Spectators who could afford it sat in balconies
  • Groundlings stood on ground around stage
    (called Stinkards in summer time)
  • No lighting daytime performances (2pm)
  • large platform became the stage.
  • Professional acting companies got support of
    Queen Elizabeth.

16
Theatres
  • located outside city limits reduce plague
  • first permanent theatres since the Romans
  • 1576 First theater The Theatre
  • Later torn down and renamed The Globe
  • All the worlds a stage As You Like It
  • Building also used for other entertainment like
    bull or bear baiting

17
Theatre Layout
  • Round/Octagonal open air structure
  • Platform juts out into open yard
  • Back wall 2 doors for entrances/exits
  • Upper stage/balcony
  • 2 pillars holding up heavens painted with
    Zodiac
  • Audience seated in galleries or standing on the
    ground

18
Indoor Theatres
  • During winter
  • In palaces of Queen Elizabeth or King James
  • Large halls lit by candlelight
  • Many of these plays set at night
  • Macbeth one of these? (spooky)

19
The Audience
  • Nobles (sometimes on stage)
  • Groundlings might throw garbage and heckle
    performers if displeased
  • No restrooms for up to 3000 spectators
  • No intermissions
  • Smells and swells urine, beer, ginger, garlic,
    tobacco, sweat
  • vendors, prostitutes, general rowdiness
  • Plot of the play usually known (HistoryLegend)
  • Only one entrance/exit (Wait your turn!)

20
Actors
  • No female actresses! Too uncouth a job!
  • prepubescent boys play female parts
  • little actual sex or romance in plays just brief
    kisses
  • strong female characters
  • women disguised as men -- a plot device
  • still British tradition Monty Python
  • troupes 15 men
  • members versatile. Required to be
  • acrobats
  • singers
  • dancers
  • swordsmen
  • know multiple parts

21
Costumes
  • extravagant, spangled affairs
  • gold thread
  • lace
  • silk
  • velvet
  • cast-offs of aristocratic patrons
  • actors wore make-up (generally considered an
    abomination by church)
  • anachronism out of time Roman soldiers in
    Julius Caesar wore Renaissance fashions.

22
Staging
  • No outside curtains used between scenes
  • very little scenery
  • Actors lines helped audience understand setting.
    Here I stand in a forest..
  • 2 Doors symbolized different places
  • Synecdoche part stand for whole
  • 3 soldiers stand for an army
  • throne stands for castle of the king
  • Prologues given as introductory speed
  • summary of story
  • points out the theme
  • spoken by narrator or chorus

23
Language
  • Combined a variety of action with variety of
    language
  • Pun a play on words based on two words sounding
    alike but having different meanings.
  • Play written in iambic pentameter natural
    speech rhythms
  • Blank verse (verse, but no rhyme)
  • Often makes use of rhyme
  • Upper class characters poetry
  • Lower class characters - prose
  • Proximity of Actors and Audience
  • aside character speaks to audience
  • soliloquy character speaks thoughts aloud to self

24
Special Effects
  • Winch system to raise and lower things
  • Thunder fire cannon or roll cannonball down
    wooden trough
  • Lighting gun powder
  • Trap doors under stage, called Hell

25
Theatrical Taste
  • Great love of blood, guts, gore, supernatural
  • lots of violence
  • animal bladders filled with blood under costumes
  • battered pigs head of chopped off human head
  • Lots of ghosts, witches, spirits all believed
    in at that time
  • Bawdy humor plays very sexual
  • puns
  • double entendres

26
Scripts
  • One copy of script complete held by book holder
    (stage manager)
  • Actors got pieces of paper with just their lines
    and cue words on them
  • Not a lot of stage directions indicated by
    lines themselves
  • Here comes Macbeth spoken by a character on
    stage meant Macbeth was to enter

27
Shakespeare
  • Born in Stratford upon Avon
  • Father a merchant (Glove maker)
  • Married Anne Hathaway older woman (by 6 years)
  • Anne already pregnant when married
  • Has a few kids
  • Heads out to London to become a STAR!

28
Shakespeare in London
  • Became an actor
  • criticized for being a stage hog
  • started writing (still some acting)
  • plays popular with the public, but not the
    critics
  • Breaks the rules of good writing
  • murders on stage
  • mixed comedy with tragedy
  • did away with decorum

29
Shakespeares Company
  • Prominent members of Shakespeares acting
    company
  • Richard Burbage
  • Will Kemp
  • Cuthbert Burbage
  • John Hemmings
  • Under patronage of
  • Queen Elizabeth -- 1594
  • Lord Chamberlains Men
  • Under patronage of King James -- 1603
  • Kings Men

30
The First Folio
The First Folio
  • A folio is
  • A book or manuscript consisting of pages folded
    in the middle
  • Approximately 14x18
  • Shakespeares First Folio is
  • The first compilation of Shakespeares work
  • It consisted of 36 of his plays 18 of which
  • it was the first time they were published
  • Published in 1623 7 years after his death.
  • Only 750 copies printed and it sold out!

31
The Decline of the
  • 1603-1649

32
James I
  • First Stuart King
  • Believed he ruled by divine authority
  • Commissioned King James version of Bible
  • Opposed Puritanism
  • Growing religious and political unrest
  • Catholics conceived idea to blow up
    Parliament--1605-Gunpowder Plot
  • Guy Fawkes Day--November 5

33
Jimmy and Willy
  • Macbeth written for King James
  • VI of Scotland
  • I of England
  • House of Stuart descended from royalty in the
    play (Banquo and son Fleance)
  • King obsessed with witchcraft and the occult
  • actually wrote a book about it called Demonology
  • One theme of Macbeth is revenge and retribution
  • Shakespeare spices the plot to James
    satisfaction with the 3 weird sisters (witches)
    and a few ghosts

34
Womens Rights
  • Women were second class citizens
  • No right to an education
  • Pawns used in marriage agreements
  • A fathers word was final in all aspects of a
    womens life
  • If she did not marry, she had no future
  • Shakespeare challenges these views in
  • Taming of the Shrew
  • A shrew is a strong willed, outspoken,
  • uncontrollable woman
  • Shakespeare makes the audience recognize
  • the unjust way women are treated
  • The major question of the play is if Kate is
  • tamed.

35
Charles I
  • Son of James I
  • Dismissed Parliament
  • 1642--Civil War broke out
  • Cavaliers--royal supporters
  • Roundheads or Puritans--Parliamentary supporters
  • Beheaded in 1649
  • Oliver Cromwell ruled as Lord Protector
  • Playhouses closed in 1649
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