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Title: CEE 8095


1
CEE 8095 Georgia Institute of Technology February
22, 2006 REGIONAL ATMOSPHERIC POLLUTION AND
TRANSBOUNDARY AIR QUALITY MANAGEMENT Annu.
Rev. Environ. Resour. 2005. 30137 Michelle S.
Bergin Georgia Inst. of Tech., Dept. of Civil
and Environmental Engineering J. Jason West
Princeton University, Program in Atmospheric and
Oceanic Sciences and Woodrow Wilson School of
Public and International Affairs Terry J.
Keating U.S. EPA, Office of Air and
Radiation Armistead G. Russell Georgia Inst. of
Tech., Dept. of Civil and Environmental
Engineering
2
Overview
  • GENERAL CHARACTERISTICS OF REGIONAL ATMOSPHERIC
    TRANSPORT AND CHEMISTRY
  • REGIONAL AIR POLLUTANTS AND EFFECTS
  • Acid Deposition
  • Tropospheric Ozone
  • Particulate Matter
  • Mercury
  • Persistent Organic Pollutants
  • Regional Climate Change
  • A unified view
  • MANAGEMENT OF REGIONAL TRANSBOUNDARY AIR
    POLLUTION
  • Examples of Transboundary Air Quality Management
    Regimes and Approaches
  • Achieving Successful Regimes for Transboundary
    Air Pollution
  • Assessment of Existing International Regional
    Regimes

3
Air Pollution Impacts
  • Current estimates are that a quarter of the
    worlds population is exposed to unhealthy
    ambient air pollutants, with nearly 6.4 million
    years of healthy life lost owing to long-term
    exposure to ambient particulate matter alone.
    (World Health Organ. 2003, 2004)
  • Air pollution damages crops, built structures
    such as buildings and historic monuments,
    ecosystems, and wildlife.
  • Pollutants currently in the atmosphere are likely
    causing large scale changes in the Earths basic
    systems such as climate and ocean dynamics.

4
Regional Air Pollution
  • Several important air pollutants are widely
    recognized to be transported over scales from
    about 100 to a few 1000s of kilometers, large
    enough to cross state, provincial, national, and
    even continental boundaries.
  • Managing these regional pollutants requires
    overcoming political, economic, and cultural
    differences to establish cooperation between
    multiple jurisdictions.
  • Effective pollution reduction requires an
    understanding of the linkages between pollutants
    and of their impacts at different geographic
    scales.

5
Regional Air Pollution Management
  • Transboundary air pollution is common.
  • Its damage is extensive.
  • Political cooperation necessary to mitigate the
    damage and avoid potential future damage.
  • GOALS
  • Develop integrated control strategies
    incorporating
  • multiple linkages between pollution problems
  • multiple scales of pollutant impacts
  • multiple benefits of alternative technology and
    behavioral choices
  • linkages between air pollution and economic
    development, energy, agriculture, transportation,
    and trade policies.
  • Enable all affected parties to reach agreements
    to implement these control strategies.

6
GENERAL CHARACTERISTICS OF REGIONAL ATMOSPHERIC
TRANSPORT AND CHEMISTRY
  • What determines the geographical extent of a
    pollutants impacts?
  • Pollutant
  • Emission rate and patterns of release (primary or
    precursors)
  • Chemistry (formation, intermediates, removal,
    conditions)
  • Transport methods
  • Removal/deposition properties
  • Atmosphere
  • Oxidation (HO), chemistry
  • Tropospheric vertical mixing (10 km deep)
  • Horizontal transport velocity averaged mean
    400 km/day, ranging from a few tens km to about
    1000 km
  • Meteorological patterns (wind, solar intensity,
    clouds, rain, )
  • Geography
  • Natural emissions
  • Meteorological patterns
  • Terrestrial properties
  • Deposition

7
REGIONAL AIR POLLUTANTS AND EFFECTS
  • ACID DEPOSITION damages or destroys aquatic and
    terrestrial ecosystems and manufactured
    materials
  • TROPOSPHERIC OZONE harms the health of humans
    and wildlife, damages crops and ecosystems, and
    is a greenhouse gas
  • PARTICULATE MATTER harms health, degrades
    visibility, and changes precipitation and
    temperature patterns
  • MERCURY toxic to humans, plants, and animals,
    and biomagnifies in the food chain
  • PERSISTENT ORGANIC POLLUTANTS (POPs) toxic,
    biomagnify, and remain in the environment for
    many years
  • REGIONAL CLIMATE CHANGE impacts and is impacted
    by regional air pollution.

8
Acid Rain Damage
www.adirondackcouncil.org/
www.fws.gov
www.dnr.cornell.edu/.../current_research.htm
9
Acid Deposition
  • pH of Rain
  • Natural precipitation 5.6 (slightly acidic)
  • Polluted areas often 3 to 4, lower has been
    measured
  • Most aquatic insects, algae, and plankton (base
    of food chain) cannot tolerate water with a pH
    below 5.0. A pH below 5.0 can also result in
    reproductive failures in fish and amphibians.
  • Acid runoff leaches poisonous metals such as
    aluminum and mercury from soils and clay, and
    carries them into water bodies.

10
Observed values of volume-weighted annual average
pH of precipitation. Rodhe H, Dentener F,
Schulz M. 2002. Environ. Sci. Technol.
Annual average pH of rainwater. The most
acidified regions occur in eastern North America,
Europe, and China. The maximum in South America
is associated with emissions from a smelter in
northern Chile coupled to low amounts of rainfall
in that region.
11
Spatial Impacts of Acid Deposition
  • The natural pH of water bodies and soils varies
    considerably depending on the soil composition
    and buffering capacity of a watershed.
  • These differences explain why some areas are
    highly susceptible to damage from acid deposition
    (e.g., lakes in the northeastern United States
    and the Black Forest in Germany), whereas other
    areas, such as those with soils rich in lime, are
    relatively resistant.
  • Patterns of rainfall also help determine where
    acid is deposited.

12
The evolution and unified chemistry of
regional acids, ozone, particulate matter, and
mercury.
  • Gases blue
  • Particulates green
  • HO, HO2 red

13
Natl. Instit. Public Health Environ. (RIVM),
Bilthoven, Neth. 1995. dataset EDGARV32.
www.rivm.nl/edgar/model/ims/
NOx from anthropogenic sources in 1995.
SO2 from anthropogenic sources in 1995.
14
Acid Chemistry and Transport
  • NOx ? nitric acid in a few days or less
  • SO2 ? sulfuric acid within several days
  • Mean transport distances of SO2, NOx, and their
    oxidation products are approximately 200 to 1200
    km before deposition
  • In addition to direct transport, NOx can form
    organonitrates that can travel 100s to 1000s of
    km before converting back to NOx

15
Acid Cooperative Programs
  • Early 1970s Cooperative studies under the
    Organization for Economic Cooperation and
    Development (Europe)
  • 1978 National Atmospheric Deposition Program (US)
  • 1979 Convention on Long-Range Transboundary Air
    Pollution (originated in Europe)
  • 1981 Natl. Acid Precipitation Assessment Program
    (US)
  • 1990 SO2 Emissions Trading Program (US)
  • 1991 Canada-United States Air Quality Agreement
  • 1998 Acid Deposition Monitoring Network in East
    Asia (EANET)

16
Tropospheric Ozone
  • Concentrations
  • Clean troposphere 10 to 40 ppb
  • Polluted air 100 to 400 ppb
  • Impacts
  • Causes acute and chronic health problems,
    especially related to lung functions, asthma, and
    pulmonary infection (human).
  • Accounts for an estimated several billion dollar
    crop loss every year in the United States alone.
  • Causes short- and long-term damage to the growth
    of forest trees and alters the biogenic
    hydrocarbon emissions of vegetation.
  • Research is examining effects on sensitive
    wildlife populations.
  • Acts as a potent greenhouse gas.

17
One-hour averaged ozone concentration and its
sensitivity to a 50 reductions in surface NOx
emissions on July 15, 2010 at 4 pm. (Bergin et
al., in progress)
Ozone sensitivity to surface NOx emissions from
VA.
Ozone sensitivity to surface NOx emissions from
TN.
18
The evolution and unified chemistry of
regional acids, ozone, particulate matter, and
mercury.
  • Gases blue
  • Particulates green
  • HO, HO2 red

19
Ozone Removal
  • Photolytic loss O3 hn ? O(1D) O2 and O(1D)
    H2O ? 2 OH highest at low altitudes in the
    tropics
  • Kinetic reaction HO2 O3 ? OH 2 O2
  • Deposition takes a few days over land, longer
    over water.
  • Ozone and its precursors can be transported over
    large regions, making it difficult or even
    impossible for some areas to manage their own
    concentrations through local emission controls

20
Cooperative regional ozone monitoring and
modeling studies
  • US 1980s early 1990s
  • San Joaquin Valley Air Quality Study
  • Lake Michigan Ozone Study
  • Regional Ozone Modeling for Northeast Transport
  • Southern Oxidant Study (SOS)
  • Southern Appalachian Modeling Initiative (SAMI)
  • European Experiment on the Transport and
    Transformation of Environmentally Relevant Trace
    Constituents in the Troposphere over Europe
    (EUROTRAC, 1980s and 1990s)
  • Late 1990s to current Monitoring of ozone export
    from the east coast of North America and Asia,
    and modeling studies of trans-Atlantic and
    trans-Pacific transport.
  • Historical measurements and modeling studies
    suggest that anthropogenic NOx emissions continue
    to increase global tropospheric ozone
    concentrations. (Prather et al., 2003 US EPA,
    2004)

21
Particulate Matter
High-visibility conditions in the Smoky
Mountains- 100 miles (top) and low-visibility-20
miles (bottom) www.ornl.gov/.../v38_1_05/article0
2.shtml
Clear and Hazy Days in Houston www.utexas.edu/.../
texaqs/visitors/photos.html
22
Particulate Matter
  • Harmful to human and environmental health,
    degrades visibility, damages built structures,
    and alters climate.
  • No threshold has been identified under which
    particulate matter has no adverse health effects.
  • In the US, the average visual range in eastern
    parks has decreased from 90 miles to 1525 miles,
    and in western parks from 140 miles to 3590
    miles (US EPA, 2004)
  • Direct and indirect effects on climate
  • Evolution of science and policy TSP ? PM10 ?
    PM2.5

23
The Trimodal Aerosol Distribution
Primary and secondary Variable size and
composition
Mechanical Processes
Molecular Processes
  • Coarse PM Lifetimes of minutes to days ?
    transport of less than 10s of km. However, large
    dust storms and biomassburning events can carry
    coarse (and fine) particles very long distances.
  • Fine PM Lifetimes of days to weeks ? transport
    100s to 1000s of km.
  • In addition to size, hygroscopic properties of
    the aerosol also determine travel distance.
  • Fine particulates are dominant in most
    regional-scale aerosol pollution events.

Emissions
washout
Penn State Earth and Mineral Sciences www.ems.psu.
edu/lno/Meteo437
24
The evolution and unified chemistry of
regional acids, ozone, particulate matter, and
mercury.
  • Gases blue
  • Particulates green
  • HO, HO2 red

25
Twenty four-hour averaged PM2.5 concentration on
July 17, 2010
Sensitivity to a 50 reduction in SO2 emissions
from Tennessee
An average of 75 of PM2.5 in each state is found
to be sensitive to SO2 emissions from other
states. (Bergin et al., In progress)
26
Particulate Matter Anthro. Sources
  • In industrialized areas (e.g. Europe, N. Amer.,
    Japan, large cities in Asia) particles are mainly
    generated by gasoline, diesel, and coal
    combustion and from condensed organic and metal
    vapors, and tend to contain sulfate, nitrate,
    ammonium, and organic carbon, with smaller
    amounts of metals and crustal materials.
  • In less developed areas, (e.g. parts of Africa
    and Asia) biomass burning is the principal source
    of regional aerosol pollution, resulting largely
    in elemental and organic carbon particles and
    nitrate.
  • Dust storms largely contribute mineral particles,
    and are exacerbated by desertification.

27
A satellite image from the Earth Probe TOMS.
NASA. (EPA 2002) Smoke/Dust (absorbing
aerosols) from forest fires in Central America
and Southern Mexico over North America on May 15,
1998. Visibility in many Texas cities was less
than 1 mi.
Dust and burning plumes may also carry
anthropgenic aerosols. One study estimates
transboundary transport of particulate matter and
its precursors dominated natural sources in the
US, and that up to 30 of the transboundary
particulate matter was due to transport from
Asia. (Park et al., J. Geophys. Res., 2004)
28
Mercury
  • Mounting evidence strongly implicates mercury
    exposure as playing a role in the increasing
    rates of learning disabilities found today in our
    children. the EPA reported that 1 in every 6
    women of child bearing age had mercury levels
    high enough to cause adverse neurodevelopmental
    outcomes in their unborn children. boys are
    more sensitive to the neurological effects of
    mercury than are girls
  • Letter printed in Newsweek Feb 13, 2006 Lyn
    Redwood, President Robert J. Krakow, Board of
    Directors Sensible Action for ending
    Mercury-Induced Neurological Disorders
    (SafeMinds)

29
Mercury
  • Mercury affects the immune system, alters genetic
    and enzyme systems, and damages the nervous
    system. Developing embryos are five to ten times
    more sensitive to damage by MeHg, which rapidly
    crosses the placenta, than are adults, and young
    children are especially susceptible to mercurys
    neurotoxic effects.
  • In the US alone, over 60,000 children per year
    are estimated to be born at risk for adverse
    neurodevelopmental effects caused by in utero
    exposure to MeHg.
  • In the US, 2003, 45 states issued mercury
    advisories to limit the consumption of certain
    fish from freshwater lakes and rivers, coastal
    waters, and marine environments. (NRDC (Jan 2006)
    estimates 1 can of tuna a month for a child of 45
    lbs.)
  • Humans are exposed to MeHg almost entirely by
    eating contaminated fish and animals that are at
    the top of aquatic food chains.

30
Estimated global emissions of mercury. UN
Eviron. Programme (UNEP) 2003.
  • About 75 of the total 1995 anthro. emissions are
    attributed to combustion of fossil fuels (Pacyna
    ,2003) particularly in coal-fired power plants
    (NRC, 2000 EPA, 2004). Asian countries are
    estimated to contribute over 50 of the total
    emissions chiefly from coal combustion in China,
    India, and South and North Korea.

31
Estimates of Annual Mercury Contributions to the
Atmosphere (Mg/yr)
Approximately 1/3 are natural and 2/3 are
anthropogenic (US EPA, 2004)
  • Values from Seigneur et al., Environ. Sci.
    Technol. 2004

32
Conceptual biogeochemical mercury cycle
a
(Environ. Can. 2004)
33
Lifetime of Mercury in the Atm.
  • Lifetime of elemental mercury Hg0 ? 1.21.5
    years New findings strongly indicate 1 or 2
    months. (Renner R., Environ. Sci. Technol.,
    2004)
  • This more rapid oxidation may be due to reactions
    with halides (at the poles and temperate marine
    boundary layer) and urban pollutants, most likely
    ozone.
  • This shorter lifetime suggests that deposition
    occurs much more rapidly than previously
    estimated, and therefore current emissions are
    likely higher than estimated. One such
    underreported source may be gold mining
    activities, which may release between 800 and
    1000 Mg/yr (previous estimates are 300 Mg/year)
    (UN Eviron. Programme (UNEP) 2003)

34
Persistent Organic Pollutants
  • Toxic organic substances that widely disperse,
    persist in the environment, bioaccumulate, and
    pose a risk to human health and the environment.
  • Common characteristics
  • Semivolatile and/or partial water solubility
  • Transported in the atmosphere both in the gaseous
    and condensed phases, deposited, and then
    reemitted through a repeated (and often seasonal)
    cycle of evaporation and deposition
  • Lifetimes from a few years to decades long
  • Most commonly recognized are partially oxidized
    and/or halogenated organics, often including one
    or more aromatic structures.
  • Linked to causing, among other effects, cancer,
    damage to the nervous system, reproductive
    disorders, behavioral disorders, and disruption
    of the immune and endocrine systems (includes
    allergies, asthma, thyroid disorders, and others.)

35
POPs human health effects
  • POPs enter humans chiefly through animal-derived
    food (fish, poultry, beef, eggs, and dairy
    products). Concentrations can magnify in fatty
    tissues by up to 70,000 times background levels.
  • Because of their fat-seeking properties, POPs
    magnify in infants both in utero and through
    breast-feeding, magnifying concentrations through
    generations.
  • Human breast milk concentrations of some
    monitored POPs have been increasing
    exponentially, serving as an indicator of past
    human exposures and environmental conditions.
    Previously unrecognized POPs (i.e., brominated
    biphenyl ethers) have been identified by
    increasing concentrations found by systematic
    monitoring of chemicals in human breast milk in
    Sweden after they banned the use of seven other
    POPs in the 1970s.

36
  • POPs released in one part of the world may
    circulate regionally and globally via the
    atmosphere, oceans, and other pathways.
  • Regional transport and deposition of POPs (and
    heavy metals) in Europe have been demonstrated
    through modeling. Further evidence of long-range
    transport comes primarily from the detection of
    POPs in remote locations. In the colder
    environments at the poles, semivolatile POPs
    condense and accumulate. Atmospheric monitoring
    data are sparse, and global emission
    distributions are poorly characterized.

37
POPs Legislation
  • The Dirty Dozen
  • DDT, aldrin, dieldrin, endrin, chlordane,
    heptachlor, mirex, toxaphene, hexachlorobenzene
    (HCB), polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), dioxins,
    and furans.
  • pesticides (e.g., DDT, aldrin, dieldrin, endrin)
  • consumer or industrial applications, such as
    coolants, flame retardants, lubricants, and
    sealants (e.g., PCBs)
  • generated unintentionally as by-products of
    various combustion processes, such as medical
    waste incineration (e.g., polycyclic aromatic
    hydrocarbons (PAHs), dioxins, and furans).
  • Targeted to be banned or restricted by the
    Stockholm Convention on POPs, signed in May 2001
    by over 100 countries (except for DDT in some
    places)
  • All 12 have been identified in Great Lakes fish
    and wildlife, even though some of these compounds
    were never used in significant quantities in the
    region. Consumers of the regions fish have up to
    eight times the body burden of POPs as the
    general public.

38
POPs Legislation (cont.)
  • REACH Regulation, Evaluation, and
    Authorization of Chemicals
  • Since 1998, Europeans have been working on
    legislation that will require industry to prove
    that chemicals being sold and produced in the EU
    are safe to use or handle. The current system
    requires governments to prove that a chemical is
    dangerous. The policy will require registration
    of all substances that are produced or imported
    into the EU in quantities greater than 1 ton.
  • European government officials charged that U.S.
    government agencies have worked closely with
    business to weaken the impact of REACH
    According to documents released by U.S. Rep.
    Henry Waxman (D-CA), U.S. government lobbying on
    behalf of industry provided talking points
    for U.S. government officials notably similar
    in language to themes developed by industry at
    the request of a U.S. trade official The
    United States has not conducted studies on the
    health and environmental impacts of REACH,
    Waxman tells EST. It simply began to lobby
    against REACH on behalf of U.S. industry
    interests without a full understanding of these
    impacts. EST Online News (Feb 1, 2006)

39
Regional Climate Change
  • Particulate matter
  • Fine particles scatter light efficiently,
    resulting in a cooling effect on ambient
    temperature.
  • Black carbon particles absorb light and create a
    warming effect.
  • These aerosols have different spatial
    distributions, so do not simply offset each
    other.
  • Particles also serve as cloud nuclei, increasing
    the number of cloud droplets but decreasing
    average cloud droplet size and pattern of
    rainfall.
  • These properties can alter regional atmospheric
    stability and vertical motions, impact
    large-scale circulation, and alter the hydrologic
    cycle. The impact of aerosols depends on chemical
    and physical properties of the particles that are
    not yet well characterized.

40
Regional Climate Change (2)
  • Ozone
  • Tropospheric O3 ranks only behind CO2 and CH3 in
    anthropogenic contributions to global average
    radiative forcing and is expected to increase the
    global average temperature over the next decades.
  • Urban ozone is expected to increase with
    increases in temperature, particularly during
    highly polluted episodes.
  • Natural climate patterns impact air pollution
    formation and transport, and evidence strongly
    indicates that air pollution also impacts
    climate. Political bodies must address
    questions such as whether to act under the
    current understandings and uncertainties, and if
    so, how to coordinate or prioritize mitigation
    efforts and who is responsible for reducing
    emissions. Scientific bodies must aid in
    unifying our understanding of air pollution and
    its impacts and identifying efficient control
    strategies.
  • RGGI A Regional Greenhouse Gas Initiative MOU
    was signed on December 20, 2005 by the Governors
    of Connecticut, Delaware, Maine, New Hampshire,
    New Jersey, New York, and Vermont. This program
    designs a cap and trade program for carbon
    emissions.

41
A Unified View
The evolution and unified chemistry of regional
acids, ozone, particulate matter, and mercury.
Each pollutant has distinct regional
characteristics, yet they are intimately linked
by the chemistry and physics of the atmosphere,
as well as by common sources and possible
controls.
  • Gases blue
  • PM green
  • HO, HO2 red

Their linked chemistry and common sources present
strong arguments for addressing them
simultaneously to identify the most effective
control policies.
42
MANAGEMENT OF REGIONAL TRANSBOUNDARY AIR POLLUTION
  • Generally, decreasing upwind emissions requires
    the development of some type of cooperative
    regime - social institutions consisting of
    agreed-upon principles, norms, rules,
    procedures, and programs that govern the
    interactions of actors in specific issue
    areas A regime encompasses a whole process of
    interaction, including both scientific and
    political activities, with or without formal
    agreements.

43
Achieving Successful Regimes for Addressing
Transboundary Air Pollution
  • The amount of human resources or money is not the
    deciding factor in reaching an agreement, but the
    generation of the coordination, cooperation, and
    trust.
  • Generally follows two phases
  • Frame the problem define the issues, knowledge,
    and relationships between the parties, and the
    interests and positions of parties, as well as
    the differences in positions. Cooperative
    scientific research plays a leading role.
    Agreements reached are typically general.
  • Build on the institutions created in the first
    phase, allowing for the increasingly complex and
    substantive policy agreements. During this phase,
    emphasis is placed less on the international
    dimensions of the problem, and more on analysis
    of collectively beneficial, efficient
    alternatives.

44
Examples of transboundary air quality management
regimes and approaches
  • Emission Trading of SO2 for Acid Deposition
    Control (US)
  • Part of 1990 U.S. Clean Air Act Amendments (CAAA)
    and the Acid Rain Program.
  • Designed a market with a fixed number of emission
    allowances that could be bought, sold, or traded.
  • Goal to cut SO2 emissions from power plants to
    half of 1980 levels by 2010.
  • By 2003, achieved a 38 reduction from 1980
    levels.
  • Initial estimates of the cost of reductions were
    4 to 8 billion per year.
  • Recent estimates are that the costs have been
    about 1 billion per year.

45
Examples continued
  • Regional NOx Control for Ozone (US)
  • The Ozone Transport Commission (OTC) was formed
    in the 1990 CAAA to consist of 12 east coast
    states (Maine to Virginia)
  • Most states were both upwind and downwind of
    nonattainment areas.
  • Designed an emission trading program similar to
    that of the SO2 program.
  • Succeeded because states were mutually assured
    that all states would be subject to similar
    controls and overall costs of emission reductions
    would be reduced through trading.
  • The Ozone Transport Assessment Group (OTAG) was
    created in 1995 to address regional ozone. It
    was comprised primarily of representatives of the
    EPA and 37 states in the eastern half of the
    United States.
  • The differences between conditions in upwind and
    downwind states and the lack of political
    leverage to encourage upwind states to reduce
    emissions were not overcome, and OTAG was able
    only to reach a weak consensus.
  • Only through the intervening authority of a
    higher governmental body (the US EPA) could a
    regional strategy be implemented.

46
Examples continued
  • Cooperative Control in Europe
  • The 1979 Long-Range Transboundary Air Pollution
    (LRTAP) Convention
  • Includes all of the nations of Europe (including
    the former Soviet Bloc), the US, and Canada.
  • Eight protocols have been successfully
    negotiated, including agreements to support
    scientific cooperation and obligations to reduce
    emissions related to acidification, tropospheric
    ozone, POPs, heavy metals, and eutrophication.
  • Recently expanded to include several of the
    former Soviet republics in Central Asia.

47
Important Characteristics of Past Successful
Regimes
  • Cooperation among technical experts.
  • Developed scientific cooperation before political
    negotiations began.
  • Provided support to build technical and
    management capacity of all parties for timely
    analyses of proposals. Such analyses are most
    effective when considered to be
  • credible (competent and appropriate for decision
    needs)
  • legitimate (the assessment process is transparent
    and impartial)
  • salient (relevant and timely for decision-making
    needs).
  • Tend to have few parties, parties are
    economically, culturally, or geographically
    similar. However, regimes are unlikely to
    succeed unless they involve all major parties
    contributing to a problem.
  • Developed interpersonal trust between key actors
    and with institutions.
  • Ensured the accountability of parties in
    fulfilling commitments.
  • Are adaptable to changing situations and
    information.

48
Acknowledgments
  • EPA STAR graduate fellowship
  • EPA STAR research grants
  • NASA New Investigator Program grant to D.
    Mauzerall
  • National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration,
    U.S. Department of Commerce.
  • The Annual Review of Environment and Resources is
    online at http//environ.annualreviews.org
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