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Theories of Development

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Theories of Development Qualities of a good theory Internally consistent--parts fit together in a consistent way Should provide meaningful explanations Open to ... – PowerPoint PPT presentation

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Title: Theories of Development


1
Theories of Development
2
Qualities of a good theory
  • Internally consistent--parts fit together in a
    consistent way
  • Should provide meaningful explanations
  • Open to scientific evaluation
  • Stimulate new thinking and research
  • Should provide guidance to parents and
    professionals in the day-to-day work

3
How theories differ on four developmental issues
  • Maturation or experience?
  • Process or stages?
  • Active or passive role of the child?
  • Broad or narrow focus?

4
Psychodynamic developmental theories
5
Freud
  • The ID seeks pleasure and avoids pain. It is not
    logical in its searches.
  • The ego is rational. Conscious, and
    problem-solving
  • The superego is the moral and ethical component.

6
Freuds defense mechanisms
  • Defense mechanisms are unconscious distortions of
    reality used to protect the ego
  • Repression forces unacceptable feelings and
    impulses from memory
  • Projection attributes ones own feelings such as
    aggression or distrust onto another person
  • Fixation is a blockage in development.

7
Freud's Psychosexual Stages
Psychosexual Stage
Approximate Age
Description
Oral Anal Phallic Latency Genital
Birth - 1 year 1 - 3 years 3 - 6 years 6
- 12 years 12 - adulthood
The mouth is the focus of stimulation and
interaction feeding and weaning are
central. The anus is the focus of stimulation
and interaction elimination and toilet training
are central. The genitals (penis, clitoris, and
vagina) are the focus of stimulation gender role
and moral development are central. A period of
suspended sexual activity energies shift to
physical and intellectual activities. The
genitals are the focus of stimulation with the
onset of puberty mature sexual relationships
develop.
8
Erik Erikson
  • Personality development is a psychosocial process
  • Personality development is a lifelong experience
    and is influences by three interrelated forces
    (next slide)

9
Eriksons forces
  • The individuals biological and physical
    strengths and weaknesses
  • the persons unique life circumstances and
    developmental history, including early family
    experiences and degree of success in resolving
    earlier development crises and
  • the particular social, cultural, and historical
    forces at work during the individuals lifetime
    (racial prejudice, war, poverty)

10
ERIKSONS PSYCHOSOCIAL STAGES
  • Trust vs. Mistrust
  • Autonomy vs. Shame and Doubt
  • Initiative vs. Guilt
  • Industry vs. Inferiority
  • Identity vs. Role Confusion
  • Intimacy v. Isolation
  • Generativity vs. Stagnation
  • Ego Integrity vs. Despair

Birth 1 year 1 - 3 years 3 - 6 years 6 - 12
years (Latency Period) 12 - 19 years
(Adolescence) 19 25 years (Early
Adulthood) 25 50 years (Adulthood) 50 years
and older
11
Ivan Pavlovs Classical conditioning
  • For involuntary responses
  • Basic, not higher order learning
  • Paired conditioned response with UCR to form new
    behaviors (see page 44 of text)

12
Illustration of Classical Conditioning
BEFORE CONDITIONING
(A) Place a nipple in baby's mouth
Touch of nipple (US) elicits gt
Sucking reflex (UR)
(B) Show baby a bottle with a nipple
Sight of bottle elicits gt No
sucking (UR) with nipple (CS)
DURING CONDITIONING
(C) Show baby the a bottle and place its nipples
in baby's mouth. Repeat a number of times
Touch of nipple (US) elicits gt
Sucking reflex (UR)
(paired with)
Sight of bottle elicits gt
Sucking reflex (UR) with nipple (CS)
AFTER CONDITIONING
(D) Show baby the bottle with nipple
Sight of bottle elicits gt
Sucking reflex (UR) with nipple (CS)
13
B. F. Skinners Operant conditioning
  • Looks at empirically verifiable behaviors only.
    Not an introspective field of inquiry.
  • Operant conditioning works with voluntary muscles
    only, in contrast to classical.

14
The behavior-modifiers tools
  • Positive reinforcement, response cost, timeout,
    overcorrection, extinction, ALT-R, negative
    reinforcement, PAC

15
Effective positive reinforcement
  • Should be something that the STUDENT finds
    rewarding
  • In schools, will likely be tertiary reinforcement
  • Beware of satiation
  • Timeliness
  • Reinforcers can change

16
Using response cost effectively
  • Spell out the rules of the game early
  • Allow for buildup of reserve without telling
    students
  • Take fining only so far before mixing it with
    other techniques such as time out

17
Using time out effectively
  • Remove the person from sources of stimulation
    immediately
  • Timeout situation must be neutral with no
    reinforcing properties of its own
  • Short in duration

18
Overcorrection (restitution)
  • Insure the relevance of the corrective measure to
    the problem behavior
  • Apply the procedure immediately and consistently
  • Keep the performance consistent during
    overcorrection. If the student is having to walk
    heel-toe, do not allow him to run the last few
    yards.

19
Extinction (systematic non-reinforcement)
  • Specify the conditions for extinction so that the
    child knows why these things are happening
  • Dispense no reinforcement before its time
  • Watch for spontaneous recovery

20
Reinforcement of alternative behaviors (ALT-R)
  • Behavior to be reinforced must be incompatible
    with that to be extinguished
  • Alternative behavior must already be established
  • Alternative behavior must be one that is likely
    to be supported by the natural environment

21
Negative reinforcement, also called escape
conditioning
  • Do not allow the noxious stimulus to become
    aversive or a different set of behaviors will
    take over.
  • Dispense R- immediately
  • Do not remove the noxious stimulus prematurely

22
Using PAC effectively
  • Communicate the rules before beginning an episode
    where PAC might be used
  • No escape after announcement that PAC is about to
    occur
  • Consistent and immediate application
  • Present at strong intensity
  • Combine PAC with extinction so that the student
    will not attempt the prohibited behavior again.

23
Differences between negative reinforcement and PAC
  • Negative reinforcement uses a noxious stimulus
  • NR has an increase in behaviors as its goal
  • Presentation of aversive consequences uses an
    aversive stimulus
  • PAC has the elimination of behaviors as its goal

24
Shaping
  • Shaping is the behaviorists way of adding new
    behaviors
  • Behaviors that have even slight resemblance to
    the target behavior are reinforced.
  • The professor in a corner

25
Albert Bandura Social Cognitive Learning Theory
  • Observational learning
  • First in a long line of studies was at Stanford,
    1961, Bandura, Ross, Ross. Modeling of
    aggression.
  • Film-mediated had same results (1962)

26
Jean Piagets Cognitive Theory
  • Thinking is qualitatively different depending
    upon the developmental stage of the learner
  • Processes include direct learning, social
    transmission, and maturation.

27
PIAGETS COGNITIVE STAGES
PIAGETS BASIC PRINCIPLES OF COGNITIVE
DEVELOPMENT
Sensorimotor Preoperational Concrete
Operational Formal Operational
Birth - 2 years 2 7 years 7 11
years 11 years - adulthood
Child develops schemes primarily through sense
and motor activities Child can think
symbolically holds egocentric view of the
world Child becomes able to manipulate logical
relationships among concepts but only by
generalizing from concrete experiences Child is
able to deal with abstractions, form hypotheses,
solve problems systematically
  • SCHEME Organized pattern of thought or behavior
  • ASSIMILATION Person interprets new ideas or
    experiences to fit existing schemes
  • ACCOMODATION Person changes existing schemes to
    fit new ideas or experiences
  • ADAPTATION Interplay between assimilation and
    accomodation, resulting in development
  • EQUILIBRIUM Harmonious balance of a persons
    schemes and experiences with the environment

28
Piagets Social Transmission Factors
  • Cognitive consonance--what the learner is
    experiencing fits with what he believes and knows
  • Cognitive dissonance--new info doesnt agree
  • Equilibrium--state of no dissonance

29
PIAGETS COGNITIVE STAGES
Sensorimotor Preoperational Concrete
Operational Formal Operational
Birth - 2 years 2 7 years 7 11
years 11 years - adulthood
Child develops schemes primarily through sense
and motor activities Child can think
symbolically holds egocentric view of the
world Child becomes able to manipulate logical
relationships among concepts but only by
generalizing from concrete experiences Child is
able to deal with abstractions, form hypotheses,
solve problems systematically
30
Lev Vygotskys proximal development
  • Higher mental functions grow out of the social
    interactions and dialogues that children have
  • Zone of proximal development
  • (Womack) Theory explains developmental strain well

31
Vygotskys ideas have given birth to the concept
of scaffolding in promoting student learning.
Teachers build a cognitive scaffold in order to
bring forward previous learnings and to let
students know in which framework the new
instruction is coming. This has the effect of
extending the Zone of Proximal Development a
little further so that the student may extend the
boundaries of his knowledge.
32
Vygotskys ideas fit well with those of an
American psychologist, David Ausubel (not listed
in our book). He pointed out the advantage of
advance organizers (1970s) to prepare students
for new knowledge. Creating advance organizers
might be likened to renting, in advance, several
post office boxes for incoming mail, upon
beginning a new business. One box receives only
payments on account one, complaints one,
invoices from other businesses a fourth, general
mail. In this way the business owner should have
a good idea what awaits him when he gets his mail
and should have a head start on his bookkeeping
and correspondence.
33
(No Transcript)
34
Path of a memory (if remembered)
  • Stimulus occurs
  • Sensory register
  • Decision to attend
  • If attending, short-term memory
  • Rehearsal strategy
  • Long-term memory

35
Factors in Information Processing
  • Control processes, including rehearsal
    strategies. Failure to use rehearsal strategies
    is the single greatest difference between
    retarded and non-retarded learners.
  • Metacognition
  • Knowledge base. This affects the meaningfulness
    aspect.

36
Brain Basics The Brain and Learning
Welcome to The Brain and Learning The following
slide show may be used in a PowerPoint
presentation session or copied onto overhead
transparencies. Each slide is accompanied with
notes for the instructor or session facilitator.
37
Brain Basics The Brain and Learning
Educators must develop a basic understanding of
the psychobiology of the brain to enable them to
evaluate emerging educational applications. Rober
t Sylwester
38
Brain Basics The Brain and Learning
There are two types of brain cells. Neurons 10
of your brain cells are neurons. Glia 90 of your
brain cells are glia.
39
Brain Basics The Brain and Learning
  • The average three-pound brain contains about 100
    billion neurons.
  • The average three-pound brain contains about
    1000 billion glial cells.

40
Brain Basics The Brain and Learning
The average three-pound brain has about one
quadrillion connections between neurons.
41
Brain Basics The Brain and Learning
It is the connection between neurons that makes
us smart.
42
Brain Basics The Brain and Learning
  • Heredity provides about 30-60 of our brains
    wiring.
  • 40-70 of our wiring comes from environmental
    impact.

43
Brain Basics The Brain and Learning
Experience is the chief architect of the
brain.
44
Brain Basics The Brain and Learning
  • Neurons consist of a cell body, an axon and
    dendrites.

45
Brain Basics How Neurons Communicate
The axon sends information. The dendrites and
cell body receive information. The action
inside the cell is electrical. The action
between cells is chemical.
.
Dendrites

.
Axon
Cell Body

.
46
Brain Basics The Brain and Learning
Reoccurring electrical stimulation between cells
promotes cell growth. This cell growth occurs in
the form of dendrite branching. More dendrite
branches create more connections. Hence, better
understanding.
47
Brain Basics The Brain and Learning
  • We learn on many levels at once. The cellular
    level is just one way learning occurs. Learning
    and behavior are also strongly affected by the
    other chemicals in the brain the monomines and
    peptides.
  • Some estimate that over 98 of the brains
    communications occur through peptides and perhaps
    only 2 occurs through the synapses.

48
Brain Basics The Brain and Learning
Take a moment to think on your own then turn to
your partner and share an insight, idea or
personal response to the material just
covered. Take 2 to 3 minutes each.
49
Brain Basics The Memory Process
Rehearsal
Sight
Elaboration and Organization
Sensory Memory
Short Term Memory
Long Term Memory
Sound
Smell
Initial Processing
Taste
Retrieval
Touch
Not transferred to short term memory and so not
stored in the memory system
50
Brain Basics The Brain and Learning
Sensory memory influences different areas of the
brain.
51
Brain Basics Reaction to Stimuli
This slide represents blood flow changes that
occur while an individual is seeing words in
print.
52
Brain Basics Reaction to Stimuli
This slide represents blood flow changes that
occur while an individual is hearing words.
53
Brain Basics The Brain and Learning
Memory is a process rather than a skill or a
thing. A given memory is not created or stored
in one single place in the brain.
54
Brain Basics The Learning Process
Sensory Memory
Long-term Memory
Limbic System
Short-term Memory
Neurons are stimulated. Electro-chemical activity
strengthens the synapse.
Brain determines which information is
emotionally important enough to attend to.
Senses receive information.
Repeated activation improves message Transmissio
n.
The more these networks of neurons are used, the
stronger they becomethe more easily they are
accessed and information recalled.
55
Brain Basics M -Space
The capacity of short-term memory appears to
develop with age. The number of spaces increases
by one unit every other year beginning at age
three. Juan Pascual-Leon, 1970
The m-space capacity of individuals increases at
about this rate but can vary up or down by up
to two units for each age group.
3
5
7
9
11
13
15
Age
56
Brain Basics Chunking
A chunk is any cohesive group of items of
information that we can remember as if it were a
single item.
The difference between novices and experts in a
field appears to be that experts tend -- because
of a great deal of experience in a field -- to
organize information into much larger
chunks, while novices work with isolated bits of
information. Benjamin Bloom
57
Brain Basics Schemas
Our neural networks make up a map that represents
our general knowledge about the world. This
neural map is often called schema. Our schema
provides us with the way for us to understand a
subject or the world around us.
In order to comprehend, we select a schema that
seems appropriate and fill in the missing
information. Pat Wolfe
Without the appropriate schema, students have no
way to assimilate new information.
58
Brain Basics The Brain and Learning
For more information about the brain and
learning, visit the ArtFul Minds web
site. http//library.advanced.org/50072/
59
(No Transcript)
60
Time for your thoughts
  • What would a classroom be like if it used the
    best information from all these theories?
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