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Maximizing the benefits of English-medium instruction through cross-curricular planning at junior secondary levels

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Maximizing the benefits of English-medium instruction through cross-curricular planning at junior secondary levels Theoretical background and overview – PowerPoint PPT presentation

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Title: Maximizing the benefits of English-medium instruction through cross-curricular planning at junior secondary levels


1
Maximizing the benefits of English-medium
instruction through cross-curricular planning at
junior secondary levels
  • Theoretical background and overview

2
Language shapes the way we think, and determines
what we can think about
Language and learning
  • Benjamin Lee Whorf

3
Language and learning What do we know?
  • Language develops mainly through its meaningful
    use.
  • Learning often occurs through speaking and
    writing. (It is part of the process as well as
    the product)
  • Language is a medium for building on learning and
    for becoming an independent learner
  • Language use is essential for overall cognitive
    development

David Corson Language Across the Curriculum 1990
4
Learning in a second language
  • Many students around the world are learning
    through a language which is not their mother
    tongue.
  • They may have immigrated to another country
  • They may have been brought up speaking a language
    which is not the official language or medium of
    instruction in their country

5
How do students learn a second language?
Basic Interpersonal Communicative Skills (BICS)
Cognitive Academic Language Proficiency (CALP)
6
Changing approaches to English as a Second
Language (ESL) teaching in English-speaking
countries
Content emphasis
Language emphasis
Language across the curriculum
Immersion programmes
Intensive language classes
  • Features
  • Achieve high level of fluency
  • Dont develop
  • native-speaker accuracy (all BICS and no CALP)
  • Features
  • Focus on language
  • Too much time
  • needed
  • Isolation
  • No subject instruction

The teaching or consolidation of language skills
and knowledge in the context of content subject
lessons
7
world
clipart provided by www.worldatlas.com
8
Content and Language Integrated Learning
  • An approach practised by teachers in subject
    lessons
  • Focus on vocabulary rather than grammar
  • Focus on language related to the subject
  • Applies approaches from the language lesson (eg
    pre-, while- and post-reading tasks)
  • Assumes subject teachers have the skills and
    knowledge to make opportunities for language
    learning in their lessons

9
ESL in the Mainstream
  • Professional development programme for subject
    teachers. Helps them to
  • identify students language-related needs
  • develop teaching practices which address these
    needs
  • develop awareness of students cultural and
    linguistic diversity

10
Sheltered Instruction
  • A teaching strategy which aims to help L2
    students develop English while studying other
    subjects
  • Do not compete academically with L1 peers
  • Taught language and content by language
    specialists in separate classes
  • Balance of special classes and mainstream classes
    will change as students English develops

11
Integrated language and content learning
Knowledge structures
Evaluation
Principles
Classification
  • Evaluating
  • Ranking
  • Appreciating
  • Establishing hypotheses
  • Interpreting data
  • Drawing conclusions
  • Classifying
  • Identifying
  • Understanding

expressing opinions (good, bad, like/dislike,
prefer etc)
is due to, modal verbs, 1st/0 conditionals
to be, to have, comparatives etc
  • Generating solutions
  • Identifying and solving problems
  • Sequencing events
  • Following instructions
  • Predicting order
  • Observing
  • Identifying
  • Comparing/contrasting

modal verbs, requests and offers, preference
(prefer, had rather etc)
connectors (then, next), prepositions of space
and time
stative verbs, relative clauses, prepositions of
place
Choice
Sequence
Description
12
Example from PSHE Strand 3 Culture and Heritage
at KS3
Possible Tasks
Language structures
Text types
Knowledge structures and thinking skills
Topics
A project on the overseas Chinese in different
countries
  • Connectives of cause/reason, eg because, so
    that, is due to
  • Conditionals
  • Connectors expressing the passing of time
  • Prepositions of space and time
  • Past tenses
  • Used to

Text types Biographies Feature
articles Documentaries Dramas Visuals Timeline Fl
owchart Cause and effect table
Principles Interpreting data Drawing
conclusions Sequence Putting events in
order Understanding cause and effect
How various cultures have adapted to their
changing environments
13
vocabulary, language skills
thinking skills
teaching strategy
subject teacher awareness
clipart provided by www.worldatlas.com
14
Language Across the Hong Kong Curriculum
15
Issues of concern
  • Language proficiency
  • Understanding of language acquisition
    students language related needs

Content subject teachers
Students
  • Fewer opportunities to use English outside school
  • No need to use English for survival

Clip art licensed from the Clip Art Gallery on
DiscoverySchool.com
16
How to make English medium teaching more
effective?
subject knowledge
language knowledge
cross-curricular planning
Clip art licensed from the Clip Art Gallery on
DiscoverySchool.com
17
What do we need to consider when implementing
cross-curricular planning?
School contexts
Organizing principles
Scale
Roles of teachers mode of collaboration
Subjects involved
Clip art licensed from the Clip Art Gallery on
DiscoverySchool.com
18
Organising principles What to transfer from
English to content subjects
  • Subject-specific vocabulary
  • Knowledge of text types and language structures
  • Language skills and strategies
  • Skills for thinking and organising knowledge

English Language
Content Subject
19
Overview of school cases
Case 4
Case 3
Case 2
Case 1
Using knowledge structures to organise the
curriculum
Using reading strategies to organise the
curriculum
English and Science teachers working hand in hand
English Teachers taking a leading role
Presentation Focus
short term (one level) long
term (across levels)
Scale
Subjects
Knowledge to transfer
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