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Baroque Art, 17th Century


Baroque Art, 17th Century Italian Baroque artists embraced a more dynamic and complex aesthetic. dramatic theatricality, grandiose scale, and elaborate ornateness ... – PowerPoint PPT presentation

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Title: Baroque Art, 17th Century

Baroque Art, 17th Century
  1. Italian Baroque artists embraced a more dynamic
    and complex aesthetic.
  2. dramatic theatricality, grandiose scale, and
    elaborate ornatenesscharacterized the art and
  3. Baroque art production further suggests the role
    art played in supporting the aims of the
    Catholic Church.

Artemisia Gentileschi, Judith Slaying Holofernes,
1614-20, Uffizi, Florence, Italy.
-Gardners Art Through the Ages, 11th Ed.
Bernini, David, 1623, Galleria Borghese, Rome.
Bernini, baldacchino, 1623-24, St. Peters,
Vatican City.
Bernini, Trevi Fountain, 1629-1762, Rome.
  1. Baroque art reaches out to people and provokes
  2. Baroque paintings are filled with dramatic
    movement, striking contrasts of light and dark,
    vivid colors, and earthly realism.
  3. Baroque artists depicted the heroic acts of
    martyrs and saints to inspire the lower classes
    to accept their own suffering and not lose faith.

Baroque Art Architecture
Frans Hals, Archers of Saint Hadrian, Haarlem,
Mansart LeBrun, Hall of Mirrors, Versailles,
France, 1680.
Vermeer, Girl with a Pearl Earring, Mauritshuis,
The Hague.
Caravaggio, Conversion of St. Paul, Sta. Maria
del Popolo, Rome, 1601.
Rembrandt, Anatomy Lesson of Dr. Tulp, 1632,
Mauritshuis, The Hague.
Neoclassical Art, 18th C.
  1. One of the defining characteristics of the late
    18th century was a renewed interest in classical
  2. The Neoclassical movement encompassed painting,
    sculpture, but architecture is regarded as the
    most prominent manifestation of this interest
    fascination with Greek and Roman culture.
  3. The geometric harmony of classical art
    architecture seemed to embody Enlightenment
  4. Greco-Roman traditions of liberty, civic virtue,
    morality, and patriotic sacrifice served as ideal
  5. The Neoclassical style became the French
    Revolutions semiofficial voice.

Ingres, Apotheosis of Homer, 1827, Louvre, Paris.
Boyle Kent, Chiswick House, London, 1725.
Neoclassical Art
Soufflot, the Pantheon, Paris, 1755-92.
Elisabeth Louise Vigee-LeBrun, Self-Portrait,
1790, Uffizi, Florence.
Angelica Kauffmann, Cornelia Presenting Her
Children as Her Treasures, 1785, Virginia.
Pierre Vignon, La Madeleine, Paris, 1807-42.
Antonio Canova Apollo Crowning Himself Italian,
1781 ?Marble ?H 33 3/8 in. ?95.SA.71
As Ovid told the story in his Metamorphoses,
when the beautiful nymph Daphne finally escaped
the pursuing Apollo by turning into a laurel
tree, the Roman god of music and poetry pledged
his unrequited love Although you cannot be my
wife, you shall at least, be my tree I shall
always wear you on my hair, on my quiver, O
Laurel. In this marble, half-life-size statue
inspired by this episode of the Metamorphoses,
Apollo crowns himself with a laurel wreath. Nude
except for sandals, his lyre hangs on the tree
trunk that supports a piece of rumpled drapery.
He stands in contrapposto, a balanced stance
characterized by the opposition of straight and
bent limbs, in a moment of reflection after the
dramatic chase. ??Apollo's nudity, his broad,
muscular chest, and his relaxed, balanced pose
all recall famous antique representations of the
god. But while sculptor Antonio Canova clearly
emulated several antiques, his Apollo is not a
copy of an already existing statue. The
commission for the marble was the result of a
competition organized by Don Abbondio Rezzonico,
nephew of the Venetian Pope Clement XIII. It is
Canova's first fully classicizing work, carved in
the Neoclassical style for which he soon became
Elisabeth-Louise Vigee-Le Brun Vicomtesse de
Vaudreuil French, 1785 ?Oil on panel ?32 3/4 x 25
1/2 in. ?85.PB.443 On an oval panel, a young
woman poses in front of a landscape. Smiling
slightly, she looks candidly out at the viewer.
??The sitter, Victoire-Pauline de Riquet de
Carama, was an aristocrat and her status improved
when she married Jean-Louis, Vicomte de Vaudreuil
in 1781. The artist Elisabeth Louise Vigée Le
Brun emphasized the Vicomtesse's status and
refinement by carefully describing her
fashionable straw hat, silk dress, and gauze
scarf, collar, and cuffs. Displaying her
learning, the Vicomtesse places her right thumb
in her book to mark her place, as if she has been
interrupted while reading. Vigée Le Brun adopted
this obvious gesture, often used in men's
portraits, to illustrate women's importance in
French Enlightenment circles.
Romanticism, 18th-19th Centuries Trust your
heart rather than your head.
  • Reaction against neoclassicisms emphasis on
    reason and order inspired by Rousseaus Social
    Contract Man is born free, yet everywhere he is
    in chains!
  • Emphasis on emotion in art, individual liberty,
    ending social injustices, and achieving
    democracy the path to freedom was through
    imagination and feeling (rather than reason and
  • Romantic artists to know Delacroix, Goya,
    Gericault, Turner

Goya, Saturn Devouring One of His Children,
1819-1823, Prado, Madrid, Spain.
I am like no one in the whole world. I may be
no better, at least I am different. -Rousseu
Franciso de Goya, The Family of Charles IV, 1800,
Prado, Madrid, Spain.
Gericault, Raft of the Medusa, 1818-1819, Louvre,
Delacroix, Liberty Leading the People, 1830,
Louvre, Paris.
Delacroix, Death of Sardanapalus, 1826, Louvre,
Turner, The Slave Ship, 1840, Boston, MA.
Realism, mid-19th Century
  • Industrialization and urbanization spread from
    England to the U.S. and the Continent of Europe
    in the 19th Century.
  • Western cities grew dramatically due to migration
    from rural areas due to new job opportunities, as
    well as improving health and living conditions.
  • Scientific advances led to industrial growth.
  • Charles Darwins theory of natural selection
    promoted an interest in science and challenged
    traditional Christian beliefs, which led to the
    rise of secularism.
  • Darwins theory was applied to socioeconomics in
    that those that industrialized became the most
    economically fit companies and countries. This
    was used to justify Western racism, imperialism,
    nationalism, and militarism going into the early
    20th Century.
  • Industrialization Social Darwinism were the
    justification for the colonization by Western
    nations of peoples they believed were inferior to
    them on a social and national hierarchy.

Edouard Manet, Olympia, 1863, Musee dOrsay,
Gustave Courbet, The Stone Breakers, 1849,
Karl Marx Class Struggle
  • Marx believed those that controlled the means of
    production did so at the expense of the
    exploitation of the laborer. (Haves vs.
  • He hoped to create a socialist state in which the
    workers would seize power and destroy capitalism.
  • His theory of class struggle appealed to the
    oppressed and led to the rise of trade unions and
    socialist groups.

Jean-Francois Millet, The Gleaners, 1857, Louvre,
Honore Daumier, Rue Transnonain, 1834,
lithograph, Philadelphia.
Paintings of Modern Life
  • Realism is considered the first modernist
  • Artists and writers of the realist movement were
    reevaluating reality and focused on only what
    they could see and experience on a daily basis.
  • They did not paint fictional subjects because
    they were not real nor visible in the present
  • Realists portrayed scenes that were not
    considered worthy prior to this period. Scenes
    of laborers, peasants, and daily life.

Gustave Courbet, Burial at Ornans, 1849, Louvre,
Honore Daumier, The Third Class Carriage, 1862,
The Met, NY.
Impressionism, 19th Century
Dada, post-WWI
  • WWI horrified many artists and writers.
  • Millions were killed, wounded, or missing.
  • The devastation resulting from the use of
    artillery, gas attacks, machine guns, and the
    stalemate of trench warfare had a deep
    psychological affect on those that had believed
    in progress and civilization occurring in the
    late 19th century.

Marcel Duchamp, Fountain, 1917
Dada means nothing. We want to change the world
with nothing.--Richard Huelsenbeck
  • The Dada movement was a reaction to the butchery
    of WWI, and began independently in New York and
    Zurich, but spread.
  • It was more a state of mind than a movement
  • They believed reason and logic had been
    responsible for the War and the only way to
    salvation was through political anarchy and the
  • Dada art is thus absurd, unconventional, and
  • Artists showed contempt for all traditional and
    established values

Raoul Hausmann, Mechanic Head, 1919-20)
Marcel Duchamp, Hannah Hoch, Jean Arp, Man Ray
Surrealism, 1924
  • Dada led to Surrealism-aspects of Dadaism, but
    serious art
  • Wanted to explore ways to express in art the
    dream world and the unconscious-areas deep within
    the human psyche
  • Sought to bring both inner and outer reality
  • Some surrealists use more abstract techniques
    (Joan Miro), while others used recognizable
    images in a dream-like world (Dali)

Joan Miro, Characters and Birds with Dog
Rene Magritte, The Treachery of Images, 1928-29
Frida Kahlo, Girl with a Death Mask, 1937
Salvador Dali
The Persistence of Memory, 1931 An allegory of
empty space where time has ended
The Burning Giraffe, 1937
"As I have never seen anything but fields since
I was born, I try to say as best I can what I saw
and felt when I was at work," wrote Jean-François
Millet. At the Salon of 1863, Man with a Hoe
caused a storm of controversy. The man in the
picture was considered brutish and frightening by
Parisian bourgeoisie. The Industrial Revolution
had caused a steady exodus from French farms, and
Man with a Hoe was interpreted as a socialist
protest about the peasant's plight. Though his
paintings were judged in political terms, Millet
declared that he was neither a socialist nor an
agitator. ?A religious fatalist, Millet believed
that man was condemned to bear his burdens. This
farmer is Everyman. His face is lit, yet composed
of blots of color that give him no individuality.
He is big and dirty and utterly exhausted by the
backbreaking work of turning this rocky,
thistle-ridden earth into a productive field like
the one being worked in the distance. A tribute
to dignity and courage in the face of a life of
unremitting exertion, Man with a Hoe was long
considered a symbol of the laboring class.
Jean Francois Millet Man with a Hoe
Sebastian Salgado Migrations Humanity in
Lauren Greenfield Kids and Money
Two milliners sit at a dramatically angled
worktable, their bodies partly obscured by the
shadowed hat stands that crowd their work space.
Seen as little more than a silhouette, the figure
at right works carefully on a hat. Her
attentiveness is not shared by her older
counterpart who, though grasping a swath of pink
fabric, appears lost in thought, gazing beyond
the frame with a disquieting expression. The
brightly colored ribbons--pink, yellow, orange,
and green--draw attention to the drabness of the
room and its inhabitants. ??His voyeuristic yet
empathetic portrait of the milliner's private
world focuses on the physical hardship of their
work. The woman at the left embodies the
painter's concern even at rest, her wiry body
and pallid skin registers a life of hard work and
meager reward.
Edgar Degas The Milliners
Portrait of the Marquise de Miramon, née, Thérèse
Feuillant (Joseph Tissot)
Costumed in the latest style and surrounded by
fashionable decorative objects, the Marquise de
Miramon wears a rose colored, ruffled peignoir,
or dressing gown. Around her neck are a black
lace scarf and a silver cross. Reflecting the new
European fascination with Japanese art, behind
her is a Japanese screen depicting cranes on a
gold ground, and on the mantelpiece are several
pieces of Japanese ceramics. The needlework on
the Louis XVI stool indicates that the subject is
a noble woman of leisure, and the
eighteenth-century terracotta bust suggests her
husband's aristocratic heritage. ??Thérèse
-Stephanie-Sophie Feuillant (1836-1912) was from
a wealthy bourgeois family. She inherited a
fortune from her father and in 1860 she married
Réne de Cassagnes de Beaufort, Marquis de
Miramon. She stands in the Château de Paulhac,
Auvergne, her husband's family seat. ??Tissot
painted many fashionable women during his career,
but he held this work in particularly high
regard. In 1866, he wrote to request, and
received, permission to borrow the painting and
submit it to the Paris World Fair, where it was
seen in public for the first time.
Lauren Greenfield Girl Culture
Belgian, Ostend, 1888 ?Oil on canvas ?99 1/2 x
169 1/2 in. ?87.PA.96 James Ensor took on
religion, politics, and art in this scene of
Christ entering contemporary Brussels in a Mardi
Gras parade. In response to the French
pointillist style, Ensor used palette knives,
spatulas, and both ends of his brush to put down
patches of colors with expressive freedom. He
made several preparatory drawings for the
painting, including one in the J. Paul Getty
Museum's collection. ??Ensor's society is a mob,
threatening to trample the viewer--a crude, ugly,
chaotic, dehumanized sea of masks, frauds,
clowns, and caricatures. Public, historical, and
allegorical figures along with the artist's
family and friends made up the crowd. The haloed
Christ at the center of the turbulence is in part
a self-portrait mostly ignored, a precarious,
isolated visionary amidst the herdlike masses of
modern society. Ensor's Christ functioned as a
political spokesman for the poor and oppressed--a
humble leader of the true religion, in opposition
to the atheist social reformer Emile Littré,
shown in bishop's garb holding a drum major's
baton leading on the eager, mindless crowd.
??After rejection by Les XX, the artists'
association that Ensor had helped to found, the
painting was not exhibited publicly until 1929.
Ensor displayed Christ's Entry prominently in his
home and studio throughout his life. With its
aggressive, painterly style and merging of the
public with the deeply personal, Christ's Entry
was a forerunner of twentieth-century
French, 1892 ?Oil on canvas ?44 x 61 7/8 in.
?88.PA.58 Henri Rousseau commemorated the
one-hundredth anniversary of the proclamation of
the first French Republic in 1792. Peasants dance
the farandole, a popular southern French dance,
around three liberty trees and two female figures
representing the First and Third Republics.
Rousseau copied the dancers from a French
magazine illustration but added waving banners,
the liberty poles, and the allegorical figures. A
wagon in the background is full of costumed
musicians, reminiscent of parades the artist had
seen. He used brilliant colors and solid forms to
express the happiness of the scene symbolizing
good government. To the right, the erect posture
of the dignified republican leaders signals the
solidity of the French Republic.
Joseph Mallord William Turner Van Tromp, Going
About to Please His Masters
English, 1844 ?Oil on canvas?36 x 48 in.
?93.PA.32 In this narrative history painting,
Joseph Mallord William Turner expressed the power
of nature and the heroism of man through the eyes
of a Romantic painter. Turner used quick,
slanting brushstrokes to describe the stormy sky.
The application of scumbled white paint suggests
churning, turbulent seas and the heavy spray of
waves hitting the ship's bow. Tones of brown
paint near the bottom of the canvas give a sense
of the sea's violent power. ??On the foredeck of
a ship that strains against the waves, a man
stands in a white uniform and waves with
confidence. While scholars are uncertain of the
exact historical event Turner described, one
probable interpretation is that the man depicted
here is Dutch naval officer Cornelis Van Tromp,
who was dismissed from naval service in 1666
after failing to follow orders. Van Tromp was
reinstated in service and reconciled with his
navy superiors in 1673. In perhaps a symbolic
overture signaling his submission to authority,
Tromp is shown, in Turner's words, "going about
to please his Masters."
Jacques Louis-David The Farewell of Telemachus
and Eucharis
French, 1818 ?Oil on canvas?34 1/2 x 40 1/2 in.
?87.PA.27 Fixing the viewer with a dreamy
gaze, the fair-haired Telemachus grasps
Eucharis's thigh with his right hand while
holding his sword upright with the other. In the
1699 French novel Les Aventures de Télémaque,
loosely based on characters from the Odyssey, the
author Fénelon describes how Telemachus, the son
of Odysseus, fell passionately in love with the
beautiful nymph Eucharis. His duty as a son,
however, required that he end their romance and
depart in search of his missing father. ??The
ill-fated lovers say farewell in a grotto on
Calypso's island. Facing towards us, Telemachus's
blue tunic falls open to reveal his naked torso.
Eucharis, seen in profile, encircles Telemachus's
neck and gently rests her head upon his shoulder
in resignation. In this way, Jacques-Louis David
contrasts masculine rectitude with female
emotion. ??David painted The Farewell of
Telemachus and Eucharis during his exile in
Brussels. The use of saturated reds and blues
contrasted with flesh-tones and combined with a
clarity of line and form typifies the
Neoclassical style, which is characteristic of
David's late history paintings.