Chapter Menu - PowerPoint PPT Presentation

Loading...

PPT – Chapter Menu PowerPoint presentation | free to download - id: 5d8835-YjhjY



Loading


The Adobe Flash plugin is needed to view this content

Get the plugin now

View by Category
About This Presentation
Title:

Chapter Menu

Description:

Title: MS Science Author: Smidt, Erin Last modified by: Smidt, Erin Created Date: 6/19/2009 2:36:06 PM Document presentation format: On-screen Show (4:3) – PowerPoint PPT presentation

Number of Views:64
Avg rating:3.0/5.0
Slides: 121
Provided by: Smidt
Learn more at: http://www.deerlake.leon.k12.fl.us
Category:

less

Write a Comment
User Comments (0)
Transcript and Presenter's Notes

Title: Chapter Menu


1
Chapter Menu
Chapter Introduction Lesson 1 The Structure of
the Solar System Lesson 2 The Inner
Planets Lesson 3 The Outer Planets Lesson 4 Dwarf
Planets and Other Objects Chapter Wrap-Up
NASA/JPL/USGS
2
Chapter Introduction
  • What kinds of objects are in the solar system?

3
Chapter Introduction
  • What do you think?

Before you begin, decide if you agree or disagree
with each of these statements. As you view this
presentation, see if you change your mind about
any of the statements.
4
Chapter Introduction
Do you agree or disagree?
  • 1. Astronomers measure distances between space
    objects using astronomical units.
  • 2. Gravitational force keeps planets in orbit
    around the Sun.
  • 3. Earth is the only inner planet that has a moon.

5
Chapter Introduction
Do you agree or disagree?
  • 4. Venus is the hottest planet in the solar
    system.
  • 5. The outer planets also are called the gas
    giants.
  • 6. The atmospheres of Saturn and Jupiter are
    mainly water vapor.

6
Chapter Introduction
Do you agree or disagree?
  • 7. Asteroids and comets are mainly rock and ice.
  • 8. A meteoroid is a meteor that strikes Earth.

7
Lesson 1 Reading Guide - KC
The Structure of the Solar System
  • How are the inner planets different from the
    outer planets?
  • What is an astronomical unit and why is it used?
  • What is the shape of a planets orbit?

8
Lesson 1 Reading Guide - Vocab
The Structure of the Solar System
  • asteroid
  • comet
  • astronomical unit
  • period of revolution
  • period of rotation

9
What is the solar system?
  • The planets in the solar system orbit the Sun.
  • The Sun and the objects that orbit it make up the
    solar system.

10
Lesson 1-1
What is the solar system?
  • Almost all of the specks of light you can see in
    the night sky are stars.
  • A few of the tiny lights are part of our solar
    system.
  • Stars are much farther away than objects in our
    solar system.

11
Lesson 1-2
Objects in the Solar System
  • The largest object in the solar system is the
    Sun, a star.
  • The Sun is a star made up of mostly hydrogen gas.
  • Nuclear fusion produces enormous amounts of
    energy in the Sun
  • Objects orbit the Sun because it applies
    gravitational forces on them.

12
Lesson 1-2
Objects in the Solar System (cont.)
  • Objects that orbit the Sun include planets, dwarf
    planets, asteroids, and comets. These objects
    reflect the Suns light.
  • Planets orbit the Sun and have nearly spherical
    shapes.
  • The mass of a planet must be much larger than the
    total mass of all other objects whose orbits are
    close by.

13
Lesson 1-2
Objects in the Solar System (cont.)
  • Eight of the objects in the solar system are
    planets.
  • Mercury
  • Venus
  • Earth
  • Mars
  • Jupiter
  • Saturn
  • Uranus
  • Neptune

14
Lesson 1-2
  • The four planets closest to the sun are called
    the inner planets.
  • Mercury, Venus, Earth, and Mars are the inner
    planets.
  • The inner planets are mostly solid, rocky
    material.

15
Lesson 1-2
  • The four farthest planets from the Sun are called
    the outer planets.
  • Jupiter, Saturn, Uranus, and Neptune are the
    outer planets.
  • The outer planets are mostly ice and gases, such
    as hydrogen and helium.

16
Lesson 1-2
Objects in the Solar System (cont.)
Describe how the inner planets differ from the
outer planets.
17
Lesson 1-2
Objects in the Solar System (cont.)
  • Because the outer planets are much larger than
    the inner planets, they are sometimes called gas
    giants.
  • A dwarf planet is a spherical object that orbits
    the Sun and is not a moon or another planet.
  • Dwarf planets are in regions of the solar system
    where there are many objects orbiting nearby.

18
Lesson 1-2
  • Ceres, a dwarf planet, orbits the Sun as planets
    do.

19
Lesson 1-2
Objects in the Solar System (cont.)
  • Millions of small, rocky objects called asteroids
    orbit the Sun in the asteroid belt between the
    orbits of Mars and Jupiter.
  • Asteroids vary in size and are usually not
    spherical.
  • A comet is made of gas, dust, and ice and moves
    around the Sun in an oval-shaped orbit.

20
Lesson 1-2
Objects in the Solar System (cont.)
  • Distances between objects in the solar system are
    extremely large.
  • Astronomers do not use meters or kilometers to
    describe these distances.
  • A more convenient unit is usedthe astronomical
    unit (AU).
  • One AU is Earths average distance from the
    Sunabout 150,000,000 km.

21
Lesson 1-2
  • It is easier to express very large distances
    using astronomical units rather than kilometers.

22
Lesson 1-2
Objects in the Solar System (cont.)
Define what an astronomical unit is and explain
why it is used.
23
Lesson 1-3
The Motion of the Planets
  • One way an object in the solar system moves is by
    orbiting, or revolving, around another object.
  • The time it takes an object to travel once
    around the Sun is its period of revolution.

24
  • Objects in the solar system also spin, or rotate.
  • The time it takes an object to complete one
    rotation is its period of rotation.

25
Lesson 1-3
The Motion of the Planets (cont.)
  • A planets orbit is an ellipsea stretched-out
    circle.
  • Focus points, or foci, determine the shape of the
    ellipse.
  • A planet moves faster when it is closer to the
    sun than when it is farther away.

26
Lesson 1-2
The Motion of the Planets (cont.)
Describe the shape of a planets orbit.
27
Lesson 1 - VS
  • The solar system contains the Sun, the inner
    planets, the outer planets, the dwarf planets,
    asteroids, and comets.

28
Lesson 1 - VS
  • An astronomical unit (AU) is a unit of distance
    equal to about 150 million km.

29
Lesson 1 - VS
  • The speeds of the planets change as they move
    around the Sun in elliptical orbits.

30
Lesson 1 LR1
What are most of the specks that you can see in
the night sky?
A. asteroids B. comets C. planets D. stars
31
Lesson 1 LR2
What is a spherical object that orbits the Sun
and is not a moon or another planet?
A. asteroid B. astronomical unit C. comet D. dwarf
planet
32
Lesson 1 LR3
Which refers to the time it takes an object to
complete one rotation?
A. astronomical unit B. focus C. period of
revolution D. period of rotation
33
Lesson 1 - Now
Do you agree or disagree?
  • 1. Astronomers measure distances between space
    objects using astronomical units.
  • 2. Gravitational force keeps planets in orbit
    around the Sun.

34
Lesson 2 Reading Guide - KC
The Inner Planets
  • How are the inner planets similar?
  • Why is Venus hotter than Mercury?
  • What kind of atmospheres do the inner planets
    have?

35
Lesson 2 Reading Guide - Vocab
The Inner Planets
  • terrestrial planet
  • greenhouse effect

36
Lesson 2-1
Planets Made of Rock
  • Earth and the other inner planetsMercury, Venus,
    and Marsare also called the terrestrial planets.
  • Like Earth, the other terrestrial planets are
    made of rock and metallic materials and have a
    solid outer layer.

37
Lesson 2-1
Planets Made of Rock (cont.)
terrestrial from Latin terrestris, means earthly
38
Lesson 2-1
  • The inner planets are roughly similar in size,
    with Earth being about two and half times larger
    than Mercury.

Mercury NASA/Johns Hopkins University Applied
Physics Laboratory/Carnegie Institution of
WashingtonVenus NASA Earth NASA Goddard Space
Flight CenterMars NASA/JPL/Malin Space Science
Systems
39
Lesson 2-2
  • Mercury is the smallest planet and the planet
    closest to the Sun.

40
Lesson 2-2
Mercury
  • Mercury has no gases close to its surface, which
    means it has no atmosphere.
  • Mercurys gravity is not strong enough to hold an
    atmosphere.
  • Because Mercury has no wind to move energy from
    place to place, the temperatures on the side of
    Mercury facing the Sun are always extremely high.
  • Like all inner planets, Mercury has a core made
    of iron and nickel.
  • Its mantle is made of oxygen and silicon.

41
Lesson 2-3
  • Venus is the second planet from the Sun and is
    about the same size as Earth.

42
Lesson 2-3
Venus
  • Venus rotates more slowly than it revolves, so a
    day on Venus is longer than a year on Earth.
  • Unlike most other planets, Venus rotates from
    east to west.

43
  • The atmosphere of Venus is about 97 percent
    carbon dioxide.
  • The pressure of Venuss dense atmosphere is 90
    times greater than that of Earths atmosphere.
  • Venus is covered by a thick layer of clouds.
  • The clouds on Venus are made of acid.

44
Lesson 2-3
Venus (cont.)
  • Venus is the hottest planet in the solar system,
    with an average temperature of about 460C.
  • The high temperatures on Venus are caused by the
    greenhouse effect.
  • The greenhouse effect occurs when a planets
    atmosphere traps solar energy and causes the
    surface temperature to increase.
  • Most of the surface of Venus is covered by
    solidified lava.

45
Lesson 2-4
  • Earth is the third planet from the Sun.

46
Lesson 2-4
Earth
  • A mixture of gases, including water vapor, make
    up Earths atmosphere and produce a greenhouse
    effect that raises its surface temperature.
  • A protective atmosphere, moderate surface
    temperatures, and the presence of liquid water
    support a variety of life on Earth.

47
  • Earth has a solid inner core and a liquid outer
    core. The mantle surrounds the outer core.
  • Earths crust is broken into large sliding
    plates.
  • Earths crust is made mostly of oxygen and
    silicon.

48
Lesson 2-5
  • Mars is the fourth planet from the Sun and is
    about half the size of Earth.

49
  • Mars has two small moons
  • Many probes have examined the surface of Mars
    most have looked for signs of water.
  • Images of Mars show features that might have been
    made by water, though no evidence of liquid water
    or life has been found.

50
Lesson 2-5
Mars
  • The atmosphere of Mars is thin and made of about
    95 percent carbon dioxide.
  • Temperatures on Mars range from about 125C at
    the poles to about 20C at the equator during the
    summer.

51
  • Mars surface appears to be red because its soil
    contains iron oxide.
  • Ice caps on Mars are made up of ice and frozen
    carbon dioxide.
  • Features on Mars surface include craters, lava
    flows, canyons, and the largest known mountain in
    the solar system.

52
Lesson 2 - VS
  • The terrestrial planets include Mercury, Venus,
    Earth, and Mars.

Mercury NASA/Johns Hopkins University Applied
Physics Laboratory/Carnegie Institution of
WashingtonVenus NASA Earth NASA Goddard Space
Flight CenterMars NASA/JPL/Malin Space Science
Systems
53
Lesson 2 - VS
  • The inner planets all are made of rocks and
    minerals, but the characteristics of the planets
    are different. Earth is the only planet with
    water.

NASA Goddard Space Flight Center
54
Lesson 2 - VS
  • The greenhouse effect greatly increases the
    surface temperature of Venus.

NASA
55
Lesson 2 LR1
Which planets greenhouse effect makes it the
hottest planet in the solar system?
A. Earth B. Mars C. Mercury D. Venus
56
Lesson 2 LR2
Which is the only planet with large bodies of
liquid water?
A. Earth B. Mars C. Mercury D. Venus
57
Lesson 2 LR3
Which planet is the fourth planet from the Sun
and about half the size of Earth?
A. Mars B. Mercury C. Venus D. none of these
58
Lesson 2 - Now
Do you agree or disagree?
3. Earth is the only inner planet that has a
moon. 4. Venus is the hottest planet in the solar
system.
59
Lesson 3 Reading Guide - KC
The Outer Planets
  • How are the outer planets similar?
  • What are the outer planets made of?

60
Lesson 3 Reading Guide - Vocab
The Outer Planets
  • Galilean moons

61
Lesson 3-1
The Gas Giants
  • The outer planets, also known as the gas giants,
    are primarily made of the gases hydrogen and
    helium.
  • The outer planets are extremely massive. They
    apply strong gravitational forces that change
    gases into liquids.
  • The interiors of the outer planets are mainly
    liquid.
  • These gas giants generally have gas and liquid
    layers around a small solid core.

62
Lesson 3-1
  • The outer planets are large compared to the inner
    planets. The size of Earth is shown for reference.

Earth NASA Goddard Space Flight CenterJupiter
NASA/JPL/USGSSaturn NASA and The Hubble
Heritage Team (STScI/AURA)Acknowledgment R.G.
French (Wellesley College), J. Cuzzi (NASA/Ames),
L. Dones (SwRI), and J.Uranus, Neptune NASA/JPL
63
Lesson 3-2
  • Jupiter is the largest planet in the solar
    system.
  • Jupiter has a diameter 11 times larger than the
    diameter of Earth.

64
Lesson 3-2
Jupiter
  • Although it takes 13 years to revolve around the
    Sun, Jupiter rotates faster than any other
    planet.
  • Jupiter and all the outer planets have a ring
    system.
  • Jupiters atmosphere is about 90 percent hydrogen
    and 10 percent helium.

65
Lesson 3-2
Jupiter (cont.)
  • Jupiters rotation stretches its clouds into
    colorful bands.
  • The Great Red Spot on Jupiter is a storm that has
    lasted more than 300 years.
  • The planet itself is about 80 percent hydrogen
    and 20 percent helium.
  • Jupiter is a ball of gas swirling around a thick
    liquid hydrogen layer that conceals a solid core.
    Scientists are not certain what makes up the
    core.

66
Lesson 3-2
Jupiter (cont.)
  • Jupiter has at least 63 moons, more than any
    other planet.
  • The four largest moons of JupiterIo, Europa,
    Ganymede, and Callistoare known as the Galilean
    moons.
  • The Galilean moons are made of rock and ice.

67
Lesson 3-3
  • Saturn is the sixth planet from the Sun. It
    rotates rapidly and has horizontal bands of
    clouds.

68
Lesson 3-3
Saturn
  • Saturn is mostly hydrogen and helium.
  • Saturn has an outer gas layer, a thick layer of
    liquid hydrogen, and a solid core.
  • Saturn has the largest ring system in the solar
    system.
  • Saturn has seven bands of rings, each containing
    thousands of narrower ringlets.

69
Lesson 3-3
Saturn (cont.)
  • The ice particles in the rings are possibly from
    a moon that was shattered in a collision with
    another icy object.

Describe what makes up Saturn and its ring system.
70
Lesson 3-3
  • Saturn has at least 60 moons. Titan is the only
    moon in the solar system with a dense atmosphere.

Cassini, Rhea, Iapetus, Dione, Tethys
NASA/JPL/Space Science Institute
71
Lesson 3-3
Saturn (cont.)
titan from Green titan, means member of a
mythological race of giants
72
Lesson 3-4
  • Uranus is the seventh planet from the Sun, with a
    system of narrow, dark rings and a diameter about
    four times that of Earth.

NASA/ESA and Erich Karkoschka, University of
Arizona
73
Lesson 3-4
Uranus
  • Uranus has a deep atmosphere composed mostly of
    hydrogen and helium and a small amount of
    methane.
  • Beneath Uranuss atmosphere is a thick, slushy
    layer of water, ammonia, and other materials.
  • Uranus might have a rocky core.
  • Uranus has a tilted axis or rotation that might
    have been caused by a collision with an
    Earth-sized object. Its tilted more than any
    other planet.

74
Lesson 3-4
Uranus (cont.)
  • Uranus has at least 27 moons and a small ring
    system.

Identify the substances that make up the
atmosphere and the thick slushy layer on Uranus.
75
Lesson 3-5
  • Like Uranus, Neptunes atmosphere is mostly
    hydrogen and helium, with a trace of methane.

NASA/JPL
76
Lesson 3-5
Neptune
  • Neptunes interior is also like Uranuss, made of
    partially frozen water and ammonia with a rock
    and iron core.
  • Neptune has at least 13 moons and a faint, dark
    ring system.

77
Lesson 3-5
Neptune (cont.)
How does the atmosphere and interior of Neptune
compare with that of Uranus?
78
Lesson 3 - VS
  • All of the outer planets are primarily made of
    materials that are gases on Earth. Colorful
    clouds of gas cover Saturn and Jupiter.

Earth NASA Goddard Space Flight CenterJupiter
NASA/JPL/USGSSaturn NASA and The Hubble
Heritage Team (STScI/AURA)Acknowledgment R.G.
French (Wellesley College), J. Cuzzi (NASA/Ames),
L. Dones (SwRI), and J.Uranus, Neptune NASA/JPL
79
Lesson 3 - VS
  • Jupiter is the largest outer planet. Its four
    largest moons are known as the Galilean moons.

NASA/JPL/USGS
80
Lesson 3 - VS
  • Uranus has an unusual tilt, possibly due to a
    collision with a large object.

NASA/ESA and Erich Karkoschka, University of
Arizona
81
Lesson 3 LR1
The outer planets are primarily made of what?
A. oxygen B. methane C. hydrogen and helium
D. carbon dioxide
82
Lesson 3 LR2
What are Jupiters Galilean moons made of?
A. rock and ice B. hydrogen and helium
C. gas D. carbon dioxide
83
Lesson 3 LR3
Which planet is the seventh from the Sun and has
a system of narrow, dark rings?
A. Jupiter B. Neptune C. Saturn D. Uranus
84
Lesson 3 - Now
Do you agree or disagree?
5. The outer planets also are called the gas
giants. 6. The atmospheres of Saturn and Jupiter
are mainly water vapor.
85
Lesson 4 Reading Guide - KC
Dwarf Planets and Other Objects
  • What is a dwarf planet?
  • What are the characteristics of comets and
    asteroids?
  • How does an impact crater form?

86
Lesson 4 Reading Guide - Vocab
Dwarf Planets and Other Objects
  • meteoroid
  • meteor
  • meteorite
  • impact crater

87
Lesson 4-1
Dwarf Planets
  • According to the International Astronomical Union
    (IAU), a dwarf planet is an object that orbits a
    star (the Sun) and has enough mass and gravity to
    pull itself into a spherical shape.

88
Lesson 4-1
Dwarf Planets (cont.)
  • Unlike a planet, a dwarf planet has objects
    similar in mass orbiting nearby or crossing its
    orbital path.
  • Dwarf planets in the solar system are Pluto,
    Ceres, Eris, Makemake, and Haumea.
  • Ceres is in the asteroid belt. It is the smallest
    dwarf planet with a diameter of about 950 km.
  • Pluto has a rocky core surrounded by ice. It has
    three known moons. It is so far from the Sun that
    it takes about 248 years to complete one orbit.

89
  • Eris is the largest dwarf planet. It is three
    times farther from the Sun than the dwarf planet
    Pluto is.
  • Makemake and Haumea are dwarf planets in the
    Kuiper belt.

90
Lesson 4-1
  • All of the dwarf planets are smaller than Earths
    moon.

Pluto Dr. R. Albrecht, ESA/ESO Space Telescope
European Coordinating Facility NASACeres NASA,
ESA, and J. Parker (Southwest Research
Institute)Eris NASA, ESA, and M. Brown
(California Institute of Technology)
91
Lesson 4-1
Dwarf Planets (cont.)
Describe the characteristics of a dwarf planet.
92
Lesson 4-2
  • Most asteroids orbit the Sun in the asteroid belt
    between the orbits of Mars and Jupiter.
  • The largest asteroid is Pallas.

Asteroid NASA/JPL/JHUAPLIda NASA/JPL/USGSVesta
Ben Zellner (Georgia Southern University),
Peter Thomas (Cornell University), NASA/ESAEros
NASA/Goddard Space Flight Center Scientific
Visualization Studio
93
Lesson 4-2
Asteroids
  • Asteroids are chunks of rock and ice that never
    clumped together to form a planet.
  • Some astronomers think the strength of Jupiters
    gravitational field might have caused the chunks
    to collide so violently that they broke apart
    instead of sticking together.

94
Lesson 4-3
  • Comets are mixtures of rock, ice, and dust.

Comet Roger Ressmeyer/Getty ImagesWild 2
NASA/JPL-Caltech
95
Lesson 4-3
Comets
  • The particles in a comet are loosely held
    together by the gravitational attractions
    (gravity) among the particles.
  • Comets orbit the Sun in stretched out elliptical
    orbits.
  • As a comet moves closer to the Sun, it heats up
    and can develop a bright tail.

96
Lesson 4-3
Comets (cont.)
  • The solid, inner part of a comet is its nucleus.
  • As the comet approaches the Sun, it absorbs
    thermal energy, changing some ice in the nucleus
    into a gas.
  • Energy from the Sun pushes gas and dust particles
    away from the nucleus and makes it glow.
  • Short-period comets take less than 200 years to
    orbit the Sun. They usually come from the Kuiper
    belt.
  • Long-period comets take more than 200 years to
    orbit the Sun. they come from the Oort cloud.

97
Lesson 4-4
Meteoroids
  • A meteoroid is a small rocky particle that moves
    through space.
  • As it passes through Earths atmosphere, friction
    with the air make a meteoroid and the air around
    it glow.
  • A meteor is a streak of light in Earths
    atmosphere made by a glowing meteoroid.

98
Lesson 4-4
Meteoroids (cont.)
  • Most meteoroids burn up in the atmosphere.
  • A meteorite is a meteoroid that strikes a planet
    or a moon.
  • An impact crater is a round depression formed on
    the surface of a planet, moon, or other space
    object by the impact of a meteorite.

99
Lesson 4 - VS
  • An asteroid, such as Ida, is a chunk of rock and
    ice that orbits the Sun.

NASA/JPL/USGS
100
Lesson 4 - VS
  • Comets, which are mixture of rock, ice, and dust,
    orbit the Sun. A comets tail is caused by its
    interaction with the Sun.

Roger Ressmeyer/Getty Images
  • When a large meteorite strikes a planet or moon,
    it often makes an impact crater.

101
Lesson 4 LR1
Which term refers to chunks of rock and ice that
never clumped together to form a planet?
A. meteoroid B. meteor C. comet D. asteroid
102
Lesson 4 LR2
Which is a round depression formed on the surface
of a planet, moon, or other space object by the
impact of a meteorite?
A. coma B. impact crater C. meteor D. meteoroid
103
Lesson 4 LR3
Which objects orbit the Sun in stretched out
elliptical orbits?
A. asteroids B. comets C. meteoroids D. meteors
104
Lesson 4 - Now
Do you agree or disagree?
7. Asteroids and comets are mainly rock and
ice. 8. A meteoroid is a meteor that strikes
Earth.
105
Chapter Review Menu
Key Concept Summary Interactive Concept
Map Chapter Review Standardized Test Practice
106
The BIG Idea
  • Gravity and energy influence the formation of
    objects in the solar system, including planets,
    dwarf planets, comets, asteroids, and other small
    solar system bodies.

107
Key Concepts 1
Lesson 1 The Structure of the Solar System
  • The inner planets are made mainly of solid
    materials. The outer planets, which are larger
    than the inner planets, have thick gas and liquid
    layers covering a small solid core.
  • Astronomers measure vast distances in space in
    astronomical units an astronomical unit is
    about 150 million km.
  • The speed of each planet changes as it moves
    along its elliptical orbit around the Sun.

108
Key Concepts 2
Lesson 2 The Inner Planets
  • The inner planetsMercury, Venus, Earth, and
    Marsare made of rock and metallic materials.
  • The greenhouse effect makes Venus the hottest
    planet.
  • Mercury has no atmosphere. The atmospheres of
    Venus and Mars are almost entirely carbon
    dioxide. Earths atmosphere is a mixture of gases
    and a small amount of water vapor.

109
Key Concepts 3
Lesson 3 The Outer Planets
  • The outer planetsJupiter, Saturn, Uranus, and
    Neptuneare primarily made of hydrogen and
    helium.
  • Jupiter and Saturn have thick cloud layers, but
    are mainly liquid hydrogen. Saturns rings are
    largely particles of ice. Uranus and Neptune
    have thick atmospheres of hydrogen and helium.

110
Key Concepts 4
Lesson 4 Dwarf Planets and Other Objects
  • A dwarf planet is an object that orbits a star,
    has enough mass to pull itself into a spherical
    shape, and has objects similar in mass orbiting
    nearby.
  • An asteroid is a small rocky object that orbits
    the Sun. Comets are made of rock, ice, and dust
    and orbit the Sun in highly elliptical paths.
  • An impact crater is formed by the impact of a
    meteorite.

Roger Ressmeyer/Getty Images
111
Chapter Review MC1
What term refers to the small, rocky objects that
orbit the Sun between the orbits of Mars and
Jupiter?
A. asteroids B. comets C. dwarf planets
D. planets
112
Chapter Review MC2
How many objects in the solar system are
classified as planets?
A. 8 B. 10 C. 12 D. 14
113
Chapter Review MC3
The greenhouse effect occurs when a planets
atmosphere traps solar energy and causes which of
these?
A. decrease in surface temperature B. decreased
number of plant species C. increase in surface
temperature D. increased number of plant species
114
Chapter Review MC4
Which planet has a tilted axis that might have
been caused by a collision with an Earth-sized
object?
A. Jupiter B. Neptune C. Saturn D. Uranus
115
Chapter Review MC5
Which term refers to a small rocky particle that
moves through space?
A. asteroid B. meteor C. meteorite D. meteoroid
116
Chapter Review STP1
Which term refers to an object made of gas, dust,
and ice that moves around the Sun in an
oval-shaped orbit?
A. asteroid B. comet C. dwarf planet D. star
117
Chapter Review STP2
What is a term used to describe the four planets
closest to the Sun?
A. dwarf planets B. gas giants C. inner
planets D. outer planets
118
Chapter Review STP3
Which planet is fourth from the Sun and about
half the size of Earth?
A. Mars B. Mercury C. Neptune D. Venus
119
Chapter Review STP4
How many moons does Saturn have?
A. 1 B. at least 60 C. less than 4 D. at most 27
120
Chapter Review STP5
Which of these describes a meteoroid that strikes
a planet or a moon?
A. meteorite B. meteor C. impact
crater D. asteroid
About PowerShow.com