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Cymru-Wales- Le Pays de Galles

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The tomb of Llywelyn ab Iorwerth The Castles of Wales The Castles of Wales Most of the castles in ... A past which the Welsh remembered as a Golden Age of British ... – PowerPoint PPT presentation

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Title: Cymru-Wales- Le Pays de Galles


1
Cymru-Wales- Le Pays de Galles
2
Who are the Welsh?
  • The word welsh was given to the Celtic-speaking
    Britons by the first Anglo-Saxons who settled
    in Britain in the 4-5th centuries. It was often
    used to mean Romanised Celt. (as in France).

3
The word Welsh
  • In Old English (Anglo-Saxon) the word used for
    the Britons was wealas which can be translated
    as stranger, foreigner, Briton, even slave.
  • In time the word wealas became Wales.

4
The Britons to Welsh
  • The Britons called themselves by several names
    including Brython (Britons), and especially
    Cymry (fellow-countrymen/women.

5
Who are the Welsh?
  • Eventually the Welsh (Celtic Britons), were
    only in a majority in western Britain, especially
    todays Wales, Cornwall and Cumbria (NE England).
  • Eventually the word was only used for the
    descendants of the Britons (Celtic Britons) in
    Wales itself.

6
The Welsh before Wales.
  • The Britons had inhabited the island of Britain
    for at least one thousand years before.
  • They were the Celts of Britain, and by the 3rd
    century BC shared the La Tene Celtic culture of
    the continent.

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Found in Tal-y-Llyn. C150-50BC
11
Boudica
12
Boudica of the Iceni The revolt in 60AD
13
Magnus Maximus 383AD Declared Emperor in
Britain. left the nation as one.
14
Circa 600-700AD Welsh Cymry Britons
15
Wales- Cymru- Pays de Galles
  • With the end of the Roman presence in Britain
    (c430AD), and the beginnings of the early
    medieval period (or as it used to called the
    dark ages), we see the emergence of Wales as a
    series of political entities, all contributing to
    a sense of independence.

16
Wales- Cymru- Pays de Galles
  • The colonisation of the east of Britain by
    Germanic peoples (Anglo-Saxons) meant that
    Celtic culture and language was increasingly
    restricted to northern and western Britain.
  • This is many ways created Wales.

17
Wales- Cymru- Pays de Galles
  • And in mainland Britain it was in Wales, that
    Celtic culture was mostly preserved and promoted
    after the 6th century AD.
  • Nowhere were the ties to the past stronger.
  • A past which the Welsh remembered as a Golden Age
    of British (ieCeltic) heroes, saints and above
    all political autonomy.

18
Christianity in Early Wales 400-1000AD
19
The Celtic Church in Wales
  • Although Christianity was introduced into Britain
    under Roman rule, it was mainly concentrated in
    the south-east of Britain in urban locations.
  • After the end of Roman rule (c410AD),
    Christianity in the Celtic west between the fifth
    and the eighth centuries was diffused by groups
    of monks, often led by charismatic leaders.

20
The Celtic Church in Wales
  • Such leaders known as saints spearheaded the
    growth of Christianity in the Celtic west of
    Britain as the Anglo-Saxons arrived in the east.
  • The British Celts (Welsh, Cornish, Cumbrians),
    the Bretons and the Galicians developed a
    cultural and spiritual consciousness which was
    clearly identifiable as Atlantic.

21
The Celtic Church in Wales
  • Shipping routes played an important role in
    bringing new ideas from one region to another.
  • As far as Wales was concerned, the sea acted as a
    major Christianizing superhighway.
  • Links between Wales, Cornwall (also devon and
    Somerset), Ireland and Brittany.

22
The Celtic Saints of Wales
  • The Lives of the saints (biographies).
  • One of the most influential was St Dyfrig (d c
    550).
  • He was undoubtedly one of the first of these
    saints.
  • He was a teacher, bishop and organizer.

23
The Celtic Saints of Wales
  • One of his students was St Illtud who converted
    his own monastery into a proto-University.
  • One of his students was St Samson who brought
    this version of Christianity to Brittany. (The
    bishopric of Dol).

24
The Celtic Saints of Wales
  • The most prominent of all Welsh saints was St
    David (d.c.589AD).
  • He was the acknowledge abbot-bishop in St
    Davids in south-west Wales.
  • He lived in an area where was Irish influence.
  • St David became a potent symbol of the
    distinctive identity of the Welsh Church.

25
The Celtic Saints of Wales
  • The hallmark of the monastic settlements was
    austerity, simplicity and purity.
  • The most widely used word for church or Christian
    foundation was llan, a word often followed by a
    saints name
  • Llanddewi (the church of St David), Llanbadarn,
    Llanilltud.
  • Their churches were made of timber, and were very
    small indeed.

26
The early Christian treasures of Wales The
Gospels of St Chad 730AD
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Survival of Latin in The early Welsh
church Survival of Romano-British culture
32
Cadwgans Stone
33
The Stone of Paulinus Peulin)
34
The Bell Of Gwynhoedl
35
Cross of Houelt
36
Cross of Conbelin (Cynfelin)
37
Cross of Nevern (Nanhyfer) Pembrokeshire
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St Melangell
40
Wales- Cymru- Pays de Galles
  • In inhabitants of Wales were soon cut off from
    the Britons (ieCelts) of Cornwall and Cumbria
    (northern Britain) by the expansion of the
    Germanic kingdoms of Wessex, and Northumbria.
  • The Vikings too, who assumed power on the Isle of
    Man were able to attack the Welsh coastal areas.

41
Britain c.600AD
Cumbria
Elmet
Wales
Cornwall
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The Kings of Early Wales
  • Cunedda Wledig (Cunedag)
  • He and his eight sons left the territory of the
    Uotadini (Gododdin- todays Scotland) for Gwynedd
    (NW Wales)
  • They expelled Irish settlers and founded a new
    dynasty. The Royal House of Gwynedd.
  • Rhufoniog Edeirnion, Ceredigion, Meirionydd.

44
The Kings of Early Wales
  • Other kingdoms were formed in the south of Wales
    in Dyfed, Brycheiniog and Morgannwg.
  • In north central Wales, the kingdom was called
    Powys- which may possibly have existed from Roman
    times.
  • (Paganses)

45
Irish influence in early Wales
  • During the late Roman period, parts of Wales
    became Irish colonies especially in the NW and
    SW.
  • Inscriptions in ogam are found in both parts of
    the country.
  • Irish missionaries passed through Wales on their
    way to the Continent.
  • Some words were borrowed from Irish into Welsh
    (eg cerbydchariot).

46
The Kings of Early Wales
  • Although Wales was largely a patchwork of small
    kingdoms until the 800s, by 855, Rhodri Mawr
    (the Great) started to unify Wales.

47
Wales- Cymru- Pays de Galles
  • One of the most prominent Welsh kings of that
    time was Rhodri Mawr (Rhodri the Great), who
    became ruler of Gwynedd in 844. He became an
    internationally famous warrior king by defeating
    the Danes in 856 AD. He extended his kingdom to
    all of North and mid Wales.

48
Offas Dyke-Clawdd Offa
49
Wales- Cymru- Pays de Galles
  • The opinion today is that Offas Dyke was a
    boundary, a means of economic and political
    control between Offa and the Welsh kings.
  • The bank itself was 7 meters high, with a ditch 2
    meters deep, and up to 20 meters wide. This would
    have made it difficult for troops or livestrock
    to cross this cultural, political and linguistic
    border.

50
Wales- Cymru- Pays de Galles
  • With the dangers posed by the heathen Vikings,
    the Welsh made alliances with English kingdoms to
    withstand their attacks.
  • Around 893 the Welsh princes stood with their
    Wessex allies against the Viking invasion of
    c893AD.

51
Hywel Dda The Lawgiver
52
Wales- Cymru- Pays de Galles
  • Although Wales was still a collection of kingdoms
    (5 in all), we see the beginnings of a desire for
    some form of unity.
  • Under Hywel Dda (Hywel the Good who was
    Rhodris grandson), Wales codified its law system
    (no small matter for a nation that wants to find
    a sense of unity). He had a vast territory which
    had brought most of Wales under his rule.

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Wales- Cymru- Pays de Galles
  • Typically, this disintergrated after his death.
  • Wales had its own version of a civil war during
    the hundred years between 950-1050. The two side
    represented the northern kingdom (Gwynedd) and
    the southern kingdom (Deheubarth).

56
Wales- Cymru- Pays de Galles
  • The beginning of the eleventh century saw the
    appearance of several new dynasties.
  • A certain Llywelyn ap Seisyll became king of
    Gwynedd around 1010. He extended his control to
    include Deheubarth by warfare.
  • His young son, Gruffudd (ap Llywelyn) took over
    where his father left off and extended the lands
    of this Gwynedd dynasty even further.

57
Wales- Cymru- Pays de Galles
  • Between 1056 and his death in 1064, Gruffydd ap
    Llywelyn ruled the whole of Wales, the only Welsh
    king ever to do this.
  • He also played an important part in English
    politics he made alliances many of the English
    earls. This soured, and led finally to the
    assassination of Gruffydd.

58
Wales- Cymru- Pays de Galles
  • Gwynedd lost its independence and Deheubarth
    regained theirs.
  • England had emerged as a unified kingdom under
    Alfred, but in Wales were plagued by an adherence
    to petty kingdoms and local power.

59
Wales- Cymru- Pays de Galles
  • This early Welsh society had eveolved a kind of
    tribal society in which blood relationships
    were all-important.
  • This society was found in scattered settlements
    called maenors, groups of which formed cantrevs,
    the basic unit of royal administration.

60
Wales- Cymru- Pays de Galles
  • By the latter part of the twelfth century, three
    Welsh kingdoms stood out Gwynedd (capital
    Aberffraw), Powys (capital Mathrafal) and
    Deheubarth (capital Dinefwr).
  • This was called in medieval Latin Wallia or Pura
    Wallia and was seen as being quite different to
    the parts of Wales that came increasingly under
    Norman control the Marchia Wallie.

61
Wales- Cymru- Pays de Galles
  • In that era the dynasties ruling Gwynedd became
    the most important political force in Wales.
  • The most impressive was Llywelyn ap Iorwerth (or
    Llywelyn the Great). He spent much time fighting
    against his own relatives, until he was the
    undisputed ruler of Gwynedd, and recognised as
    such by the English king John. (Llywelyn married
    his daughter).

62
Wales- Cymru- Pays de Galles
  • In 1216 he summoned the Welsh princes from the
    south to a kind of parliament at Aberdyfi.
  • He repeated this in 1238 to a kind of privy
    council at Strata Florida in west Wales.
  • He never called himself prince of Wales but he
    clearly was deserving of the title. He died in
    1240.

63
Wales- Cymru- Pays de Galles
  • His grandson Llywelyn ap Gruffudd. After an
    internecine war between the sons of LLywelyn ap
    Iorwerth and also another by his own brothers,
    Llywelyn ap Gruffudd created a kingdom which came
    close to covering the whole of Wales, and he
    declared himself Prince of Wales (Tywysog
    Cymru).

64
Wales- Cymru- Pays de Galles
  • He created a a Principality of Wales composed of
    Gwynedd, Powys and Deheubarth.
  • Eventually hostility developed between Llywelyn
    and the powerful English king Edward I. Certain
    impositions made the Welsh indignant and
    eventually a revolt ensued.

65
Wales- Cymru- Pays de Galles
  • Llywelyn was killed shortly before the battle of
    Irfon Bridge in mid Wales on 11 December 1282.
  • Llywelyn, the last native Prince of Wales, was
    beheaded.
  • His brother Dafydd fought on for another year.
  • Welsh independence was at an end. Wales became an
    integral, if troublesome, part of the realm of
    England.

66
The tomb of Llywelyn ab Iorwerth
67
The Castles of Wales
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The Castles of Wales
  • Most of the castles in Wales today date from the
    period of the defeat of the Welsh after 1282
  • Dolwyddelan is however a native Welsh Castle

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Conwy Castle
73
The Castles of Wales
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Caernarfon Castle
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Caernarfon Castle
  • The great castle of Caernarfon stands at the
    junction of the Menai Straits and the river
    Seiont.
  • In design the the castle is a long oval enclosure
    running east-west.
  • All the castle towers are polygonal, copying
    possibly designs known elsewhere, especially the
    walls of Constantinople.

78
Caernarfon Castle
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Caernarfon Castle
83
Rhuddlan Castle
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Beaumaris Castle Anglesey
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