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Idea Generation

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Title: Idea Generation


1
Therakorn Yardpaga3M Thailand Ltd.
Brand Management
2
What is a Brand ?
3
What is a Brand?
Term
Symbol
Identifies product/service of
seller Differentiates from competitors
Design
Name
Combination
Sign
Keller, Kevin Lane. Strategic Brand Management
Building, Measuring, and Managing Brand Equity.
1998.
4
Brand Recognition
The stage of brand acceptance at which the
consumer knows of a brand, but does not prefer it
to competing brands.
5
Brand Preference
The stage of brand acceptance at which the
consumer selects one brand over
competing offerings based on previous experience
with it.
6
Brand Insistence
The stage of brand acceptance at which
the consumer refuses to accept alternatives and
searchers extensively for the desired good
or service.
7
Types of Brands
Generic Products No name cigarettes
Manufacturer Brand Kodak, Heinz
Private Brand Kenmore, DieHard Craftman
Family Brand KitchenAid Appliances, Johnsons
Johnson products
Individual Brand Levers Aim, Close-Up Pepsodent
Toothpastes
8
Brand Manager
A marketing professional charged with planning
and implementing marketing strategies and tactics
for a brand.
9
Brand Name
The part of a brand consisting of words or
letters that form a name to identify and
distinguish a firms offerings.
10
Brand Mark
A symbol or pictorial design that identifies a
product.
11
Generic Name
A brand name that has become a generally descripti
ve term for a class of products.
12
Trademark
A brand to which the owner legally claims
exclusive use.
13
Brand Extension
Application of a popular brand name to a new
product in an unrelated product category.
14
Brand Dilution
A loss in brand equity that results when a firm
introduces too many brand extensions.
15
Brand Licensing
The practice of allowing other companies to use a
brand name in exchange for a payment.
16
Co-branding
The practice of combining two strong
brands, perhaps owned by different companies, to
sell a product.
17
What is Brand Equity ?
18
What is Brand Equity?
Perceived Brand Quality
Brand Associations Attributes Benefits
Attitudes
Brand Awareness
Brand Equity
Other Proprietary Brand Assets
Brand Loyalty
Provides Value to Firm by Enhancing Efficiency
and Effectiveness of Marketing Programs Brand
Loyalty Prices/margins Trade Leverage
Competitive Advantage
Provides Value to Customer by Enhancing
Customers Interpretation/processing of
information Confidence in the Purchase
Decision Use Satisfaction
Source Aaker (1991) Managing Brand Equity
19
Measuring Brand Equity
20
Indirect Measurement
  • Measure consumer brand awareness
  • Use aided and unaided memory measures
  • Measure Brand image
  • Use qualitative and quantitative techniques
  • Useful for identifying the aspects of brand
    knowledge which potentially cause the response
    that creates customer-based brand equity

Keller, Kevin Lane. Strategic Brand Management
Building, Measuring, and Managing Brand Equity.
1998.
21
Direct Measurement
  • Comparative
  • Assess the effect of consumer perceptions and
    preferences on aspects of the marketing program
  • Holistic
  • Estimate overall value of the brand
  • Useful in approximating the possible outcomes and
    benefits that arise from the response that
    creates customer-based brand equity

Keller, Kevin Lane. Strategic Brand Management
Building, Measuring, and Managing Brand Equity.
1998.
22
Implement Measurements
  • Conduct Brand Audit
  • Brand inventory access health of brand
  • Brand exploratory uncover sources of equity
  • Brand positioning improve and leverage equity
  • Develop Brand Tracking Procedures
  • Monitor strength, favorability and uniqueness of
    key brand associations
  • Track preferences for brand, usage, price
    sensitivity, etc
  • Track marketing programs effect on brand image
  • Create Brand Equity Management System
  • Brand equity charter
  • Brand equity report
  • Brand overseers

Keller, Kevin Lane. Strategic Brand Management
Building, Measuring, and Managing Brand Equity.
1998.
23
Evaluate current position of brand/product
Brand Scorecard 1. The brand excels at delivering
the benefits customers truly desire. 2. The brand
stays relevant to consumers. 3. The pricing
strategy is based on consumers perceptions of
value. 4. The brand is properly positioned. 5.
The brand is consistent. 6. The brand portfolio
and hierarchy make sense.
7. The brand makes use of and coordinates a full
repertoire of marketing activities to build
equity. 8. The brands managers understand what
the brand means to consumers. 9. The brand is
given proper support, and that support is
sustained over the long run. 10. The company
monitors sources of brand equity.
Source Kotler, The Brand Report Card, HBR, Jan.
2000
24
Determining Associations with the Brand Name
Associations with the Brand Name
Name Associations What comes to mind when the
following brands are mentioned?
Projective Techniques Jan had just finished
eating the Campbells tomato soup and felt
Exploring Perceptual Differences What other
brands is it different from and why?
Managing Equity Capitalizing on the Value of a
Brand Name. 1991
25
Building Brand EquityBrand Development
26
Brand Growth Strategies
New Products
Present Products
II. Brand Extensions
I. Rejuvenating a Brand
  • Find New Uses
  • Increase Usage
  • Extend the Brand
  • Obsolete Existing Product
  • Augment the Product/Service
  • Reposition the Brand
  • Enter New Markets
  • Add product features, product refinement
  • Expand the product line
  • Develop a new generation product
  • Develop new products for the same market

Present Markets
IV. Brand Development
III. Brand Expansion
  • Segment
  • Target
  • Position
  • Marketing Plan
  • Test Market
  • Lift-Off
  • Expand geographically
  • Target new segments

New Markets
27
Brand Development
  • Evaluate the current health of brand
  • Determine growth objectives of company and
    potential product usage growth opportunities
  • Measure long-term potential impact of
    opportunities against current brand equity
  • Launch into the new market
  • Re-evaluate brand positioning impact

28
Brand Development
4. Marketing Plan Four Ps Product Development
29
1. Segment - Find the Pain
  • Strategic windows to look for in deciding to
    enter a new market
  • A segment of consumers whose needs are not being
    satisfied (quality, service, or specialization
    needs).
  • A segment not targeted by others.
  • A position or segment held by a weak competitor.
  • Once an idea is found make sure it meshes with
    the companys corporate vision and core
    competencies.

30
2. Target
  • Estimate the Gain
  • Factor and Cluster analysis determine segments.
  • Regression analysis identify best segment(s) to
    target.
  • Funnel Model forecast total market and market
    segment shares now and in the future.
  • Mitigate risks such as seasonality and business
    cycle
  • Additional factors include
  • 1. Technical/Competence
  • 2. Legal
  • 3. Social
  • 4. Competitive
  • 5. Financial

31
3. Position
  • Market Opportunity Analysis
  • Deliver one singular benefit
  • Define your product in the clearest terms
    possible
  • Define user profiles aiming toward Love Group
  • Brand name
  • Make a statement with the name
  • Brand Logo Symbol
  • Logo should be designed to fit both eyes
  • Use color opposite to major competitor

32
3. Position (cont.)
  • Brand Slogan
  • Be unique in the consumers mind
  • Success is the claim to authenticity
  • Claim to be the leader, not better
  • Trying to be all things to all people weakens the
    brand
  • Brand Tagline Byline
  • Tagline express current functional emotional
    benefits
  • Byline descriptive words to tell consumer where
    to place the brand

33
3. Position (cont.)
  • Brand Creation
  • How many brands exist?
  • Outline the underlying architecture for the brand
    name, byline, tag line, logo, and the brand
    story.
  • Consider trends, profile existing brands and
    determine how decisions are made that affect
    brand choice.
  • Include branding in everything from finance to
    operations
  • Test product concept and positioning

34
3. Position (cont.)
  • Brand Creation Strategy
  • Specify sales and market share and communication
    objectives and strategies to accomplish them
  • Specify tactics of specific action to achieve
    each strategy
  • Develop a timeline and product roadmap

35
The Brand Position Statement
  • Answers four questions
  • Which elements of the brand identity should be
    part of the proposition and active communication
    program?
  • Who is the target audience - primary and
    secondary?
  • What are the communication objectives?
  • What will be the points of advantage?

Aaker, David A. Building Strong Brands. 1996
36
Brand Position
  • Brand Image/ Position
  • Strengths/vulnerabilities
  • Trends
  • Motivations
  • Segments
  • Unmet Needs

Customer Analysis
Competitor Analysis
StrategicBrand Analysis
Self-Analysis
  • Existing Brand Image
  • Brand Heritage
  • Strengths/Weaknesses
  • The brands soul
  • Links to other brands

Aaker, David A. Building Strong Brands. 1996
37
A Brand Image Can
Reinforce image strengths
Add associations
Reinforced Exploited
Augmented
Exploit positive differences
Diffused, Softened Or Deleted
Soften restrictive perceptions
Eliminate images inconsistent with the brand
identity
Specify what the brand is not
Aaker, David A. Building Strong Brands. 1996
38
Creating a New Brand Name
  • Does it make learning the brand easier?
  • Is it unique and likely to be superior to
    competitors in stimulating associations?
  • Can the brand justify marketing support adequate
    to establish the name?

Managing Equity Capitalizing on the Value of a
Brand Name. 1991
39
Benefits of Brand Consistency
Marlboro -- Masculine
Ownership Of A Position
Maytag -- Dependable
Federal Express -- Overnight
More Productive
Slogan
Image
Ownership of Identity Symbol
Cost Efficiencies
Spokesperson
Jingle
Less Expensive
Aaker, David A. Building Strong Brands. 1996
40
4. Marketing Plan
  1. Product
  2. Variety, Quality, Name, Features, Packaging,
    Sizes, Services, Warranties, Returns
  3. Usage models and scenarios
  4. Pricing
  5. List price, Discounts, Allowances, Payment
    period, Credit terms
  6. Placement
  7. Sales promotions, Advertising, Sales force,
    Public relations, Direct marketing

41
4. Marketing Plan (cont.)
  • Promotion
  • PR, radio, print, consumer promotion, sampling,
    direct marketing, third-party marketing
  • Reach vs. Frequency National vs Spot markets
    Steady vs. Pulsing vs. Seasonal
  • Product Development
  • Communicate vision into actual product
  • Test within company, with select customers, with
    consumers

42
5. Test Markets
  • Market Testing
  • Measure consumer testing by trial, first repeat,
    adoption and purchase frequency
  • Success Metrics
  • Achievement of each years goals
  • Support Environment
  • The level of service a customer receives affects
    their perception of the brand

43
6. Lift Off
  • Have you generated your idea?
  • Have you done research on the target market?
  • Has the brand been created?
  • What is your marketing plan?
  • Has your product tested successfullyin the
    market?

44
Rejuvenating A Brand
45
Brand Growth Strategies
New Products
Present Products
II. Brand Extensions
I. Rejuvenating a Brand
  • Find New Uses
  • Increase Usage
  • Extend the Brand
  • Obsolete Existing Product
  • Augment the Product/Service
  • Reposition the Brand
  • Enter New Markets
  • Add product features, product refinement
  • Expand the product line
  • Develop a new generation product
  • Develop new products for the same market

Present Markets
IV. Brand Development
III. Brand Expansion
  • Segment
  • Target
  • Position
  • Marketing Plan
  • Test Market
  • Lift-Off
  • Expand geographically
  • Target new segments

New Markets
46
Rejuvenating the Brand
Brand Rejuvenation
?David Aaker, Managing Brand Equity
47
How To Evolve a Brand and Make It More
Contemporary
New Products
  • Jell-O Jigglers
  • Quaker Oat
  • Squares

Update Slogans
  • GE Electricity /
  • Technology /
  • Progress

Update Name
  • Federal Express /
  • FedEx
  • Kentucky Fried Chicken /
  • KFC
  • TAC / DTAC

Update Symbols
  • 3M
  • Mazda
  • Singha Beer

Aaker, David A. Building Strong Brands. 1996
48
  • Conduct market research to see exactly how
    consumers use the brand.
  • Examine competition for applications

49
  • Frequency of Use
  • Reminders
  • Incentives
  • Ease or convenience of use
  • Occasions
  • Locations
  • Level of Use
  • Reminders
  • Incentives
  • Reduce negative associations with frequent use
  • Develop positive associations with frequent use

50
Brand Rejuvenation
More Good The Extension Enhances the Brand Name
Good Brand Name Aids the Extension
EFFECTS OF EXTENDING A BRAND TO A NEW PRODUCT
Bad The Brand Name Fails to Help the Extension
More Ugly New Brand Name is Foregone
Step 1 Determine brand name associations Step 2
For each association identify related product
categories Step 3 Select candidate products
The Ugly The Brand Name is Damaged
?David Aaker, Managing Brand Equity
51
The Art of Cannibalism
Brand Rejuvenation
4. Obsoleting Existing Product
When you are at the top, you have to have the
courage to say, I have to stop investing in this
great product and generate a new product that
will kill it. If you dont, some competitor will
do it for you. -Willem Roelandts, Hewlett-Packard
52
Brand Rejuvenation
  • How can you further differentiate your product
    with augmentation?
  • What can be done better?
  • What can be done extra or different?
  • Improved packaging
  • Upgraded services

53
Brand Rejuvenation
  • Change common or usual associations
  • Add value by creating new associations

54
7. Enter New Markets
Brand Rejuvenation
  • Evaluate segmentation and consumer demographic
    information
  • Examine growth opportunities in declining or
    maturing markets/industries
  • Find segments that have traditionally not been
    served
  • Select a segment where your Brand can add value

55
Improve Product-line Strategies
  • Improve cost accounting
  • Allocate resources To winners
  • Research consumer behavior
  • Apply The logic line test
  • Coordinate marketing across The line
  • Work with channel partners
  • Expect product-line turnover
  • Manage deletions

Ries, Al. Trout, Jack. The 22 Immutable Laws
of Branding. 1993.
56
Brand Expansion Strategy
57
Brand Growth Strategies
New Products
Present Products
II. Brand Extensions
I. Rejuvenating a Brand
  • Find New Uses
  • Increase Usage
  • Extend the Brand
  • Obsolete Existing Product
  • Augment the Product/Service
  • Reposition the Brand
  • Enter New Markets
  • Add product features, product refinement
  • Expand the product line
  • Develop a new generation product
  • Develop new products for the same market

Present Markets
IV. Brand Development
III. Brand Expansion
  • Segment
  • Target
  • Position
  • Marketing Plan
  • Test Market
  • Lift-Off
  • Expand geographically
  • Target new segments

New Markets
58
Brand Expansion Strategies
  • Hedge off competitors
  • Increase profits, sales and revenues
  • Increase brand exposure
  • Lower RD / marketing expenses than with
    completely new product
  • Economies of scale are greater
  • The Board told you to grow!

59
Growing a Brand
Brand A
New Product
Brand B
New Variation on Old Prod.
New Brand C
  • Line extensions existing brand name extended to
    new sizes or flavors in the existing product
    category.
  • Brand extensions brand names extended to new
    product categories.
  • Multibrands new brand names introduced in the
    same product category
  • New brands new brand name for a new category
    product
  • Cobrands brands bearing two or more well-known
    brand names.

Source Kotler, Marketing Management, p. 413
60
Steps
  • 1. Evaluate the current health of brand/product
  • 2. Determine growth objectives of company and
    potential product usage growth opportunities
  • 3. Measure long-term potential impact of
    opportunities against current brand equity
  • 4. Launch into the new market
  • 5. Re-evaluate brand positioning impact

61
Brand Extension
62
Brand Growth Strategies
New Products
Present Products
II. Brand Extensions
I. Rejuvenating a Brand
  • Find New Uses
  • Increase Usage
  • Extend the Brand
  • Obsolete Existing Product
  • Augment the Product/Service
  • Reposition the Brand
  • Enter New Markets
  • Add product features, product refinement
  • Expand the product line
  • Develop a new generation product
  • Develop new products for the same market

Present Markets
IV. Brand Development
III. Brand Expansion
  • Segment
  • Target
  • Position
  • Marketing Plan
  • Test Market
  • Lift-Off
  • Expand geographically
  • Target new segments

New Markets
63
Why Brand Extensions?
Current Brand
Consumers Segmentation
Marketplace
Consumer Desires
Excess Capacity
Pricing Breadth
Trade Pressure
Competitive Intensity
Short Term Gain
64
When Does an Extension Make Sense?
  • Strong Brand associations provide
  • A point of differentiation
  • An advantage for the extension
  • The extension helps the core brand by
  • Reinforcing the key associations
  • Avoiding negative associations
  • Providing name recognition
  • The category will not support the resources
  • needed to establish a new name
  • A new name will not provide a useful set of
  • associations or a platform for future growth

Ries, Al. Trout, Jack. The 22 Immutable Laws
of Branding. 1993.
65
The Extension Decision
Good If the brands association, perceived
quality and awareness/presence help the
extension More Good If the extension reinforces
the associations and awareness of the
brand Bad If the name does not add value to the
extension of even has negative associations Ugly
If the core brand name is damaged or diluted by
the extension, or the brand franchise is
cannibalized More Ugly If the opportunity to
develop another brand name is forgone.
Aaker, David A. Building Strong Brands. 1996
66
Brand Roles
  • Sub brand Roles
  • Describe offerings
  • Structure clarify offerings
  • Augment/Modify brand identity
  • Exploit market opportunities
  • Support Extensions

Strategic Brands
Endorser
Brand Roles
Driver
Silver Bullets
  • Branded Benefits
  • Features
  • Components
  • Service programs

Aaker, David A. Building Strong Brands. 1996
67
Sub-brand RolesAdd value by fulfilling one or
more of the following tasks
Levis Loose
Oral B Tooth Gum Care
Hidden Valley Low Fat
Describe Offerings
Nike Air Jordan
Structure Clarify Offerings
Exploit Market Opportunities
  • Marriott Hotels
  • Fairfield
  • Courtyard
  • Residence Inn

Sub-brand Roles
Oatmeal Crisp
Augment or Modify the Identity
Sure Prostick
Apple Mac Quadra
Smuckers Simply Fruit
Aaker, David A. Building Strong Brands. 1996
68
Brand Extensions - Advantages
  • Facilitate new product acceptance
  • Reduced risk perceived by customers
  • Increase the probability of gaining distribution
    and trial
  • Increase efficiency of promotional expenditures
  • Reduce cost of introductory and follow-up
    marketing programs
  • Avoid cost of developing a new brand
  • Allow for packaging and labeling efficiencies
  • Permit consumer variety-seeking
  • Provide feedback benefits to the parent brand and
    company
  • Clarify brand meaning
  • Enhance the parent brand image
  • Bring new customers to the brand franchise and
    increase market coverage
  • Revitalize the brand
  • Permit subsequent extensions

Keller, Kevin Lane. Strategic Brand Management
Building, Measuring, and Managing Brand Equity.
1998.
69
Brand Extensions - Disadvantages
  • Confuse or frustrate consumers
  • Retailer resistance
  • Failure could hurt parent brand image
  • Cannibalize sales of parent brand
  • Diminish identification of brand with any one
    category
  • Hurt image of parent brand if associations
    between products conflicts
  • Dilute brand meaning by spreading brand too thin
  • Forgo the chance to develop a new brand and lose
    associated potential opportunities and revenues
  • Usually does not increase purchases with a
    category
  • Light, Clear, Fat-free diminish perception
    of parent brand

Keller, Kevin Lane. Strategic Brand Management
Building, Measuring, and Managing Brand Equity.
1998.
70
Brand Extension Types
  • Line Extension A parent brand is used to brand a
    new product that targets a new market segment
    within a product category currently served by the
    parent brand. Most new products are line
    extension
  • Category Extension A parent brand is used to
    enter a different product category from that
    currently served by the parent brand.

Keller, Kevin Lane. Strategic Brand Management
Building, Measuring, and Managing Brand Equity.
1998.
71
Horizontal Extension
ENHANCEDBRANDEQUITY
ADDEDVALUE
FIT
  • Customers must be comfortable with the brand in
    the new setting.
  • Bases product associates, ingredient,
    attribute, application, user imagery, expertise,
    designer image.
  • The brand name alone should help customers
    articulate why the offering is superior to other
    brands.
  • The brand equity should be enhanced by the
    brands presence the brands presence in another
    context -- not only from increased visibility but
    also from the associations generated.

Aaker, David A. Brand Leadership. 2000
72
Vertical Extension
ADVANTAGES
DISADVANTAGES
Product vitality margins
A vertical stretch is particularly tricky because
perceived quality is involved and also because
the use of sub-brands endorsed brands needs to
be considered.
Risk to brands reputation customer
base Cannibalization Lack of credibility Competito
r price wars
To participate in a large growing value market
Aaker, David A. Brand Leadership. 2000
73
7 Approaches to Brand Extension
Cranberry Juice Cocktail / Dole Frozen Fruit Bars
Same Product / Different Form
Distinctive Taste / Ingredient / Component
Arm Hammer Carpet Deodorizer
Companion Product
Colgate Toothbrushes / Duracell Durabeam
Flashlights
Customer Franchise
Visa Travelers Checks / Gerber Baby Clothes
Expertise
Honda Lawn Mowers
Benefit / Attribute / Feature
Ivory mild shampoo / Sunkist Vitamin C Tablets
Porsche Sunglasses / Ragu Pasta
Designer or Ethnic Image
Keller, Kevin Lane. Strategic Brand Management
Building, Measuring, and Managing Brand Equity.
1998.
74
Determining Brand and Extension Fit
Skills/Assets Complementing
Original Product Class
Extension Product Class
Functional Benefits Prestige User Type Symbol
Brand
Extension
The brand and the extension must share common
skill or asset perceptions to be successful
Managing Equity Capitalizing on the Value of a
Brand Name. 1991
75
How many brands?
Is the brand sufficiently different to merit a
new name?
Will a new name really add value?
Will an existing brand be
placed at risk if used on a new product?
Will the business supporta new brand name?
Aaker, David A. Building Strong Brands. 1996
76
How to use Brand Extensions
  • Subset of identity/
  • Value Proposition
  • Core of Identity
  • Points of Leverage
  • Key Benefits
  • Target Audience
  • Primary
  • Secondary

Brand Position
  • Actively Communicate
  • Augment the Image
  • Reinforce the Image
  • Diffuse the Image
  • Create Advantage
  • Points of Superiority
  • Points of Parity

Aaker, David A. Building Strong Brands. 1996
77
What the Brand Name Brings to the Brand Extension
Brand Association
Quality Associations
Brand Name
H-P, Kraft, GE, Ford Reputation for Quality
Weight Watchers (low calorie) Jeep (adventure)
Awareness / Presence
Trial Purchase
Jell-O Pudding Pops Arm Hammer Carpet Cleaner
More likely to try established Brand names
Aaker, David A. Building Strong Brands. 1996
78
Why the Brand Name Fails to Help the Extension?
Negative Attribute Associations
The Name Does Not Add Value
The Name Confuses
The Fit Is Poor
Pillsbury Microwave Popcorn beat out by
Latecomer Orville Redenbacher
Levi Strauss Tailored Classics / Bic Perfume
Betty Crocker Cookbook Chicken
Rolls-Royce Bicycles / Dole Hawaiian Resorts
Managing Equity Capitalizing on the Value of a
Brand Name. 1991
79
Expanding Brand Meaning Through Extensions
Brand Original Product Extension Products New Brand Meaning
Weight Watchers Fitness Center Low Calorie Foods Weight Loss and Maintenance
Sunkist Oranges Vitamins, Juices Good Health
Crayola Crayons Markets, Paints, Pens, Pencils, Clay Colorful Crafts for Kids
Aunt Jemima Pancake Mixes Syrups, Frozen Waffles Breakfast Foods
Keller, Kevin Lane. Strategic Brand Management
Building, Measuring, and Managing Brand Equity.
1998.
80
How to Augment a Brands Identity
ProductExtensions
Adding emotional benefits
Use of sub brands
Aaker, David A. Building Strong Brands. 1996
81
Problems And Risks From Brand Proliferation
WEAKER LINE LOGIC
LOWER BRAND LOYALTY
STAGNANT CATEGORY DEMAND
Risks of Brand Proliferation
MORE COMPETITOR OPPORTUNITIES
UNDEREXPLOITED IDEAS
INCREASED COSTS
HIDDEN COSTS
Ries, Al. Trout, Jack. The 22 Immutable Laws
of Branding. 1993.
82
22 Immutable Laws of Branding
  • 1. Expansion The power of a brand is inversely
    proportional to its scope.
  • 2. Contraction A brand becomes stronger when
    you narrow its focus.
  • 3. Publicity The birth of a brand is achieved
    with publicity, not advertising.
  • 4. Advertising Once born, a brand needs
    advertising to stay healthy.
  • 5. Word A brand should strive to own a word in
    the mind of the consumer.
  • 6. Credentials The crucial ingredient in the
    success of any brand is its claim to authenticity
    (ex. Coke is it!)
  • 7. Quality Quality is important, but brands are
    not built by quality alone. (ex. Is Rolex really
    better than Timex?)
  • 8. Category A leading brand should promote the
    category, not the brand.
  • 9. Name In the long run, a brand is nothing more
    than a name. (Ex. Xerox, Kleenex, etc.)
  • 10. Extensions The easiest way to destroy a
    brand is to put its name on everything. (Ex.
    Miller beer)
  • 11. Fellowship In order to build the category, a
    brand should welcome other brands. (Competition
    draws attention)
  • 12. Generic One of the fastest routes to failure
    is giving a brand a generic name.
  • 13. Company Brands are brands. Companies are
    companies. There is a difference.
  • 14. Subbrands What branding builds, subbranding
    can destroy. (Line extensions can kill the value
    of a brand.)
  • 15. Siblings There is a time and a place to
    launch a second brand. (Ex. Honda introduced
    Acura, not Honda Ultra)
  • 16. Shape A brands logotype should be designed
    to fit the eyes. Both eyes. (Ex. Arbys logo is
    too tall, less effect.)
  • 17. Color A brand should use a color that is
    the opposite of its major competitors. (Ex. Car
    rental logos)
  • 18. Borders There are no barriers to global
    branding. A brand should know no borders.
  • 19. Consistency A brand is not built overnight.
    Success is measured in decades, not years.
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