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Title: Civil War- present


1
United States History Review
  • Civil War- present

2
The Civil War 1861-1865
  • Northern Advantages
  • Established military and government
  • Industry and railroads (85 of factories, 70 of
    rails)
  • 800,00 immigrants during the war, many of whom
    enlisted
  • Northern Disadvantages
  • Had to WIN the war
  • Moving troops long distances to the battlefield
  • Southern Advantages
  • Motivated military with exceptional leadership
  • Fighting a defensive war, a TIE and they win
  • Southern Disadvantages
  • Ironically, they lacked a strong central
    government to lead organize the war
  • Limited industry and rails
  • Inability to win foreign support

3
The War
  • The North planned to blockade the Southern ports
    (Anaconda plan)
  • In addition, they planned to cut the South in 2
    by taking the Mississippi River
  • Originally the North thought the war might last a
    few months
  • This was quickly dispelled at the Battle of Bull
    Run
  • The Northern forces were routed and retreated to
    Washington, DC
  • Antietam Creek saw the single bloodiest day of
    battle as 22,000 were killed or wounded
  • With the North struggling in 1862, Lincoln
    announced the Emancipation Proclamation, freeing
    the slaves in rebelling states
  • This changed the war from saving the union to
    freeing the slaves

4
The War
  • 1863 was a turning point as the Southern economy
    had soured
  • Vicksburg and Gettysburg were decisive battles
    won by the North
  • General Shermans march through the South
    solidified Northern victory and was the beginning
    of the end
  • Lee surrendered at Appomattox Courthouse in April
    of 1865
  • 5 days later Lincoln was killed by John Wilkes
    Booth
  • Lincoln had planned a reconciliation with the
    South, with malice toward none, and charity for
    all
  • This was not necessarily a policy adopted by
    Congressional Republicans following Lincolns
    death

5
Domestic Policy during the War
  • With the South gone Northern legislators were
    able to pass high tariffs to help industry
  • Additionally Northern legislators passed
  • The Homestead Act (1861) granted land in 160 acre
    increments to families that would farm for 5
    years
  • Morill land Grant Act encouraged states to
    develop colleges with money from the sale of
    federal lands
  • Pacific Railway Act authorized a transcontinental
    railroad

6
Reconstruction
  • Lincolns Plan would readmit Southerners than
    took a loyalty oath and accepted emancipation
  • States would be readmitted when 10 of the
    population had taken the oath
  • Congress passed the Wade-Davis Bill that required
    50, but Lincoln gave it a pocket veto
  • They also established the Freedmens Bureau in
    March, 1865
  • With Lincolns death the Reconstruction fell to
    Andrew Johnson from Tennessee

7
Reconstruction
  • Under Johnsons plan all 11 states were back in
    the Union
  • Johnson was very lenient to former Confederate
    leaders, pardoning many and giving them
    citizenship
  • The former Confederate Vice-President actually
    was elected to the Senate from Georgia
  • Southern Black Codes further strained the
    Republicans in Congress by
  • Prohibiting blacks from renting or borrowing
    money to buy land
  • Forcing blacks to sign work contracts
  • Blacks could not testify against whites in court

8
Reconstruction
  • Johnson stoked the radical republican fires by
    vetoing legislation designed to expand the
    Freedmans Bureau and a civil rights bill
  • Republicans won an overwhelming majority in
    Congress in the midterm election in 1866
  • This allowed the Radical Republicans to now
    dominate Reconstruction
  • The Civil Rights Act of 1866 was the first act
    passed, followed by the 14th Amendment, and the
    Reconstruction Acts of 1867
  • Most of these were over the vetoes of Johnson

9
Johnsons Impeachment
  • Johnson was impeached by the House of
    Representatives in 1867
  • He was charged with high crimes and
    misdemeanors
  • The charges were largely of a political nature as
    he was hated by Congressional Republicans
  • Johnsons political enemies fell one vote short
    in an 1868 trial of removing him from office
  • Some moderate Republicans thought it a bad idea
    to remove Johnson for political reasons

10
The End of Reconstruction
  • War hero Ulysses Grant was elected in 1868
  • Grant won with the help of 500,000 votes from
    freed slaves
  • In response to this the Republican Congress
    passed the 15th Amendment in 1869
  • The Civil Rights Act of 1875 guaranteed equal
    accommodations, but was poorly enforced
  • Reconstruction ended with the Compromise of 1877.
  • This gave Hayes the Presidency as long as he
    pulled troops from the South

11
The Last of the West and the New South
  • 1865-1900

12
The Settlement of the West
  • The west was now a crisscross of railway,
    homestead fences and was growing new towns
  • The discovery of gold in 1849 led to the first
    real flood of settlers to the West
  • These western mines were usually staffed by at
    least 1/3 foreign born employees, experienced
    miners from Europe and Asia
  • This was the reason for the 1st of the
    anti-foreigner laws- a Miners Tax of 20/ month
    on all foreign employees
  • Pressure from the Westerners also led to the
    passage of the Chinese Exclusion Act in 1882
  • These mines vastly increased the amount of gold
    and silver available which was to lead to the
    gold/silver debates in the coming decades.

13
Native American Policies
  • About 2/3rds of the Western Indians lived in the
    Great Plains
  • The encroachment of American cattlemen and
    Homesteaders increasingly drove the Natives into
    smaller and smaller lands
  • Jacksons reservation policy of the 1830s
    disintegrated with the opening of Oklahoma to
    settlers in 1889
  • A new policy of assimilation was floated in the
    late 1800s. This policy was designed to bring
    Natives into American culture
  • It was codified into law in the Dawes Act of 1887

14
The New South following the Civil War
  • The New South movement was created by Henry Grady
    of the Atlanta Constitution.
  • It argued for economic diversity and capitalism
    without government intervention
  • Cheap labor was the draw for many businesses to
    relocate
  • Despite cities like Birmingham (steel), Memphis
    (lumber) and Richmond (tobacco) much of the South
    remained poor and agricultural due to the late
    start at industry and a poorly trained workforce
  • Segregation continued to handcuff Southern
    progress
  • In the 1896 case of Plessy v. Ferguson the
    Supreme Court ruled that separate but equal
    facilities were legally permissible
  • Jim Crow Laws followed this decision and set up a
    segregated that would legally last until 1954
  • The New South also restricted the civil rights of
    the newly freed former slaves
  • Literacy tests, poll taxes and grandfather
    clauses were used to restrict voting rights

15
Farm Problems of the late 1800s
  • Mechanization was a blessing and a curse for most
    farmers
  • It allowed them to cultivate significantly more
    land and produce a greater crop
  • Unfortunately this also led to an overproduction
    of crops that drove prices down
  • Farmers had borrowed heavily to obtain the
    equipment and land to farm and now prices were
    too low to pay back mortgages and loans
  • Additionally the railroad pools were gouging the
    small farmer on prices to ship goods to Eastern
    markets

16
Farmers Organize Protest
  • Granger and Alliance Movements were developed
    originally to aid and educate individual farmers
  • They developed into more coherent political
    bodies through time and came to form the Populist
    Party
  • They were successful in getting the Interstate
    Commerce Act passed in 1886 an attempt to
    control the railroads
  • This created the first government regulatory
    agency, the Interstate Commerce Commission

17
The Rise of Laissez-Faire
  • Laissez Faire capitalism advocated for a hands
    off approach to regulating business
  • Social Darwinism was thought to rule the world of
    business, those most able would rise to the top
  • Another attempt to justify consolidation was the
    Gospel of Wealth. This said that wealth was the
    clearest sign of Gods favor for your hard work

18
Impact of Industrialization
  • Concentration of Wealth
  • A few industrialists became fabulously wealthy
  • The Horatio Alger Myth portrayed hard working
    young individuals that made it rich through
    diligence. This was just a myth.
  • The expanding middle class
  • Corporations created the need for salaried,
    white-collar workers as well, these individuals
    increased the demand for basic services
  • Working women
  • 1 in 5 adult women were in the workforce in 1900

19
My country, is of thee, Once land of liberty, of
thee I sing. Land of the Millionaire, Farmers
with pockets bare caused by that cursed snare,--
The Money Ring
  • The Gilded Age of Politics
  • 1877-1900

20
The Gilded Age
  • The Gilded Age was a phrase coined by Mark Twain
    to characterize the years following the Civil
    War.
  • Twain used this term referred to the superficial
    glitter of the age that covered the corruption
    not to far below the surface
  • The era was largely devoid of any meaningful
    legislation and little differentiation between
    the parties
  • The goal of politics was to gain office not to
    affect change, but to pass out spoils.

21
Causes of the Gilded Age Stalemate
  • The belief in limited government
  • Laissez faire and Social Darwinism contributed to
    the idea that government should do as little as
    possible.
  • Campaign Strategy
  • Due to the limited differences in party ideology,
    it was considered very risky to stray to far away
    from the center. Therefore no strong positions
    were taken on any issues.
  • Party Patronage
  • The distribution of jobs and favors became a way
    to elicit power and influence, more so than
    through the voters

22
The Pendleton Civil Service Reform Act
  • President Garfields assassination by a
    disgruntled office seeker in 1881 led to a
    significant reevaluation of the federal
    government
  • Public outrage over the Spoils System led to the
    Pendleton Civil Service Reform Act which set up
    competitive examinations for government jobs.
  • One downside of the act was that it forced
    politicians to rely more on the rich to fund
    campaigns

23
Harrison and the Billion-Dollar Congress
  • The Election of 1888
  • Cleveland introduces the first real issue between
    Democrats and Republicans in years-tariffs
  • Republicans carried the day by rallying Northern
    business and labor with the idea that a low
    tariff would ruin industrial interests.
  • The Billion-Dollar Congress
  • passed the 1st billion dollar budget
  • McKinley Tariff, Sherman Anti-Trust and Sherman
    Silver Purchase
  • Also increases in pensions to Civil War vets

24
The Rise of the Populists
  • The Omaha Platform
  • This was the platform of the Populist Party
  • It included
  • Direct election of senators
  • Initiative and referendum
  • Unlimited coinage of silver
  • Graduated income tax
  • Public ownership of rails
  • 8 hour workdays
  • James Weaver became one of the few 3rd Party
    candidates to ever win electoral votes
  • Cleveland returned to office, in large part due
    to discontent with the McKinley tariff

25
We are Anglo-Saxons, and must obey our blood and
occupy new markets, and, if necessary, new lands
  • American Foreign Policy
  • 1865-1914

26
International Darwinism
  • This was also known as imperialism, the idea that
    stronger nations should gain economic or
    political control over others for the stronger
    nations good
  • Many also advocated for imperialism because they
    felt it would improve the dominated nation as
    well
  • Missionaries, some politicians, advocates of
    naval power and the press were all strong
    supporters of imperialism
  • Additionally, many felt it was simply an
    extension of the idea of Manifest Destiny

27
Latin America
  • The Monroe Doctrine in 1820 clearly spelled out
    American views on Latin America
  • One of the principal applications of the doctrine
    came in 1895 and 1896. A dispute between
    Venezuela and Britain was forced to the
    negotiating table by Grover Clevelands
    insistence that the U.S. would use force to keep
    Britains military at bay.
  • Many other examples of American intervention
    ensued in Latin America

28
American Intervention in Latin America
  • The Spanish-American War
  • Started at the behest of the American press
    (yellow journalism) and as a result of jingoism
    the United States removed the last vestiges of
    the former Spanish Empire in the Western
    Hemisphere
  • McKinley finally relented to public pressure and
    the press by sending a war message to Congress
    asking for a declaration. It contained 4 key
    provisions
  • Put an end to Spanish barbities, bloodshed,
    starvation, and horrible miseries in Cuba
  • Protect U.S. citizens in Cuba
  • End the serious injury to commerce
  • End the constant menace to our peace

29
The Election of 1900
  • The Republicans nominated McKinley, with
    Roosevelt as VP
  • The Democrats again nominate William Jennings
    Bryan
  • Bryan argued against the growing imperialism of
    the U.S.
  • The growing U.S. economy convinced voters that
    McKinley deserved another round as President

30
The Open Door Policy in China
  • Several nations had opened spheres of influence
    in the rapidly deteriorating China
  • Secretary of State John Hay dispatched a note to
    the nations saying bluntly that all nations
    should be welcomed to trade in China
  • In a shrewd move, since no one openly rejected
    his idea, he declared that they had all accepted

31
The Boxer Rebellion
  • Xenophobia was on the rise in China with the Open
    Door.
  • The Boxers attempted to throw out the foreigners
    with a campaign of terror
  • The U.S. and others sent the military to protect
    property and lives
  • The U.S. feared the an end to Chinese
    independence and Hay sent another round of notes
  • These were designed to ensure free trade in China
    and to protect territorial integrity

32
The Big Stick and Roosevelt
  • Following McKinleys assassination in 1900,
    Roosevelt takes office
  • Roosevelts policy was to speak softly and carry
    a big stick, the big stick of course was the
    U.S. Navy.
  • The Roosevelt Corollary was added to the Monroe
    Doctrine in 1904
  • This stated that the U.S. would intervene to
    protect the interests of any Latin American
    nation.

33
I am , therefore a Progressive because we have
not kept up with our own changes of condition,
either in the economic field or in the political
field
  • The Progressive Era
  • 1901-1918

34
Origins of Progressivism
  • The origins of Progressivism can be found in the
    changing nature of American society
  • The country had changed from a relatively
    homogenous, farming society to a mixed ethnicity,
    industrial society
  • In addition, the country had historically been
    distrustful of Big Business and there was an
    increasing gap between the rich and the poor
  • The final idea was the rise of corruption and
    graft in political machines

35
Who were the Progressives?
  • Unlike the Populists of the previous century that
    were rural, the Progressives were largely middle
    class, urban dwellers
  • These white-collar professionals were concerned
    about the impact of poverty and a lack of
    education on democratic principles
  • The Progressive movement was not limited to a
    particular party. Republicans Roosevelt, Taft
    and LaFollette and Democrats Wilson and Bryan
    carried the Progressive torch

36
Progressive Philosophy
  • A new philosophy emerged in the 20th Century that
    was contradictory to that of previous years
  • This new idea was that truthand good were
    abstracts that could not be defined
  • This led to the idea that society should be more
    pragmatic about its search for the right formula
  • The scientific method was employed by
    Progressives as a way to govern society
  • The notions of laissez-faire and rugged
    individualism seemed outdated and impractical to
    the Progressives

37
The Muckrakers
  • These forerunners to investigative journalists
    used the print media to spread news about the
    evils and ills of big business and corrupt
    government
  • By 1910 the power of the muckrakers was in
    decline
  • Banks that financed the magazines were telling
    them to tone down the criticism and also the
    sensationalism was getting tough to top
  • Muckrakers included
  • Ida Tarbell The history of Standard Oil
    Company (1902)
  • Lincoln Steffans Shame of the Cities (1904)
  • Jacob Riis How the Other Half Lives (1890)
  • Frank Norris The Octopus and The Pit- Novels

38
Political Reforms in the Cities and States
  • Changes in Voter Participation
  • Secret Ballot- by 1910 all states were holding
    secret ballots
  • Direct Primaries- candidates are chosen by party
    members voting instead of by party bosses
  • Direct election of U.S. Senators- the 17th
    Amendment required direct election of Senators
  • Initiative, Referendum, Recall-
  • Initiative- voters can force a bill to be
    considered
  • Referendum- Voters directly decide on a proposed
    law
  • Recall- Voters can remove corrupt or
    unsatisfactory politicians

39
Coal Miners in 1900
40
The Square Deal
  • Following McKinleys assassination in 1901,
    Roosevelt takes over as President
  • The Square Deal was meant to favor neither
    business nor labor
  • He demonstrated this in the 1902 coal mine
    dispute
  • He called labor an management to the White House
  • When owners refused to bend, Roosevelt threatened
    to operate the mines with troops
  • The owners agreed to give wage hikes and lessen
    the work day
  • The Square Deal also included other provisions

41
The Square Deal
  • Trust Busting
  • Roosevelt began to enforce the long dormant
    Sherman Anti-Trust Act, first against Northern
    Securities
  • He directed the attorney general to break up more
    than 40 trusts
  • Railroad Regulation
  • Under the Elkins Act and the Hepburn Act,
    Roosevelt significantly improved the power of the
    ICC
  • Consumer Protection
  • The Muckrakers had stirred the interest of the
    public and government responded with the Pure
    Food and Drug Act and the Meat Inspection Act
  • Conservation
  • Roosevelt set aside 150 million acres for a
    reserve
  • Passage of the Newlands Act in 1902 provided sale
    of public lands to promote irrigation in the West

42
The Presidency of Taft
  • Taft was actually a more aggressive trust buster
    than his predecessor Roosevelt
  • Roosevelt was upset by Tafts decision to reject
    a US Steel merger that he had approved
  • By the 1910 midterm elections, Taft decided to
    fight back against the Progressives, and support
    conservative candidates
  • This was a egregious error as the Progressive
    movement was at flood tide
  • The above reasons led to a split in the
    Republican Party.
  • Roosevelt left the Party to form the Bull-Moose
    Party to challenge Taft in 1912

43
Signs of the Times
44
The Election of 1912
45
It breaks his heart that kings must murder
still
  • World War I, 1914-1918

46
The events that led to War
  • June 28, Sarajevo
  • A Serbian terrorist assassinates Archduke
    Francis-Ferdinand
  • July 23, Vienna
  • The Austrian government threatens war against
    Serbia and invades on the 27th
  • August 1, Berlin
  • Austrian ally Germany declares war on Serbian
    ally Russia
  • August 3, Berlin
  • Germany declares war on France, Russias ally,
    and invades neutral Belgium, the fastest route to
    France
  • August 4, London
  • Great Britain, ally of France, declares war on
    Germany

47
Public Opinion
  • Public opinion was against Britain from the
    get-go
  • Not only did policy favor the allies, but the
    newspapers reported the German invasion of
    Belgium, then the sinking of the Lusitania in
    1915 cemented the view that Germany was a bully
  • As much as 30 of US population were 1st or 2nd
    generation immigrants, tied closely to their home
    country
  • Britain also controlled the news that came from
    Europe to the US

48
The War Debate
  • Most Americans favored neutrality, especially
    those who were the recent immigrants
  • After the Lusitania, a small but vocal group
    started to call for intervention
  • The Army and Navy were woefully unprepared for
    major combat
  • Congress passed the National Defense Act in June
    1916 after vigorous campaigning from President
    Wilson
  • Peace-minded Populists, Progressives and
    Socialists vehemently opposed the war and build up

49
The Election of 1916
  • He kept us out of war
  • This was the slogan for Wilsons re-election
    campaign
  • This was ironic as Wilson asked for a declaration
    of war in April of 1917, just a month after being
    sworn in
  • The decision for war had a few immediate causes
  • The Zimmerman Telegram
  • This was a note sent from Germany to Mexico
    offering the return of lost territories if Mexico
    would ally itself with Germany
  • The Russian Revolution
  • This allowed Wilson to continue with his moral
    diplomacy because autocratic Russia had been
    overthrown
  • Unrestricted Submarine Warfare
  • Germany disavowed the Sussex Pledge and returned
    to sinking ships in the Atlantic in January 1917

50
The Fourteen Points
  • Wilsons plan to end the war and goals following
    the war were outlined to Congress in January 1918
  • These points included
  • Freedom of the seas
  • An end to secret treaties
  • Reduction in national armaments
  • Self-determination for the countries in the
    Austro-Hungarian Empire
  • A general association of nations
  • This last point becomes the basis for the League
    of Nations

51
The Treaty of Versailles
  • Wilson traveled to Europe for the negotiations to
    end the war, the first time an American President
    had gone to Europe for diplomacy
  • Wilson angered Senate Republicans by bringing
    only one Republican with him, whose advice was
    never sought
  • The Wilsonian view of peace without victory was
    not shared by his Allied counterparts
  • The Big Four of Wilson, Clemenceau, George, and
    Orlando met almost daily with the outcome being
    that most of Wilsons points were compromised
  • Wilson did insist upon and win the League of
    Nations

52
The Treaty of Versailles
  • Peace terms in the treaty included the following
  • Germany was disarmed and stripped of its colonies
    in Africa
  • France was to occupy the German Rhineland for 15
    years
  • Germany was to pay huge reparations
  • Independence was granted to Estonia, Latvia,
    Lithuania, Finland and Poland
  • Czechoslovakia and Yugoslavia were created
  • All signers of the Treaty were to join the League
    of Nations and be willing to protect the
    territorial integrity of member nations

53
The Battle for Ratification
  • The Senate leaders were still miffed at the
    rebuff of Republcans gong to Versailles
  • The irreconcilables wanted no part of the
    Treaty
  • They felt it was giving up American independence
    to the League
  • Senator Henry Cabot Lodge was the leader of the
    reservationists, those who could accept the
    treaty with modifications
  • Wilson chose to fight for the Treaty as it stood
    and set out on a nationwide campaign for it
  • The Senate defeated the Treaty twice and never
    officially ended the war with Germany until 1921,
    after Wilson left office
  • The US never joined the League of Nations, part
    of the reason for its eventual failure

54
Postwar Problems
  • Following the war, many soldiers returned home
    and displaced African Americans and women from
    the workplace
  • Additionally, military orders to factories
    declined significantly leading to a decrease in
    the workforce
  • The Red Scare following the Russian Revolution
    also created problems for American Civil
    Liberties
  • The Palmer raids were mass arrests of radicals,
    Socialists, and labor agitators
  • 6000 people were arrested and 500 deported
  • Palmers credibility was questioned when he
    predicted huge rallies that never took place and
    the Scare ended as quickly as it started

55
Significant Legislation of the Period
  • 1916- National Defense Act
  • Passed to build the military readiness of
    American forces in the build up to WWI
  • 1917- Selective Service Act
  • Passed to create a democratic method of drafting
    men into the military
  • 1917- Espionage Act
  • Provided for a 20 year sentence for inciting
    rebellion or interfering with the draft
  • 1918- Sedition Act
  • Prohibited disloyal or abusive remarks about
    the US government
  • 1919- Schenk v. United States
  • Upheld the Espionage Act. A man distributing
    pamphlets against the draft was convicted, in
    1919 Justice Oliver Wendell Holmes established
    the clear and present danger doctrine for
    limiting speech
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