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Title:

THE HEART

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Title: PowerPoint Presentation Author: Sue Erwin Last modified by: BISD Created Date: 9/16/2002 2:46:11 AM Document presentation format: On-screen Show – PowerPoint PPT presentation

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Title: THE HEART


1
THE HEART
2
I. GENERAL
  • A. Primary Function
  • pump blood through the body
  • Normal functional capacity of the heart
  • 100,000 heartbeats/day
  • 2,760,000,000 heartbeats/lifetime
  • 4,000 gallons (15,000 liters) blood
    pumped/day

3
II. Cardiac Anatomy
  • A. Location
  • in the mediastinum of thoracic cavity between
    lungs

4
II. Cardiac Anatomy
  • B. Pericardium
  • 1. a double-walled fibrous sac encloses
    the heart and roots of the great vessels.

5
II. Cardiac Anatomy
  • B. Pericardium
  • 2. functions to maintain the
  • - position of the heart
  • - protect it from overfilling

6
II. Cardiac Anatomy
  • C. Pericardium
  • 3. Layers

7
  • 3. Layers
  • a. fibrous pericardium
  •       resembles a bag
  •       prevents over distension of the heart
  •        protects
  •        anchors heart to the mediastinum

8
  • 3. Layers
  • b. serous pericardium
  •       thinner inner layer
  •       a smooth inner sac with lubricated
    surfaces which allow movement
  •   2 layers
  • parietal layer
  • visceral layer (aka epicardium)

9
  • 3. Layers
  • parietal layer
  • lines the inner surface of the fibrous
    pericardium
  • visceral layer (aka epicardium)
  • covers the entire surface of the heart
  • attached to the myocardium
  • contains pericardial fluid that lubricates the
    pericardial cavity, allowing freedom of movement

10
Layers of the the Pericardium
11
B. Pericardium
  • 4. Pericardial Cavity
  • space between the parietal and visceral
    layers of the
    serous pericardium

12
II. Cardiac Anatomy
  • B. Pericardium
  • 5. Pericarditis
  • inflammation of the pericardium

13
II. Cardiac Anatomy
  • B. Pericardium
  • 6. cardiac tamponade
  • build up pericardial fluid
  • bleeding into the pericardial cavity
  • may result in cardiac failure

14
C. Heart Wall
15
C. Heart Wall
1. Epicardium visceral layer of
pericardium fused to the myocardium thin,
transparent, smooth, slippery function -
protective
16
C. Heart Wall
2. Myocardium bulk of heart muscular involunta
ry striated, branched cells cells have
intercalated discs
17
C. Heart Wall
2. Endocardium endothelium
connective t. smooth lines heart
and valves
18
C. Heart Wall
2. Endocardium coninuous
w/ vascular endothel.
19
II. Cardiac Anatomy
  • C. External

Note the coronary sulcus
and interventricular sulcus
20
II. Cardiac Anatomy
21
III. Internal Cardiac Anatomy
  • Atria
  • 1. smaller, thin walled upper chambers
  • 2. interatrial septum
  • which exhibits fossa ovalis
  • (embryonic foramen ovale)

22
III. Internal Cardiac Anatomy
  • Ventricles
  • 1. lower, thick- walled
  • 2. pump blood out of the heart
  • 3. separated by the interventricular septum

23
III. Internal Cardiac Anatomy
  • A-V Valves
  • 1. tricuspid valve
  • Location
  • chordae tendoneae
  • papillary muscles

24
III. Internal Cardiac Anatomy
  • A-V Valves
  • 2. Bicuspid valve
  • Mitral valve
  • Location
  • Same attachment

25
Tricuspid Valve
26
III. Internal Cardiac Anatomy
  • Semilunar valve
  • 1. half moon shaped
  • 2. pulmonary semilunar
  • 3. aortic semilunar

27
Semilunar Valve
28
III. Internal Cardiac Anatomy
  • Valve Disorders
  • 1. Diseases caused by
  • a. rheumatic fever
  • b. birth defect
  • c. damage to the papillary muscle
  • d. Aging

29
III. Internal Cardiac Anatomy
  • Valve Disorders
  • 2. When a valve becomes diseased
  • they become stenosed
  • or they dont close completely
  • 3. Causes
  • shortness of breath
  • chest pain
  • tiredness

30
IV. Major Vessels of the Heart
  1. Arteries Vs Veins

1. Arteries carry blood away blood under
great pressure flows in spurts have
thick, elastic, muscular walls lack
valves most carry oxygenated blood
31
IV. Major Vessels of the Heart
  1. Arteries Vs Veins

2. Veins carry toward heart blood under
low pressure flows slowly have
thin, slightly muscular walls have
valves most carry deoxygenated bld
32
IV. Major Vessels of the Heart
  1. The Great Vessels

33
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34
IV. Major Vessels of the Heart
  1. Coronary vessels

35
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IV. Major Vessels of the Heart
  1. Veins of the heart

37
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38
IV. Major Vessels of the Heart
Coronary Sinus Blood from the cardiac veins
empties into the coronary sinus, which then
empties into the right atrium
39
IV. Major Vessels of the Heart
  • Coronary Artery Disease
  • any abnormal condition of the coronary
    arteries that
  • interferes with the delivery of an adequate
    supply of blood to the heart muscle.

40
IV. Major Vessels of the Heart
  • Coronary Artery Disease
  • 1. Arteriosclerosis
  • arteries narrowed due to a build-up of
    fat, cholesterol and calcium
  • 95 of c.a. disease

41
IV. Major Vessels of the Heart
  • Coronary Artery Disease
  • 2. angina pectoris
  • a painful, tightening, pressure or
    fullness in the chest
  • results when heart muscle does not
    receive adequate oxygen 

42
IV. Major Vessels of the Heart
  • Coronary Artery Disease
  • 2. myocardial infarction
  • heart attack results from total
    occlusion of a coronary artery

43
V. Blood Flow Through the Heart
A. Adult
44
V. Blood Flow Through the Heart
  • Fetus
  • 1. Maternal blood supplies the fetus with O2
    and nutrients and carries away its wastes.

45
V. Blood Flow Through the Heart
  • Fetus
  • 2. Adaptations of fetal blood and vascular
    system.
  • fetal hemoglobin concentration about 50
    greater than in maternal blood.
  • Fetal hemoglobin is slightly different
    chemically and can carry 20-30 more O2 than
    maternal hemoglobin

46
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47
VII. ELECTRICAL CONDUCTION SYSTEM
  • Sinoatrial Node (SA node)
  • 1. Location
  • in right atrial myocardium
  • 2. Function
  • pacemaker

48
VII. ELECTRICAL CONDUCTION SYSTEM
  • Sinoatrial Node
  • 3. regulated by autonomic n. s.
  • 4. causes the atria to contract

49
VII. ELECTRICAL CONDUCTION SYSTEM
  • Atrioventricular node (AV node)
  • 1. Location
  • below SA node
  • 2. Function
  • causes ventricles to contract

50
VII. ELECTRICAL CONDUCTION SYSTEM
  • Atrioventricular node (AV node)
  • 3. Controlled by autonomic n.s.

51
VII. ELECTRICAL CONDUCTION SYSTEM
  1. AV bundle (bundle of His)

carries the impulse from the AV node
52
VII. ELECTRICAL CONDUCTION SYSTEM
  • Conduction fibers (Purkinje fibers)
  • not nerves
  • modified cardiac mscle

carries the impulse into the ventricles
53
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56
Altogether Now
57
VIII. ELECTROCARIOGRAM
  • Basic ECG waves
  • 1. P wave - generated by the firing of the SA
    node
  • representing the impulse across the atria to
    the A/V Node

58
VIII. ELECTROCARIOGRAM
  • Basic ECG waves
  • 2. QRS complex
  • representing the impulse as it travels
    across the ventricles

59
VIII. ELECTROCARIOGRAM
  • Basic ECG waves
  • 3. T wave
  • representing the repolarization of the
    ventricles

60
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64
IX. Cardiac Cycle (heart beat)
  • Auscultation
  • 1. characteristic "lub-dup"
  • 2. caused by vibrations caused by closing
    valves

65
IX. Cardiac Cycle (heart beat)
  • Auscultation
  • 2. closing valves
  • a. Lubb
  • A-V valves
  • b. Dub
  • Semi-lunar
  • valves

66
IX. Cardiac Cycle (heart beat)
  • Basic Terminology
  • 1. Systole
  • ventricular contraction
  • atria relax

67
IX. Cardiac Cycle (heart beat)
  • Basic Terminology
  • 2. Diasystole
  • atrial contraction
  • ventricles relax

68
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69
IX. Cardiac Cycle (heart beat)
  • Basic Terminology
  • 4. tachycardia (higher than normal HR)
  • 5. bradycardia (lower than normal HR)

70
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