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International Conference on English Education ESP: Theory into Practice April 26-27, 2008 Shih Chien University Taipei, Taiwan R.O.C.

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Title: International Conference on English Education ESP: Theory into Practice April 26-27, 2008 Shih Chien University Taipei, Taiwan R.O.C.


1
International Conference on English
EducationESP Theory into PracticeApril 26-27,
2008Shih Chien UniversityTaipei, TaiwanR.O.C.
  • ESP and specialized disciplinesEngaging
    disciplinary language and culture
  • William Rozycki, Ph.D.
  • Indiana Center for Intercultural Communication
  • Indiana University-Purdue University Indianapolis


2
Outline
  • Engagement meaning scope
  • Examples of engagement
  • Benefits of engagement
  • Case study of engagement with medicine

3
Engagement
  • (noun) active commitment to a cause or
    undertaking
  • In ESP active commitment to identifying and
    understanding discourse of the specialized field

4
Path to more effective ESP instruction
  • Research
  • Text analysis
  • Specialist input/focus groups
  • Speech analysis
  • Ethnography
  • Corpus collection/corpus linguistics
  • Collaboration
  • Cooperative team teaching
  • Materials development
  • Assessment

5
Examples from both branches of ESP
  • English for Academic Purposes (EAP)
  • English for Occupational Purposes (EOP)

6
Regarding specialized knowledge for ESP
instructors
  • Hutchinson and Waters (1987)
  • Positive attitude
  • Knowledge of fundamental principles of the field
  • Awareness of how much you already know about the
    specialized field (p.163)

7
From ESP instructor to ESP practitioner
  • Dudley-Evans and St John (1998)
  • Teaching
  • Course design
  • Materials development
  • Collaboration
  • Research
  • Evaluation assessment

8
Three modes of engagement with specialized field
(Dudley-Evans and St John, 1998)
  • Cooperation
  • Learn conceptual and discoursal framework of
    specialized subject
  • Collaboration, three possibilities
  • Teach language preparing students for subsequent
    specialized class
  • Teach specific skill using material produced by
    specialists
  • Offer back-up class to smooth difficulties of
    regular class
  • Team-teaching, elements for success
  • Clearly defined roles
  • Few demands on subject lecturer
  • Mutual respect and acceptance (p.44-7)

9
How can EAP practitioners
  • teach students to read subject-matter material
    which we ourselves have trouble in
    understanding?
  • (Selinker, 1979
    190)

10
Sample questions asked to genetics specialist
  • What is the difference between duplicate and
    replicate with extraordinary fidelity in a
    given excerpt?
  • Are repair processes and repair mechanisms
    the same? If not, what does the variation
    indicate?
  • What are the differences between the use of the
    singular and plural in such phrases as
    efficiencies of repair mechanisms as opposed to
    in the same reading excerpt efficiency of
    repair processes?

11
Combined method of discourse analysis and subject
specialist informant
  • ESP instructor gained knowledge of discourse in
    specialized field
  • Genetics professor also gained more insight into
    his own fields discourse

12
Collaborative teaching
  • Henderson and Skeehan 1979 model for team
    teaching economics, addressing
  • International students economic naiveté (p.46)
    and
  • Low proficiency in English

13
First learn, then teach
  • ESP practitioner simplified the language of the
    economics texts
  • Taught preparatory class prior to each standard
    economics lecture
  • Introduced both the concepts and language of
    economics so specialized subject class more
    accessible to students
  • On occasion new concepts in economics were
    presented first in the ESP class, then expanded
    upon in the economics class

14
Methods of this engagement
  • ESP practitioner reads specialized texts
  • Receives input from the specialized instructor
  • Discourse of the field is made accessible to
    learners
  • Innovation Taking on the role of introducing
    students to some special-field concepts

15
Evolving level of engagement
  • Work in ESP was, by the middle eighties, not
    merely interested in characterizing linguistic
    effects it was also concerned to seek out the
    determinants of those effects (Swales, 19904)

16
Analysis of genre
  • Identifying rhetorical and linguistic features of
    a distinct class of communicative events e.g.
  • Research paper
  • Letter of inquiry
  • Résumé
  • Book review
  • Thank-you note
  • Business memo

17
What value to ESP instruction?
  • Knowledge of genre
  • allows identification of rhetorical moves
    (expected or negotiated) in a genre
  • Leads to explicit instruction for students

18
Another tool in research
  • Computer-aided corpora collection
  • Use of computing power to aid in discourse
    analysis
  • Corpus linguistics especially useful in EAP

19
Applied to instruction
  • Academic Writing for Graduate Students (Swales
    Feak 1994) combines text analysis, corpus
    linguistics, and genre analysis that can be used
    in teaching language use
  • Unit Seven, Constructing a Research Paper I
  • Empirical sample of the Results section from a
    research paper

20
Connectors and their frequency of use

Rank Item Total Occurrence
1 However 62
2 First, second, etc 52
3 Thus 33
4 Also 30
5 For example 29

14 But 9
17 Yet 8

25 As a result 4
(Swales and Feak, 1994 168)
21
Rhetorical moves in genre analysis
  • Moves in discourse analysis
  • Typical communicative actions identified in a
    given genre
  • Explicit knowledge of moves helps users of the
    genre

22
Swales and Feak (1994 171)
  • Listing of moves in the commentaries of Results
    section of 20 published biochemistry papers

Type of commentary Number of papers (max 20)
Justifying the methodology 19
Interpreting the results 19
Citing agreement with pervious studies 11
Commenting on the data 10
Admitting difficulties in interpretation 8
Pointing out discrepancies 4
Calling for future research 0
23
Benefits of combining analysis with computer
power corpus building
  • Personal computing
  • Allows students and postdoctoral researchers to
    create or manipulate corpora of texts in their
    own fields
  • Students in a given field
  • Make own decisions on how similar in structure
    and moves they want their own papers to appear in
    relation to those already successfully published
    by others

24
What of spoken language?
  • Analysis of spoken language
  • Dudley-Evans and St John, In the earlier years
    of ESP development spoken interactions received
    almost no attention (p.106)

25
EOP
  • Hotel and catering fields
  • Call centers
  • Tourism
  • Communicative needs of pilots, mariners, and air
    traffic controllers

26
Even in EAP speech is important
  • Casanave (1995)
  • A discourse community interacts, negotiates, and
    accommodates to effect a dynamic discourse
  • Speech plays a role in this negotiation and
    accommodation

27
Michigan Corpus of Academic Spoken English
(MICASE)
  • Records, transcribes University of Michigan
  • Seminars
  • Graduate student gatherings
  • Laboratory meetings
  • Other academically-focused events
  • 152 transcripts almost two million words
  • Permits students to study, with guidance,
    patterns of spoken discourse in academic context

28
Can spoken discourse corpus improve teaching?
  • Example from Swales and Leicher on the MICASE
    website
  • Low number of tokens for the word suggest
    indicates the word itself is not key
  • Suggestions are made without using the word
    itself

I suggest 18 tokens
I would suggest 19 tokens
Im suggesting 5 tokens
Suggestion 4 tokens
(Swales and Leicher, undated)
29
EOP Sullivan and Girginers 2002 analysis of
Airspeak
  • Analyzed spoken discourse and used focus groups
    of pilots and air traffic controllers as both a
    check of their analysis and as a resource to
    understand the context of the spoken utterances.
  • Compared to the canonical rules of Airspeak
    (regulated by the International Civil Aviation
    Organization)

30
Sullivan and Girginer 2002 findings
  • Instead of standard Turkish six six six to
    identify Turkish Airlines flight 666, controllers
    and pilots used Turkish triple six.
  • Call sign two two one one was sometimes
    expressed as double two double one (p.401)
  • Instead of on your frequency they found with
    you (p.402)

31
Disciplinary culture
  • institutional attitudes and expectations the
    belief-systems, initiation ceremonies, rites of
    passage, rituals, taboos, value judgments of
    excellence or otherwise, codes of practice, etc.
    of doctors, lawyers, navigators, geologists, and
    so on (Swales, 1985 212)

32
Disciplinary culture (continued)
  • Big D Discourse involves acting
    interacting-thinking-valuing-talking (sometimes
    writing-reading) in the appropriate way with
    the appropriate props at the appropriate
    times in the appropriate places (Gee,
    199917)

33
Ethnography
  • Ethnography is often the means to identify
    features of disciplinary culture in addition to
    language use
  • Northcotts 2001 ethnography of an MBA classroom
    shows how essential a student-centered,
    interactive instructional style is to preparation
    for the business world
  • Y. Ibrahims 2001 study of doctor-patient
    consultations in the United Arab Emirates
  • Louhiala-Salminens 2002 ethnography of a day in
    the life of a Finnish business manager in a
    multinational corporation

34
Combined approaches
  • Analysis of speech acts and of written texts and
    genres, when combined with ethnography and
    specialist input, yields
  • Patterns of language in real contexts
  • More effective preparation of students
    culturally to function and excel in a specialized
    field

35
Engagement with specialized fields
  • Through
  • Text analysis
  • Speech act analysis
  • Subject specialist input
  • Ethnography
  • Team or collaborative teaching
  • Any combination of these

36
Benefits of engagement
  • Better ESP instruction
  • Greater acceptance by subject specialists
  • Improved cooperation from subject specialists
  • Greater personal background knowledge
  • Greater career satisfaction

37
Indiana Center for Intercultural Communication
  • Linguistic research and language training
  • Specializes in professional discourse ESP
  • Teacher training through the ESP Institute
  • Directed by Ulla Connor

38
Training
39
IUPUI Campus
40
Indiana University Medical Complex
  • IU School of Medicine
  • Three hospitals
  • More than thirty clinics in Central Indiana

41
Residency defined
  • A three-year clinical apprenticeship by which a
    medical doctor becomes certified in a specialty
  • (e.g. neurology, psychiatry, urology,
    dermatology, pediatrics, etc.)

42
IMG defined
  • International Medical Graduate (IMG) is a
    graduate of medical education outside the United
    States and Canada

43
10-Year History IMG Enrollment in IU Family
Medicine Residency Program
(Pugno, McGaha, Schmittling, DeVilbiss Kahn,
2007)
44
Language challenges for IMGs
  • Linguistic Competence
  • Pragmatics
  • Pronunciation
  • Dialect use

45
Initial Linguistic Assessment
  • 75-minute test of grammar, vocabulary, and
    reading
  • oral proficiency test (modified SPEAK test)
  • standardized test of listening
  • self-evaluation of English proficiency
  • writing sample eliciting residents goals for
    the residency
  • 15-minute taped interview re family living
    situation, attitude toward residency program,
    medical education, language use
  • 50-minute videotaped OSCE

46
Training recommendation
  • Assessment results inform a training
    recommendation.
  • Individual training for periods of three to
    thirty hours.
  • (In some cases, referred residents are in their
    2nd or 3rd year of residency, already failing to
    achieve the residency criteria.)

47
Critical incidents among IMGs in residency
  • Chief resident finds a 1st year resident in break
    room despite call for urgent response
  • Attending and chief residents evaluate a 1st year
    resident as aloof, arrogant, untrustworthy
    after resident claimed competence with a
    procedure but then failed to perform it stating
    lack of practice
  • Two 2nd year residents are written up by faculty
    for arguing publicly about round assignments

48
What is lacking in each case?
  • Each incident can be traced to lack of cultural
    knowledge regarding norms in the residency

49
The task
  • To develop jointly with Family Medicine an
    assessment of cultural knowledge about the norms
    of the clinics and residency in the US

50
Competencies for medical specialist certification
  • Interpersonal Communication Skills
  • Patient Care
  • Professionalism
  • Accreditation Council for Graduate Medical
    Education (ACGME) competencies
  • Cf. http//www.umm.edu/gme/core_comp.htm

51
Interpersonal Communication Challenges
  • Teaming with patients i.e. shared
    decision-making
  • Patient autonomy vs. paternalism
  • Working as part of a health care team
  • Communicating between and among all members of
    the team
  • Gender issues
  • Questioning authority and/or patient management
    decisions of supervisors

52
Patient Care Challenges
  • Gender issues
  • Patient autonomy
  • Pain management

53
Professionalism Challenges
  • Confidentiality
  • Accountability informed consent

54
Relation of (disciplinary) cultural knowledge to
cultural competency in a clinical setting
  • Cultural knowledge is systematic conceptual
    knowledge about the new culture and society
  • Cultural competence implies the ability to
    recognize culturally significant facts, and a
    knowledge of the parameters within which conduct
    is acceptable or unacceptable
  • Cultural competence is distinct from
    communicative competence in that it points to
    social and cultural behavior and less to
    linguistic manifestations (Stern 199282).
  • Cultural Competence is a necessary component of
    communicative competence (Stern, 1992).

55
The cultural sphere
56
Development of the instrument
  • Sources for item construction
  • Literature of cultural misunderstandings in
    clinical encounters and medical education (e.g.
    Gropper, 1996, Desai, 2003)
  • Input of educators and behavioral scientists at
    IU Family Medicine, drawing on their years of
    experience in training international and
    domestically-trained residents
  • Observations of, and action research gained from,
    training of international medical residents in
    the past two years by staff at ICIC.

57
Assessment Product
  • Interpersonal Communication Assessment (ICA)
  • 28-item Likert-scaled paper test designed to test
    cultural knowledge of residency training context
    and clinical environments

58
Sample of ICA items
  • 1. The doctor is responsible for making the
    ultimate decision on what treatment the patient
    receives.
  • Strongly Agree ? Agree ? Disagree ?
    Strongly Disagree ? Dont Know ?
  • 2. Doctors work with nurses and other medical
    staff to encourage patients and people in their
    communities to maintain good health.
  • Strongly Agree ? Agree ? Disagree ?
    Strongly Disagree ? Dont Know ?
  • 3. Nurses and assistants follow the doctor's
    orders without question.
  • Strongly Agree ? Agree ? Disagree ?
    Strongly Disagree ? Dont Know ?
  • 4. Doctors work with patients, their families,
    and nursing staff to decide on the best care and
    treatment.
  • Strongly Agree ? Agree ? Disagree ?
    Strongly Disagree ? Dont Know ?

59
Current use
  • Example from training recommendation
  • Dr. XXXXX evidenced general knowledge of cultural
    norms in Midwest U.S. clinical practice.
    However, a single exception was her response to
    item 10 of the ICA
  • A student or resident should never question
    the diagnosis or treatment plan that faculty
    member has made to which she answered Agree.
    Dr. XXXXX will benefit from explicit orientation
    to the process of residency development, and
    especially to the desirability of asking
    questions and exchanging ideas with faculty and
    peers.

60
Impact of ICA
  • Requested for use by five residency programs
    around the United States
  • IU School of Medicine requested further training
    (workshops, classes)
  • Led to greater engagement by center in range of
    medical discourse research (Connor et al. in
    press Wolf et al. 2007)

61
Benefits of engagement
  • Better ESP instruction
  • Greater acceptance by subject specialists
  • Improved cooperation from subject specialists
  • (sometimes even partnership)
  • Greater personal background knowledge
  • Greater career satisfaction
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