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Industrialization, Urbanization, and Westward Expansion


Title: Industrialization, Urbanization, and Westward Expansion Author: Berea College Last modified by: boardmc Created Date: 10/4/2011 4:07:04 PM Document ... – PowerPoint PPT presentation

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Title: Industrialization, Urbanization, and Westward Expansion

Industrialization, Urbanization, and Westward
  • Chapter 3

The Industrial Revolution
  • The Industrial Revolution is the name for the
    birth of the modern industry and the social
    changes that accompanied the resulting industrial
    growth. It occurred from the mid-1700s to the
    mid 1800s.

Some key creations during the Industrial
  • Water-powered textile mill
  • Cotton Gin
  • Muskets with interchangeable parts
  • Steamboats
  • Telegraph
  • Networks of roads
  • New canals

Roots of Revolution
  • Began in the British textile industry when
    British inventors created machines that used
    power from running water and steam engines to
    spin and weave cloth.
  • Change from nearly all physical labor to a
    machine-powered based industry.

Advancements in Transportation
  • Roads- by 1840 a network of roads connected most
    cities and towns in the United States, promoting
    travel and trade.
  • Canals- In 1825 the 363-mile-long Erie Canal
    opened, connecting the Great Lakes with the
    Atlantic Ocean. Over the next 15 years, more than
    3,000 canals were built in the Northeast.

Video Clip about the Building of the Erie Canal
Railroads Telegraphs
  • Railroads- In 1830 the first steam-powered train
    ran in the United States. By 1840 there were
    about 3000 miles of track in the country. The
    railroad became a important means of travel and
  • Telegraph- In 1840 Samuel Morse Patented the
    first practical telegraph. The telegraph sent
    messages electronically through wires across the

The North Industrializes
  • Samuel Slater illegally brought knowledge of the
    new British machines to America.
  • By 1810 there were more than 60 mills along
    streams in New England.
  • The innovation which allowed mills to weave
    thread into cloth took place in the city of
    Lowell, Massachusetts, where the textile industry
  • Because of the large number of textiles and
    factories in the cities people began moving to
    the cities in large numbers looking for work.

Textile Mills _at_ Lowell, MA
  • Due to the availability of jobs in the cities,
    and higher pay, farmers moved to the cities
    looking for work.
  • In 1820 only 7 percent of Americans lived in
    cities. Within 30 years, the percentage more than
  • Because of this the number of houses and
    buildings within cities greatly increased. Urban
    areas were produced in great numbers.
  • This led to some appalling living conditions.

  • US Population Distribution in 1850.

Cotton and the South
  • Cotton revolutionized the South, but only after a
    machine called the cotton Gin made large-scale
    cotton production possible.
  • Eli Whitney invented the Cotton Gin which
    separated the seeds from the usable part of the

A little video on the Industrial Revolution in
Cotton the South
  • Cotton became highly demanded. Cotton was used in
    the textile factories in the north to produce
    highly demanded clothing.
  • As a result, many Americans became cotton farmers
    in the south. The cotton still needed to be
    prepared and planted so slavery quickly spread in
    greater numbers. Cotton plantations increased in
    number throughout America.

Differences Between North South
North South
Economic Base Industrial Manufacturing and Trade Agriculture both plantation and small scale farming
Landscape Urban Rural
Labor System Large numbers of immigrants and women fill jobs in manufacturing plants Slave labor used on plantations to maximize profits and production
Transportation Communication Large numbers of railroads, canals, and telegraphs make travel and communication easy. Fewer railroads and large rivers mean overland travel is a must. Some large port cities
Westward Expansion during and after
  • Americans believed westward expansion was
    inevitable. In face, some believed it was
    Americas God given right to settle land all the
    way to the Pacific Ocean. Manifest Destiny!

Westward Ho!
  • As a result westward trails were established
  • Santa Fe Trail- led from Independence, Missouri,
    to Santa Fe, New Mexico
  • The Oregon Trail- The longest and most famous
    trail. The 2000 mile long trail stretched from
    Independence, Missouri, to the rich faming lands
    of the Willamette Valley in the Oregon Country
  • The Mormon Trail- In 1830 Joseph Smith founded a
    church called The Church of Jesus Christ
    Latter-Day Saints, commonly called the Mormon
    Church. Because the Mormon faith differed from
    other faiths, Mormons were persecuted and forced
    from their homes. Many Mormons migrated West to
    find a place where they could practice their
    religion freely. This was the route they

The California Gold Rush
  • In 1848 a carpenter discovered gold in the
    American River at John Sutters sawmill in
    northern California.
  • Soon a mass migration of people from all over the
    world, including America, flocked to California
    in search for riches.
  • In 1849 80,000 people moved to California. This
    population boom made California eligible for
    statehood. In 1850, California became the 31rst
    state. By 1854 as many as 300,000 people had
    migrated to California.
  • Most of the miners who went to California moved
    into camps in the gold fields.
  • Through the trails created to California,
    westward expansion increased.

Major Effects of Western Expansion
  • More than 350,000 migrants followed the trails
    West. By 1869 railroads extended from the East
    coast to the West coast.
  • The Oregon Treaty- A treaty signed by President
    Polk which created a boundary between
    British-Canada and what is Oregon today.
  • Communication links- During early westward
    expansion, mail through the Pony Express was used
    to communicate from the East to the West. By 1861
    the telegraph allowed quick communication
    between the East and West.
  • Native Americans were forced out of their homes
    and were often killed to allow for easier western
    expansion. Native Americans were continually
    pushed further West and continued to fight with
    settlers in the West.
  • Americans eventually sought to claim Texas as
    they moved West.

Texas Independence
  • By 1800 Spain had three settlements in Texas and
    were trying to convert the Native Americans there
    into Christians.
  • In 1820 Americans set their eyes on claiming
  • Moses Austin, a banker from Missouri, approached
    Spanish officials in Texas with a plan he called
    the Texas venture. Austin proposed that in
    exchange for land he would build a colony in
    Texas. The Spanish, looking to increase their
    settlements in Texas, agreed. When Moses Austin
    died his son took over the settlement. By 1823
    Austins colony was established and by 1824
    nearly 300 families lived in the colony.
  • However, in 1821 Mexico became independent after
    a decade long struggle with Spain.
  • Because of this, Americans in Texas had to
    surrender their American citizenship, swear
    allegiance to Mexico, adopt the Roman Catholic
    Religion, and hold land for seven years to be
    considered a Texan.

Texas (Cont.)
  • Stephen Austin sought independence for Texas for
    the Americans who lived there. When he approached
    Mexican leaders to ask for independence the new
    leader Antonio Lopez de Santa Anna refused.
    Instead Santa Anna, in order to create a more
    centralized Mexican government, suspended some of
    the powers of Texas and its citizens.
  • On March 2, 1836, Texas declared its independence
    from Mexico.
  • Soon after, Mexico went to war with Texas.

(No Transcript)
Texas Revolution
  • The Alamo- a famous battle during the Texas
    revolution in which 200 Texans (with the help of
    men such as David Crockett) held off a siege of
    6,000 men for 12 days and nights.
  • On April 21st, in the battle of San Jacinto,
    Texas captured Santa Anna and forced him to sign
    treaties recognizing Texan independence.
  • Texas became an independent country it was named
    the Republic of Texas.
  • Mexico still refused to acknowledge the
    independence of Texas. Texas needed to gain a
    stronger ally to keep Mexico from attacking them
    again. Sam Houston, the new leader of Texas,
    sought to annex Texas and join the American
  • Texans voted unanimously for annexation.
  • Under certain conditions and with hesitance from
    the Union due to the substantial Texas debt,
    Texas was accepted to the Union on December 29th,

The Mexican-American War
  • Immediately after annexation, Mexico cut off its
    diplomatic ties with the United States. Mexico
    still considered Texas to be Mexican territory.
  • Soon a boundary dispute followed between Mexico
    and America. Mexico, still frustrated with the
    annexation, refused to give further land to
    America. With Manifest Destiny in mind, America
    declared war on Mexico in order to protect Texas
    and obtain more land in the West.
  • In September 1846, general Winfield Scott landed
    on the Eastern coast of Mexico. Within a matter
    of months the U.S. marched inland and captured
    New Mexico, California, and Mexicos capital
    city. Mexico was forced to surrender.

Results Mexican-American War
  • Signed in 1848, the Treaty of Guadalupe Hidalgo
    ended the Mexican-American War.
  • Under the treaty Mexico lost its claim to Texas.
    Also, Mexico was forced to cede a huge tract of
    land, the Mexican Cession, to the United States.
  • The U.S. received land in the present day states
    of New Mexico, California, Arizona, Nevada, Utah,
    Colorado and Wyoming.
  • In return the U.S. government agreed to pay
    Mexico 15 million if it dropped all debts for
    the United States.

  • America forced large amounts of Native Americans
    out of the West.
  • Through the policy of Manifest Destiny, the U.S.
    government greatly increased the size of the
  • Technology greatly strengthened communication and
    travel between the East and the West.
  • As a result of War, America gained Texas and a
    great deal of land in the West.