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Museum Entrance

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Welcome to the Museum of Muslim Spain Room One Room Four Room Two Room Three Museum Entrance Room Five Curator s Offices – PowerPoint PPT presentation

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Title: Museum Entrance


1
Museum Entrance
Welcome to the Museum of Muslim Spain
Room Two
Room Three
Room One
Room Four
Room Five
Curators Offices
2
Curators Office
So Yun Jhang and Kyllie Chang
In Hawkes 1st period class.
Place your picture here.
moon_phase13_at_yahoo.com
Return to Entry
Note Virtual museums were first introduced by
educators at Keith Valley Middle School in
Horsham, Pennsylvania. This template was designed
by Dr. Christy Keeler. View the Educational
Virtual Museums website for more information on
this instructional technique.
3
Room 1
Room 1

1

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4
Room 2
Room 2
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5
Room 3
Room 3
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6
Room 4
Room 4
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7
Room 5
Room 5
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8
Tariq bin Ziyad
A Muslim general that Musa, the governor of
North Africa sent to invade Spain. Tariq bin
Ziyad and his army landed at Gibraltar, which was
named after him. He and his army defeated the
Visigoths and the Muslims conquered most of Spain
and Portugal with out much opposition.
http//www.bbc.co.uk/religion/religions/islam/hist
ory/spain_1.shtml
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9
The Golden Age
During this period of Muslim rule in Spain,
libraries, colleges, and public baths were
established. Many different types of arts,
literatures, and architecture flourished. Also
during this Golden Age, different ethnicities and
religions were tolerated for instance
Christianity and Judaism.
http//www.bbc.co.uk/religion/religions/islam/hist
ory/spain_1.shtml
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10
Figs
Harvesting figs provided a greater diversity of
fruits for consumers. Malaga (a city in Spain)
was one of the most important centers for growing
figs. The city is surrounded on all sides by fig
trees. These figs were exported by Muslims and
Christians and were sold in Baghdad as well as
India and China. The fig was valued for its
taste as well as the ability to preserve for a
full year.
http//www.muslimheritage.com/topics/default.cfm?A
rticleID308
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11
Andalusia
After the Muslims Berbers crossed Straight of
Gibraltar in 711, after about three years, they
established control over most of the Iberian
Peninsula. This area that the Muslims controlled
was called Al-Andalus (now Andalusia). This area
included Portugal, Southern France, and the
Balearic Islands.
http//www.hispanicmuslims.com/andalusia/andalusia
.html
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12
Division Between Religions
In Muslim Spain, there were three main
monotheistic religions Christianity, Judaism,
and Islam. With these religions came a certain
number of differences. Jews, who were the first
to discover the path towards salvation, thought
that they were setting an example by worshiping
God as a nation. But Christians thought that this
was possible by individual means, and could be
achieved by anyone regardless of race or sex. In
Islam, the world is divided into two groups, with
one subjugating control over the other. But even
so, during the period of Islamic Spain, the three
religions lived together peacefully.
http//www.canadafreepress.com/index.php/article/2
6814
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13
Government
After the Muslim conquest of Spain, the region
expanded over west Africa, and north Africa, but
this area was lacking a central control.
Eventually, the Muslim Emirs (of Spain)
recognized the sovereignty of the Umayyad
Caliphate, but legal policies were mostly
determined by the settlers, even though the
governors of Muslim Spain were appointed in
Kairouan, Tunisia.
http//www.zum.de/whkmla/region/spain/arabconquest
.html
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14
Emir Abd al-Rahman I
After the Umayyad caliphate of Damascus was
overthrown in 750 by the Abbasids, the last
surviving member of the Umayyad dynasty fled to
Spain and named himself Emir Abd al-Rahman I. He
then created the Umayyad emirate and made Cordoba
the capital. He also al-Andalus and established
diplomatic ties with the northern Christian
empires, the Byzantine empire, and North Africa.

http//www.metmuseum.org/toah/hd/sumay/hd_sumay.ht
m
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15
Plain of al-Andalus
The irrigation system that was imported from
Syria and Arabia turned the dry plains of
al-Andalus very fertile. Pomegranates, oranges,
lemons, aubergines, artichokes, cumin, coriander,
bananas, almonds, pans, hennas, woad, madder,
saffron, sugar-cane, rice, cotton, figs, grapes,
apricots, and peaches, plus olives and wheat
which were native al-Andalus, soon were added to
the list of the foods grown there.
http//www.sunnah.org/history/moors.htm
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16
Decline
The period of economic, and intellectual
prosperity eventually began to decline. There
were internal rifts within the Arab power
structure, as well as different warring factions
between the Moors. The caliphs were eliminated
and Cordova fell to other Arabs. In 1013, the
great library in Cordova was destroyed, but the
new leaders allowed the books and Cordovan
scholars to be dispersed between different
capital towns of small emirates.
http//www.sunnah.org/history/moors.htm
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17
Subh
Women in Muslim society were active in political
and cultural affairs. An example of such a woman
would be Subh. Subh was the wife of al-Hakam
al-Mustansir, the ninth Umayyad caliph. Subh was
very ambitious, but she had two major faults she
was a foreigner and a Christian. Subh is a
perfect example of being well versed in the
history and the power of words. She was both a
poet and a linguist. Because her husband was more
interested in knowledge and books, he left all
the management of political affairs to Subh.
http//books.google.com/books?idt8toAmyqmN0CpgP
A44lpgPA44dqSubh-Muslimspainsourceblots
Mbj4Ftv9EvsigCLuExGnSIb3L2bzgKe35SeTwDD0hlene
iVzCxTMDCBsXflgevy4niBAsaXoibook_resultctre
sultresnum2ved0CB4Q6AEwAQvonepageqSubh20-
20Muslim20spainffalse
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18
Agriculture
After the Muslims took over al-Andalusia, the
economy slowly began to patch up, because
maintaining the caliphs court and army required
a good economy. Agriculture especially flourished
with new foods. This was made possible by the
extensive irrigation system that was copied from
the Syrians. Better agriculture produced a
healthier, higher population. This in return
allowed the government to lower tax rates, and
this encouraged urban growth and more industries.

http//www.flowofhistory.com/units/asia/6/fc46b
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19
Invasion into France
During the early eighth century, Abd-ar-Rahman,
who survived the fall of the Umayyad caliphate
and assumed control as an independent emir of
Cordova, invaded across the Pyrenees into France.
But in 732, he was defeated by Charles The
Hammer Martel and his Frankish army at Tours,
which is near Poiters. Despite this, Umayyad
rulers have continued to dominate Muslim Spain,
and they have overcome a period of internal
uprisings and autonomous inclinations.
http//www.fanaticus.org/DBA/armies/dba104.html
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20
The Great Mosque of Cordoba
In 784, Abd al-Rahman I begins the construction
of the Great Mosque of Cordoba. He uses recycled
columns, capitals, and bases from other sites.
The height and lightness for the building is
achieved through the idea of double arches.
Today, it is one of the oldest places of worship
that is still intact.
http//www.paradoxplace.com/Photo20Pages/Spain/An
dalucia/Cordoba/Cordoba.htm
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21
The Reconquista
The Reconquista officially started in 722, after
the Battle of Covandonga. Because of the internal
feuding between the Moors, the Spaniards
(Christians in Spain) were able to repopulate
their kingdoms and even out their borders for the
campaign against the Moors. Eventually Taifas
formed because of the civil wars. Taifas were the
moors that were divided into different regions
resulting from the civil wars. The
Reconquistadors were able to turn the Taifas
against each other through a series of bribes.
After 800 years of fighting, Spain was able to
reunite, and the Muslims were finally expelled
with the surrender of Abu abd Allah Muhammad
XII.
http//www.associatedcontent.com/article/332578/th
e_reconquista_spains_assertion_for.html
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22
Walladah bint Mustakfi
Walladah was the daughter of the caliph of
Cordoba. In Cordoba, many women were often
scholars. Walladah inherited enough wealth after
her fathers death to guarantee her independence.
She was a well-known poet as well the host of
literary gatherings for both men and women. She
had several love affairs, although she never
married. Her surviving poetry describes her free
spirit. She was also known for designing robes
with embroidered sleeves.
http//www.pbs.org/wgbh/globalconnections/mideast/
educators/women/lesson2.html
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23
Economy
The Andalucian economy was highly based off
trade, a developed craft industry, and
agriculture which was more efficient than the
rest of Europe. The Caliphate had a
currency-based economy and it played a role in
its financial grandeur. The gold coin became the
principle currency of this period.
http//www.sispain.org/english/history/muslim.html

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24
Trade
After Abd al-Rahman III became the first Spanish
Caliph, the caliph had two purposes one was to
strengthen the Peninsular kingdom, and the other
was to consolidate the commercial routes of the
Mediterranean outside the country, guarantee an
economic relationship with the east-Byzantium,
and guarantee the supply of gold. In 972, a
Spanish city located on the Mediterranean on the
north coast of Africa, called Melilla was
occupied, and later in the same century, the
Umayyad controlled the triangle formed by
Algeria, Siyima, and the Atlantic.
http//www.sispain.org/english/history/muslim.html

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25
Spain After the Taifas
After the second and third Taifas were created
as a result of fragmentation of the Peninsula,
north Africa took this advantage to invade. The
first to invade were the Almoravides, the second
were the Almohads, and the third were the Banu
Marins. By the middle of the 13th century,
Islamic Spain, due to their progressive
weakening, was reduced to Nasrid kingdom in
Granada, which is located between the Strait of
Gibraltar and the Cape of Gata.
http//www.sispain.org/english/history/muslim.html

Return to Exhibit
26
Moors and Berbers
The moors, as known by the Western Europeans,
were actually Arabs who had left their homeland
in the Middle East and traveled across North
Africa. The Berbers were inhabitants of Morocco
that had been conquered by the Arabs and
converted to Islam.
http//www.kalamullah.com/spain.html
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27
Boabdil
Boabdil was the last Moorish king of Granada. In
1482, e was proclaimed the king in place of his
father who had been driven from the land. He
invaded Castile in order to gain prestige, but
was taken prisoner. He was only granted freedom
if he held Granada as a tributary kingdom under
King Ferdinand and Queen Isabella. In 1941, he
was asked by the king and queen of Castile to
hand over Granada, but because he refused, it was
besieged by the Castilians. After about a year,
Granada surrendered, and the last spot that
Boabdil was said to have looked at Granada from
was is still shown and is known as the last
sigh of the Moor.
http//www.1911encyclopedia.org/Boabdil
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28
The Spanish Inquisition
The Spanish Inquisition was used both
politically and religiously. Ferdinand and
Isabella asked the pope to establish the Spanish
Inquisition, and they began to drive out Jews and
others who were not of the Christian faith,
because they were considered a threat to the king
and queens ambitions. In 1483, Tomas de
Torquemada became the inquisitor-general for
Spain. He is believed to have executed 2,000
people.
http//www.thenagain.info/webchron/westeurope/span
inqui.html
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29
Muslim Oppression
After the Spanish Inquisition was created, Kind
Ferdinand and Queen Isabella wanted to drive out
the Muslims and Jews, because they were
considered a threat to their ambition. The army
was to capture anyone who didnt follow the Roman
Catholic faith. To do this, the army would check
mens genitals to see if they were circumcised.
The army would spy on them, and if they bathed on
Fridays or wore beautiful clothes of Eid, then
they were killed. Even some weak and frail
Muslims who thought the only way to be saved was
to denounce Islam and convert to Christianity
were also killed.
http//www.inter-islam.org/Pastevents/andalus1.htm

Return to Entrance
30
Islamic Spain
Islamic Spain began in 711 after the invasion of
the Iberian peninsula, and ended in 1492. It is a
multi-cultural mix of the three greatest
monotheistic religions Christianity, Islam, and
Judaism. Even though Christians and Jews had to
live under restrictions (for instance they had to
pay jizya), the religions managed to get along
and benefit from one another. This brought a
degree of civilization to Europe that was able to
match that of the Roman Empires.
http//www.bbc.co.uk/religion/religions/islam/hist
ory/spain_1.shtml
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31
Adaption
Many Christians living in Muslim Spain adapted
to the culture. Some people learned Arabic, and
wore the same clothes as their rulers. Some women
even began wearing the veil. Some changed their
names to Arabic names. The Christians who did
this were known as Mozarabs. Christians had their
own rulers known as counts. These counts were
directly responsible to the Muslim emir of
caliphate. Their taxes were collected by special
agents, and they were allowed to retain their
social hierarchy, as well as use Visigoth canon
law instead of the Muslim law.
http//www.bbc.co.uk/religion/religions/islam/hist
ory/spain_1.shtml http//www.orbilat.com/Encyclopa
edia/M/Mozarabs.html
Return to Exhibit
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