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Rodents Continued: Rats

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Title: Rodents Continued: Mice Author: mellinwo Last modified by: mellinwo Created Date: 2/19/2010 3:17:57 PM Document presentation format: On-screen Show (4:3) – PowerPoint PPT presentation

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Title: Rodents Continued: Rats


1
Rodents ContinuedRats
Dr. N. Matthew Ellinwood, D.V.M., Ph.D. February
22, 2012
Iowa State University College of Agriculture and
Life Sciences
2
Taxonomy
  • Kingdom Animalia
  • Phylum Chordata
  • Class Mammalia
  • Order Rodentia
  • Superfamily Muroidea
  • Family Muridae
  • Subfamily Murinae
  • Genus Rattus
  • Species norvegicus (brown rat)

3
Non-domestic Brown Rat
  • Rattus desiginates true rats or old world rats
  • Rattus norvegicus (city rat, sewer rat also the
    black rat Rattus rattus) a domesticated
    opportunist
  • Other species of rats may act as opportunists in
    cities but are usually competitively replaced by
    the brown or black rat

4
Rats in Popular Culture
  • Important figures in Indian and Chinese mythology
  • In western culture, almost uniformly a negative
    image
  • Perhaps associated with the Black Death
  • Yersinia Pestis
  • 30-60 of Europe's inhabitance
  • 1348-1350
  • Mongols catapulting infected corpses
  • Caffa, Crimea in 1347
  • Genoese traders took the plague to Sicily

5
Origins
  • Originated in China
  • Spread to Europe
  • New world in 1700s
  • Now world wide

6
Natural History
  • Life span up to 3 years (extreme cases to 2-5
    yr)
  • Sexual maturity 65-110 days
  • Estrous 4-5 days
  • Gestation is 21 days
  • Weaning 3-4 weeks
  • Pups 6-12 per litter
  • Tolerate group housing better than mice
  • Males assist with/tolerate nursing young

7
Housing
  • Ease of housing/cleaning critical
  • Rodent chow, less than 6 months since milling
  • Slotted cage top feeder
  • Drip bottle water
  • Draining/drowning
  • Bedding changes
  • More frequent than mice
  • 30-70 Humidity
  • 65-85 oF

8
Feeding
  • Rodent Chow
  • Coprophagic

9
Anatomy
  • Rats lack a gall bladder
  • Harderian gland
  • Pigmented tears Porphyrin staining

10
Communication
  • Ultrasonic vocalization
  • Young
  • Elicits and directs maternal search behavior
  • Diminishes after 14 days old, especially around
    males
  • Adult
  • Response to predators or danger
  • frequency and duration of vary by sex/repro
    status
  • Females during mating
  • Chirping short, high frequency, and ultrasonic
  • socially induced laughing at play, mating, and
    when tickled
  • Bruxing, or teeth-grinding
  • Triggered by well being and 'self-comforting'
    during stress
  • Clicking or 'burring' sound

11
Fancy Variants
  • Rat and Mouse Club of America
  • American Fancy Rat and Mouse Association
  • Sendai virus and rat mortality

12
Origin of Rat Fancy and Research
  • Rat baiting
  • Popular in Britain
  • Cruelty to Animals Act 1835
  • 70 gambling rat pits
  • Suppliers began breeding and supplying as pets
  • Color variants started
  • Show placement in 1901

13
Variants
  • Siamese rat

14
Hooded Rat
15
American Blue
16
Laboratory
  • Common Laboratory Rat Strains
  • Wistar rat Albino white
  • Wistar Institute, Henry Donaldson, 1906, first
    rat biomed strain
  • Sprague Dawley rat outcrossed albino, WI, 1925
  • Long-Evans rat
  • Wistar and wild cross outbred, behavior and
    obesity
  • Zucker rat
  • Lois M. and Theodore F. Zucker, obesity
    reseasrchers
  • Resecessive pbesity trait (leptin receptor
    polymorphism)

17
Knockouts
  • Knockout rats exist but are far less common

18
Diseases
  • Mammary tumors
  • Obesity
  • Ulcers over salivary gland
  • Malocculusions
  • Chronic respiratory disease
  • Multifactorial (m. pulmonis)
  • Bacterial pneumonia
  • S pneumoniae
  • Red eye

19
GUINEA PIG MANAGEMENT
  • Cavia porcellus

20
Origin
  • Cavia porcellus domesticated
  • Cavia aperia wild
  • wild Peru, Argentina, Brazil, Uruguay
  • also known as Cavies
  • domesticated 16th century England

21
Varieties of Guinea Pigs
  • Traditional
  • American or English short hair
  • Abyssinian whorls of short rough hair
  • Peruvian long hair

22
Varieties of Guinea Pigs
  • New varieties
  • Silky medium length soft hair
  • Teddy short, coarse hair
  • American Crested short hair with contrasting
    whorl on forehead
  • Rex very short, soft hair
  • Hairless

23
Traditional varieties of guinea pigs
24
American short hair
25
Abyssinian whorls of short hair
26
Peruvian long hair
27
New varieties of guinea pigs
28
Silky soft, medium hair
29
Teddy short, coarse hair
30
American crested contrasting whorl on head
31
Rex very short, soft hair
32
Hairless (well, almost)
33
Basic Guinea Pig
?
  • compact stocky body
  • tailless
  • diurnal actually
  • short naps night and day
  • sebaceous marking glands - rump
  • open rooted teeth

34
Additional characteristics
  • vocalize at least 11 sounds
  • good swimmers
  • seldom jump
  • rarely intentionally bite or scratch
  • need frequent handling
  • lifespan 5 yr average, 8 yr max.

35
Uses of Guinea Pigs
  • Pets
  • Scientific research
  • Food

36
Home Sweet Home
  • Temperature 70, 65 79
  • Space
  • lt 350 gm 60 sq. in.
  • gt 350 gm 101 sq. in.
  • max size 1.2 x 3.8 cm mesh or solid

37
Home Sweet Home
  • Bedding
  • wood shavings not cedar, pine
  • shredded paper
  • not dusty
  • timothy hay overlay optional
  • clean weekly

38
Home Sweet Home
  • Humidity 50 40 70
  • Light cycle 1212
  • Air changes 10 15 per hour

39
Digestive System
  • Strict herbivores
  • Hind gut fermenters cecum
  • Lactobacilli sp.
  • primary fatty acid propionic acid

40
NUTRITION
  • require vitamin C
  • have higher folic acid requirement
  • sensitive to excess Ca, Vit. A, Vit. D
  • leads to metastatic calcification
  • mineralization of soft tissues

41
Feeding
  • Additional Requirements
  • 6 gm feed/100 gm body weight
  • 18-20 protein
  • 10-16 crude fiber
  • Use guinea pig feed!!!
  • NOT RABBIT FEED
  • no vit. C and high in vit. D

42
Feeding Management
  • Messy feeders
  • Use J-feeders not bowl

43
Water Management
  • Glass/clear bottles preferred
  • Like to play with waterers
  • will empty water bottle and/or
  • stop up the opening
  • check frequently
  • Change Clean water bottle daily
  • Automatic waterers
  • check daily acidify water at source
  • reduces pseudomonas

44
Water Management
  • Glass/clear bottles preferred
  • Like to play with waterers
  • will empty water bottle and/or
  • stop up the opening
  • check frequently
  • Change Clean water bottle daily
  • Automatic waterers
  • check daily acidify water at source
  • reduces pseudomonas

45
REPRODUCTION
  • age to sexual maturity 68-70
  • estrous cycle 15-17 days
  • gestation 59-72 days

46
SEXING
  • male straight slit female Y-shaped

47
SEXING male straight slit
48
SEXING female Y-shaped
49
BREEDING
  • females pair at 400gm 2-3 months
  • males pair at 600 gm 3-4 months
  • breed females before 6 months
  • otherwise pubic symphysis fuses
  • must relax at parturition
  • Response to the hormone relaxin
  • Guinea pig once used in bioassays for relaxin

50
Care of Young
  • precocial born
  • furred, eyes open, teeth erupted
  • walking within 2 hours
  • two nipples inguinal region
  • can care for four young
  • litters 3-4 (range 1-6)

51
Care of Young
  • milk
  • 3.9 fat
  • 8.1 protein
  • 3.0 lactose

52
DISEASES
  • genetic
  • infectious
  • environmental
  • nutritional
  • others

53
DISEASES
  • malocclusion over growth of teeth
  • causes
  • environmental
  • inadequate opportunity wear down teeth
  • genetic
  • teeth do not meet properly
  • in guinea pigs
  • lower premolars may be tilted inward
  • eventually tongue is trapped

54
INFECTIOUS DISEASES
  • Bordetella bronchiseptica - pneumonia
  • do not house with subclinical carriers
  • rabbits, cats, dogs
  • other infectious diseases are much less common

55
OTHER DISEASES
  • vitamin C deficiency scurvy
  • metastatic calcification
  • mineralization of soft tissues
  • heat stroke
  • 85º F, high humidity, lack of ventilation
  • barbering
  • small bald patches

56
Public Health Risks
  • minimal
  • diseases guinea pigs may carry
  • Bordetella, Salmonella, Yersinia
    pseudotuberculosis, Streptococcus

57
CHINCHILLA MANAGEMENT
  • Chinchilla lanigera

58
Origin
  • Two species in the wild
  • Chinchilla brevicaudata
  • Shorter, stockier, and facing extinction
  • A previously extant species is already extict
  • Chinchilla lanigera
  • Chinchilla lanigera domesticated
  • wild Peru, Argentina, Bolivia, Chile
  • Spanish discovered them in 16th century

59
  • Crespuscular
  • Active require wheels
  • Names after the Chincha people of the Andes
    Little Chincha
  • Hunting in the 19th century
  • Fur trade led to rarity in the wild
  • Rock crevices in the wild
  • Can jump up to 6 feet high

60
  • In the wild, groups called herds
  • Nonseasonally polyestrous
  • Gestation is 111 days
  • Usually two offsping
  • Precocial
  • Prey species defense
  • Fur release
  • Urine spraying

61
  • Dust baths
  • Fine volcanic dust (pumice)
  • Diet
  • Pelleted chinchilla with timothy hay
  • Raisin supplement 1-2 per day
  • Do not over supplement on fruits and vegetables

62
Research Importance
  • Hearing
  • Range and anatomy
  • Chagas disease
  • Parasitic diseae causing American trypanosomiasis
  • Gastrointestinal disease
  • Listeriosis

63
Colors of Chinchilla
64
Standard Grey
65
Ebony
66
Homozygous beige
67
Heterozygous beige
68
Brown Velvet
69
Black velvet
70
Golden mosaic
71
Sapphire
72
Silver
73
Silver white
74
Albino white
75
Pure white
76
Degus
  • South American rodent
  • Related to Guinea pigs
  • Smaller, social rodents
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