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History of Adult Education: Modes and Methods of Delivery

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Title: History of Adult Education: Modes and Methods of Delivery


1
History of Adult Education Modes and Methods
of Delivery
  • By David Agnew
  • Arkansas State University

2
First an overview of the content of this
presentation
  • Major events in American education
  • Movements related to adult education
  • Malcom Knowles the father of modern adult
    education
  • Legislation related to adult education

3
Major Movements
  • Junto
  • Lyceum
  • Chautauqua
  • Farmers Institutes
  • GI Bill
  • Adult Education Act
  • Night and Evening School
  • Correspondence courses
  • Extension Service
  • Smith Hughes Act

4
Major Legislation Associated with Adult Ed
  • Smith Lever Act -- 1914
  • Smith Hughes Act -- 1917
  • National Adult Education Act -- 1964
  • Perkins Act(s) 1984, 1990, 1998
  • Carl D. Perkins Vocational-Technical Education
    Act of 1998
  • Workforce Investment Act of 1998

5
The Father of Modern Adult Education
  • Malcolm Knowles Apostle of Andragogy
  • Made popular the term Andragogy

6
An Overview
  • The History of Adult Education is too extensive
    to include in any one slide presentation.
  • I have tried to contain the information within
    this presentation which is most relative or
    important.
  • Also I have provided many links to sites that are
    related but it is not required that you go to
    those sites. But if you find any of the
    information interesting you can link to these
    sites to satisfy your interest.

7
The long and varied history of adult education
  • To study methods of adult education we can take a
    look back in time to see what ideas or approaches
    have worked.and which ones are still being used.
  • Some modes or methods change, some do not.
  • Technology has impacted the media and the
    methods as we will see.
  • Many other variables have also impacted the
    delivery of adult instruction.

8
Where to start ?
  • There is some confusion as to when we should
    start the study of adult education, but for our
    purposes we will start it in the 1700s in Europe.
  • The first notable movement was initiated by a
    George Berkbeck in what became to be known as
    Mechanics Institutes

9
Mechanics Institutes
  • Kelly, Thomas George Birkbeck, Pioneer of Adult
    Education Liverpool, 1957.
  • Mechanics Institutes started in the 1700s
    continued until and even into the early 1900s.

10
Squanto first Adult Educator early 1600s
  • Many of us learned in grade school the story of
    how Squanto helped the pilgrims survive in the
    new world.
  • Some references call Squanto the first adult
    educator in America
  • The story most remembered
    is how he taught the pilgrims
    to put a fish in the ground when
    they planted corn.

11
The Junto -1727
  • The Junto was organized by Benjamin Franklin in
    Philadelphia
  • A group Franklins friends became members of the
    Junto and it operated much as a subscription
    library but they had meetings and members would
    report on books they read and have debates.
  • This is considered to be the forerunner of the
    American library system.
  • The Junto was revived in the 1950s and operated
    for about 20 years. The link here and on the
    course webpage takes you to Temple University
    where the papers of the revived Junto or archived
    and it gives a brief history of the early and
    later Junto. The first portion of the following
    link is to Ben Franklins own writings about the
    Junto.

12
Off-shoots of the Junto
  • The American Philosophical Society
  • Franklin Institute -1824
  • The University of Pennsylvania
  • Franklin and the Philadelphia Library --1731

13
Agricultural Societies and Fairs Middle 1700s
  • Franklin was also instrumental in the formation
    of agricultural societies which brought farmers
    together to show off their livestock and crops
    and promoted the exchange of information at
    meetings and in fairs.

14
The Lyceum Movement Began in the U.S. In 1826
  • Lyceums were groups of people who would come
    together to share their knowledge to teach and
    learn from one another. Members were interested
    not only in their own self-improvement, but also
    in advancing the cause of public instruction.
    This movement helped to
  • Spawn the idea of an integrated national system
    of local groups organized mainly for AE
  • Develop the lecture-forum as an educational
    technique
  • Promote home study which foreshadowed
    correspondence courses
  • Lead to the formation of speaker bureaus

15
ORIGINS OF THE WORD "LYCEUM"
  • 336 BC --The Greek philosopher Aristotle, pupil
    of Plato and tutor of Alexander the Great,
    established a school which became known as the
    Lyceum. Its buildings and covered colonnade were
    located outside Athens in a grove sacred to the
    Greek god, Apollo Lyceius. Here students could
    study and converse with great scholars as they
    strolled along the peripatos (walkway).

16
Overview of Lyceum Movement
  • The American Lyceum grew from the use of local
    talent and expertise to the use of traveling
    scholars who presented lectures throughout the
    U.S. The movement, which began in England, was an
    effort to spread popular learning among adults
    who were interested in improving their minds. The
    father of the movement in the United States was
    Josiah Holbrook who founded the first Lyceum in
    Millbury, Massachusetts in 1826. Within six
    years, there were more than three thousand in
    America.

17
1835 Schenectady NY Lyceum
  • The building was built by Giles F. Yates as part
    of a permanent academy of learning.

18
1859 Broadside, Lectures, Kingston NH Lyceum
  • A course of lectures to be presented to the
    Kingston Lyceum at the Town Hall in Kingston New
    Hampshire. The series consisted of twelve
    lectures, the first being a Poem delivered by
    B.P. Shillaber Esq. of Boston. Other named
    lecturers include Geo. W. Stevens Esq., of Dover
    Reve O. T. Lamphear, of Exeter Rev. I.S.
    Kallock, of Boston Prof. D. L. Macurdy, of
    Penbroke Rev. J.A.M. Macurdy, of Pembroke and
    Hon. Geo. M. Herring, of Farmington. The Hall
    will be opened at 6 1-4 o'clock on each evening,
    and the lectures will commence at 7 1-2. Should
    the weather on any of the evenings appointed
    prove very unfavorable, the lecture will be
    omitted. Most lectures will be free with the
    exception of two for which an admission fee of
    ten cents will be charged. C.H. DeRochmemont is
    president and Thos. W. Knox is Cor. Sec'y of the
    Kingston Lyceum. measures 9" x 15".

19
(No Transcript)
20
Marblehead,MA School Exhibition 1867/Lyceum
  • Broadside of School Exhibition at Lyceum Hall,
    Marblehead (Mass.) Friday Evening, Feb.1,1867.
    Musical director Thos. Breare Pianist, Miss
    Lefavor. Dialogues and Tableaux listed. " Doors
    open at 6 1/2. Exercises to commence at 7 1/2.
    Tickets 25 cents."

21
Lyceums Today
  • A few Lyceums still exist today
  • Programs today are mostly for entertainment
  • Many of the old buildings are now historical
    landmarks like the one in Alexandria
    Virginia There is also a Lyceum Hall on the
    grounds of Ole Miss in Oxford Mississippi.
  • Some public school programs were also referred to
    as lyceums in the early 1900s.
  • The movement begin to die in the mid to late
    1920s.

22
Historical look at Apprenticeship Programs
23
What is an Apprenticeship?
  • Form of instruction in which a novice learns from
    a master of a craft or art
  • Purpose was to provide a type of education in
    exchange for work.
  • Oldest Type of Vo Ed.
  • Involved a formal binding agreement that required
    the employer to provide formal training in return
    for work

24
Apprenticeship
  • Until the late 19th century apprenticeship was
    the only means for people to acquire skills for
    most occupations.
  • Used in Vocational areas as well as Medicine and
    Law.
  • The Industrial revolution helped to bring this
    method almost to a complete stop by the mid to
    late 1800s.

25
National Apprenticeship Act honored with a
stamp--1962
26
Apprenticeships continue today
  • Adult
  • Youth
  • State Level
  • National Level
  • Most every night of the week you can go to Delta
    Technical Institute here in Jonesboro and find
    apprenticeship classes being conducted in
    electricity, plumbing, etc..

27
Land Grant Act
  • 1862 1st Morrill Act.
  • Justin Morrill from Vermont
  • 30,000/ Acres Legislative Representatives
  • Money went to form a land grant college in every
    state.
  • 1890 2nd Morrill Act -- for Blacks
  • 1995 3rd Morrill Act -- Native Americans

28
History of the Chautauqua Movement
29
Phases of Development
  • Central Location-- Chautauqua NY
  • Tent Chautauquas
  • Permanent Chautauqua's
  • Chautauqua's today

30
Chautauqua N.Y. The Bell Towera common picture
31
Chautauqua Movement--1874
  • The Chautauqua is founded at Chautauqua Lake in
    New York as a normal school for Sunday school
    teachers. By 1878 they had added the Chautauqua
    Literary and Scientific Circle--a 4-year program
    of home reading done in connection with local
    reading groups. This was the first integrated
    core program in adult education on a national
    scale. The organization has expanded over the
    years adding schools, lecture series, and
    extracurricular activities. Chautauqua developed
    new forms of adult education such as
    correspondence courses, summer schools,
    university extension, and book clubs.

32
Bishop John H. Vincent, Chancellor Emeritus of
Chautauqua Institution -- FOUNDER
  • 'SELF-IMPROVEMENT in all faculties, for all of
    us, through all time. For the greatest good of
    all people - this is the Chautauqua idea, a
    divine idea , a democratic idea , a progressive
    idea, a millennial idea.'"

33
Vincent wrote,
  • "Education, once the peculiar privilege of the
    few, must in our best earthly state become the
    valued possession of the many."

34
Chautauqua at Various Stages
  • 1874 founding at lake Chautauqua NY
  • 1878 Literary and Scientific Circles
  • 1883-1891 Correspondence courses
  • 1900s Mobile Chautauqua (trains and Trucks)
  • 1900s Permanent local Chautauqua
  • Local communities built parks and buildings for
    the summer programs
  • 1930s they began to die
  • There is still a Chautauqua Institute and there
    are some active Chautauquas in the US.

35
Outgrowth of the movement
  • Publishing house or press
  • Reading circles
  • Correspondence courses
  • Tent Chautauquas
  • Permanent Community Chautauquas

36
1883-84 course work required for the Chautauqua
Scientific and Literary Circle
  • Devotees wrote Vincent to learn what books they
    should read during the long winters. In response,
    Vincent developed a four-year home study course,
    known as the Chautauqua Scientific and Literary
    Circle, and within ten years, more than 100,000
    people were enrolled. It is now the oldest
    continuous book club in the United States. In an
    age when few colleges or universities accepted
    women, and opportunities for higher education for
    married women and businessmen were almost
    nonexistent, Vincent's correspondence course
    filled a deep need.

37
EASY LESSONS in VEGETABLE BIOLOGY or OUTLINES OF
PLANT LIFE by Rev. J.H. Wythe, M.D. 1883 Phillips
Hunt, Pub. --prepared for students of
Chautauqua Literary and Scientific Circle and for
schools
38
Chautauqua Stamp
  • The Chautauqua movement was honored in the 1960s
    with the development of a postage stamp. The
    icon of the movement was the tent.

39
Tents were the hotel rooms of the day
40
Famous speakers traveled the Chautauqua
circuit Postcard of William Jenning Byran
  • "The back is printed "Come to Hear, W. J. Bryan,
    at Chautauqua, Le Mars, Iowa, Saturday, July 8,
    At 730 P.M., A characteristic Bryan address on
    questions of big public concern". probably
    dates to 1916.
  • Jennings Bryan spoke on its platforms for thirty
    years.

41
Theodore Roosevelt Said of Chautauqua that it was
  • "the most American thing in America.

42
CHAUTAUQUA PROGRAM CONWAY ARKANSAS 1929
  • BROADWAY 1929. LATEST PLAY HITS "WHITE COLLARS"
    LUCILE ELMORE--MARIMBA BAND. CAPIVATING MUSIC
    THE LOMBARDS THE MASSEYS OF NEW MEXICO
    FIECHTL'S YODELING TYROLEANS. ENTERTAINING
    SPEAKERS HON. CHARLES H POOLE OF NEW ZEALAND
    JUDGE FRED G BALE

43
Home Study Courses Home Study Circles Corresponden
ce Courses
  • These concepts are similar yet have unique
    differences
  • These are different from night school in that
    they are done alone at home. Home study circles
    were an exception in that they might involve some
    friends coming together.
  • We will review these three together

44
Night Schools and Home Study
  • These two concepts developed about the same time
    period.
  • Both were important adult education movements but
    are not as clearly defined as the Lyceum or other
    movements.
  • Home Study in a more formal sense became
    Correspondence Courses
  • First we will look at Night schools

45
Night School
  • Definition. School after sun set, involves a
    group.
  • History and overview
  • Not just for adults
  • Began in the early 1800s however the idea really
    grew in popularity after electricity became
    common in 1880s in many large cities.
  • Was mostly for the poor in society.
  • Those attending were usually working during the
    day.
  • Usually taught basics

46
Night School, History and Overview Continued
  • Became way for the working class to advance or
    improve their quality of life.
  • Cost less than correspondence schools since
    books were not required in many cases.
  • Later they became vocational in nature
  • Many larger cities had a night school committee
  • Some early night schools were free, more and
    more were free as funded public education grew.

47
John Summerfield 1810 Early Night School
Teacher in England
  • In the year 1810, he opened a night-school. Among
    the pupils who presented themselves were young
    men nearly twice his own age. The school
    continued in successful operation until the
    removal of the teacher to Liverpool, in the
    following year.

48
New York City, Scene At A Night-School The
Perplexed Pupils Frank Leslie's Illustrated
Newspaper-- October, 1875 Note the variations in
age
49
Many Important People Learned at Night School
  • Example
  • Herbert Hoover worked a land settlement
    business as an office boy and attended night
    school (1880s). Then, at 17, Hoover entered
    Stanford University as a special student.

50
The PRISON SCHOOL AT SING SING, EDUCATION,
1884 Even prisons had night school. Wood
engraving from Harper's Weekly 1929
51
Night School as a setting for Popular Radio and
TV Shows
  • Radio shows of the 1940s
  • Fibber McGee and Molly
  • Irma
  • Sit. Coms of the 1960s and 70s
  • Good Times
  • All in the Family
  • Laverne and Shirley
  • I love Lucy
  • Life of Riley
  • Dick Van Dyke

52
Night Schools. Now
  • The term night school has faded but he concept is
    still around. While it could apply to youth and
    adults the fact that most work for hire is done
    during the day reflects the reason adults were
    mostly in attendance.
  • Night as a time for study or school will always
    be common since it is the only time many people
    can find the time.

53
Home Study Circles and Courses
  • Perhaps the only differences in circles and
    courses is the level of structure of the
    experience which led to a more concrete outcome
    in course. Circles were often social as well as
    educational and did in some cases involve
    people coming together in homes, where courses
    were almost strictly on your own.
  • This model for delivery seemed to develop in the
    early 1800s in Europe. In Sweden in 1833 there
    was an advertisement to enroll in a course at
    home in composition.

54
Home Study Circles and Courses, continued
  • There was a Society to Encourage Study at Home
    founded in 1874 that over a 24 year time period
    was said to have over 10,00 learners enrolled.
    Their primary focus was classical studies.
  • Study circles or sometimes called literary
    circles seems to include more traditional
    classical studies, history and literature.
    Courses covered many topics, from agriculture to
    religion.

55
Home Study Circles and Courses, continued
  • Home study was popular because it did not
    require travel in a time when roads were very
    poor and transportation was not easy or fast.
  • Home study courses were also good for people in
    remote areas where night schools were not
    possible.
  • Electricity made HSCs more likely to occur in
    the 1880s-90s.
  • Major sub-division of HSCs were credit or
    non-credit. A key difference of a credit and
    no-credit HSC is the source of the course.
    Mostly colleges/universities offered credit HSCs.

56
Home Study Circles and Courses, continued
  • HSCs required money for book or course
    materials and also there was the recurring cost
    of mailings.
  • Mostly non-credit however credit HSCs came along
    later (1890s) These when offered by an
    institution of higher learning and for credit
    were really what we call correspondence courses.
    Credit courses cost more
  • Sub-divided formats began to appear where what
    might have been a single big book was broken down
    in to smaller booklets. These were sometimes
    mailed out after previous lessons were complete

57
Correspondence Courses
  • The popular correspondence course idea grew out
    of the home study movement but was more focused
    on credit. We will also see this concept
    discussed in a summary of the history of the
    Chautauqua movement.
  • 1891 the International Correspondence Schools of
    Scranton, PA becomes the first institutionalized
    correspondence school.

58
The Moveable School -- 1890s
  • This was a forerunner to the extension service
  • Started by George Washington Carver in Alabama
  • Book about the movement.
  • Campbell, Thomas Monroe THE MOVEABLE SCHOOL
    GOES TO THE NEGRO FARMER Tuskegee, Alabama
    Tuskegee Institute Press, 1936.

59
Farmer Institutes
  • Late 1800 to 1920-30s
  • Modeled after teacher institutes and after
    Chautauquas
  • Involved societies and universities
  • Connected to the extension movement
  • Connected with the home/farm demonstrations that
    motivated the formation of CES
  • Died partly because of CES

60
The Smith Lever Act --1914 The Extension Service
  • Some Texas counties started hiring agents in
    early 1900s to help farmers.
  • Seaman Knapp, founding father used
    demonstration methods
  • Created the Extension Service
  • Started with adult farmers but later included
    women and youth (4H)

61
The Smith Hughes Act-- 1917
  • For youth AND Adults
  • First Federal legislation for vocational
    education
  • Included Ag, Home Economics, TI and Business
  • After war there was a second Vocational Act that
    brought vo ed to disabled vets.

62
WORLD WAR 1 POSTER DISABLED SOLDIERS, SAILORS,
MARINES
  • "DISABLED SOLDIERS, SAILORS, MARINES - BUSINESS
    NEEDS YOU START BACK TO CIVIL LIFE RIGHT UNCLE
    SAM WILL TRAIN YOU FREE FOR A PERMANENT JOB - PAY
    YOU WHILE IN TRAINING - HELP YOU GET A GOOD JOB
    - WRITE THE FEDERAL BOARD FOR VOCATIONAL
    EDUCATION - WASHINGTON, D.C. Poster No. 2 -
    Government Printing Office - 9-780. The artwork
    is done by GORDON GRANT, Captain, U. S. Army

63
Vo-Rehab ca. 1918-1920 Useful and Profitable
Vocational Training for Patients at U.S. Army
Base Hospital, Camp Devens, MA.
64
Radio
  • Radio became a means of delivering adult
    education in the 1930-40 in many rural
    communities.

65
Current Legislation
  • Perkins Act 1998
  • Workforce Investment Act of 1998 (WIA)

66
The End
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