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The Holocaust: a great or complete devastation or destruction, especially by fire; any mass slaughter or reckless destruction of life

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Title: The Holocaust: a great or complete devastation or destruction, especially by fire; any mass slaughter or reckless destruction of life


1

The Holocaust a great or complete devastation or
destruction, especially by fire any mass
slaughter or reckless destruction of life
2
An abnormal reaction to an abnormal situation is
normal behavior.
- a survivor
3
1933-1945
Historical Context of The Holocaust
4
  • Judaism
  • Dates back nearly 4,000 years
  • Shares many ideas with Christianity and Islam
    all originated in the Middle East.
  • Sacred texts of all 3 overlap. For example, the
    Hebrew Bible is what Christians call the Old
    Testament. Many of the Bible stories also appear
    in the Islamic sacred text, the Quran.

5
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6
Nationalistic fervor
Racism
Centuries-old bigotry
World War I
1933-1945
Antisemitism
Treaty of Versailles
Weimar Republic
International Indifference
Propaganda
The Depression
Political charisma of Adolf Hitler
7
Who was Hitler?
8
As a young man he had a crush on a Jewish girl,
and her father forbid the relationship because he
did not think Hitler was good enough for his
daughter. Part of his antisemitism in this case
is psychological, news of the war's end and
Germany's loss came to Hitler when he was half
blind in Pasewalk hospital, which would have
increased the blow.   Ludendorff's stab in the
back theory (the belief that the Jews were
responsible for the end of the war) had a big
impact on Hitler (what soldier wouldn't be
influenced by his top commander?)   The Jewish
involvement in the communist uprisings and the
later hated Weimar Republic would have cemented
this in Hitler's mind. And for a guy who was
pretty much a homeless failure before the war, a
hero during it, and probably would return to the
homeless failure afterwards unless he did
something, Hitler would have been looking for
someone to blame. Germany was in an economic
depression (enormous debt following WWI had
been forced to borrow to pay reparations to the
victorious European powers, as demanded by the
Treaty of Versailles in 1919) and existing
prejudices and blame were already held by some
people aimed toward Jews, some of whom held
wealth through banking, owning property, etc. for
the depression. So Hitler was able to use those
as a convenient political vehicle to get support
from Germans for his political power. The Jewish
people of Germany were a political scapegoat for
Germany's problems. As a uprisings and the
later hated Weimar Republic would have cemented
this in Hitler's mind. And for a guy who was
pretty much a homeless failure before the war, a
hero during it, and probably would return to the
homeless failure afterwards unless he did
something, Hitler would have been looking for
someone to blame. Germany was in an economic
depression (enormous debt following WWI had
been forced to borrow to pay reparations to the
victorious European powers, as demanded by the
Treaty of Versailles in 1919) and existing
prejudices and blame were already held by some
people aimed toward Jews, some of whom held
wealth through banking, owning property, etc. for
the depression. So Hitler was able to use those
as a convenient political vehicle to get support
from Germans for his political power. The Jewish
people of Germany were a political scapegoat for
Germany's problems.
9
And for a guy who was pretty much a homeless
failure before the war, a hero during it, and
probably would return to the homeless failure
afterwards unless he did something, Hitler would
have been looking for someone to blame. Germany
was in an economic depression (enormous debt
following WWI had been forced to borrow to pay
reparations to the victorious European powers, as
demanded by the Treaty of Versailles in
1919. Existing prejudices and blame were already
held by some people aimed toward Jews, some of
whom held wealth through banking and ownership of
property.
10
The Role of Propaganda
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15
Salarino Why, I am sure, if he forfeit, thou
wilt not take his flesh? Whats that good
for? Shylock To bait fish withal if it will
feed nothing else, it will feed my revenge. He
hath disgraced me and hindered me half a million
laughed at my losses, mocked at my gains, scorned
my nation, thwarted my bargains, cooled my
friends, heated mine enemies and whats his
reason? I am a Jew. Hath not a Jew hands, organs,
dimensions, senses, affections, passions? Fed
with the same food, hurt with the same weapons,
subject to the same diseases, healed by the same
winter and summer, as a Christian is? If you
prick us, do we not bleed? If you tickle us, do
we not laugh? If you poison us, do we not die?
And if you wrong us, shall we not revenge? If a
Jew wrong a Christian, what is his humility?
Revenge. If a Christian wrong a Jew, what should
his sufferance be by Christian example? Why,
revenge. The villainy you teach me I will
execute and it shall go hard but I will better
the instruction.
16
Why did the Nazis Come to Power in Germany?
Nazis Come to Power in Germany?
  • Hitlers charisma and leadership seduced the
    masses
  • Germany was resentful about the Treaty of
    Versailles(signed at end of WW1, in 1919, and
    ended state of war between Allied Powers and
    Germany) and its perceived attempt at
    emasculating the German people.
  • Nazism was the logical outgrowth of a history of
    authoritarianism and militarism in Germany.
    Nazis represented the anti-democratic values in
    German history
  • 2000 year old tradition of anti-semitism
  • Germanys declining economy, inflation and
    depression
  • Revolt against the Englightenment Movement of the
    19th Century individualism, mass rule, mankind
    can change its own nature.

17
  • NazisNazis Advocated
  • Community
  • Unity
  • The Fuhrer
  • Order/discipline opposed to Democracy
  • Aryan race
  • Physical labor
  • War
  • Patriotism/Nationalism
  • Social Darwinism
  • Force/violence
  • Eugenics - Improving genetic composition of a
    group of people

18
  • Nazis opposed
  • Democracy
  • Individual freedom
  • Jews
  • Internationalism
  • Birth control
  • Integration of races

19
  • Spreading Nazism
  • Complete control of the mass media
  • Frequent fanatical speeches spreading Nazism and
    Antisemitism
  • Standard symbols, like swastika, Nazi flag,
    uniforms, armbands
  • Nazi slogans on banners/posters
  • Organization of the Hitler Youth
  • Well organized spy system to identify enemies of
    the Party

20
1933-1945
Karl Lueger (1844-1907) Mayor of Vienna
21
If Dr. Karl Lueger had lived in Germany, he
would have been ranked among the great minds of
our people. -Adolf Hitler in Mein Kampf
22
Beer Hall Putsch
1933-1945
Also known as the Munich Putsch - a failed
attempt at revolution that occurred between the
evening of 8 November and the early afternoon of
9 November 1923, when Nazi Party leader Hitler,
Ludendorff, and other heads of the Kampfbund (a
league of patriotic fighting societies)
unsuccessfully tried to seize power in Munich,
Bavaria, and Germany in Nov. 9, 1923
23
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24
Hitlers MEIN KAMPF
Hitlers MEIN KAMPF
  • Mein Kampf means My Struggle Hitler wrote it
    while in prison in the 1920s
  • Still banned in most European countries
  • Given to every newly married German couple from
    the late 1930s onward

25
Hitlers MEIN KAMPF
Hitlers MEIN KAMPF
  • The relation of the Jews to prostitution and,
    even more, to the white-slave traffic, could be
    studied in ViennaWhen thus for the first time I
    recognized the Jew as the cold-hearted,
    shameless, and calculating director of this
    revolting vice traffic in the scum of the big
    city, a cold shudder ran down my back. (p. 59)
  • Hence today I believe that I am acting in
    accordance with the will of the Almighty Creator
    by defending myself against the Jew, I am
    fighting for the work of the Lord. (p. 65)

26
Hitlers MEIN KAMPF
Hitlers MEIN KAMPF
  • On this first and greatest lie, that the Jews
    are not a race, but a religion, more and more
    lies are based in necessary consequence. (p.
    307)

27
Elections
  • Hindenburg 49.6 percent Hitler 30.1
    percent Hindenburg 49.6 percent Hitler 30.1
    percent Thaelmann 13.2 percent Duesterberg 6.8
    percen

28
1933-1945
1933 Hitler becomes Chancellor
29
1933-1945
1933-1945
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32
1933-1945
May 10, 1934 Book Burnings
33
1933-1945
Night of the Long Knives June 30-July 2, 1934 3
nights of political murders
34
"If anyone reproaches me and asks why I did not
resort to the regular courts of justice, then all
I can say is this In this hour I was responsible
for the fate of the German people, and thereby I
became the supreme judge of the German people."
"It was no secret that this time the revolution
would have to be bloody when we spoke of it we
called it 'The Night of the Long Knives.'
Everyone must know for all future time that if he
raises his hand to strike the State, then certain
death is his lot."
35
1933-1945
March 1933 Dachau (Da kau) Concentration Camp
36
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37
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39
1933-1945
Sept. 10, 1935 Nuremberg Laws
40
The as "German Way to Define Who was a Jew 4
German granparents Kindred Blood Descended from
3 or 4 Jewish grandparents Jewish Descended
from 1 or 2 Jewish grandparents Mixed
blood Mixed blood who were Christians retained
their German citizenship Banned sexual
intercourse between a German and Jew Banned
involvement in German civic life Prohibited
marriage between a German and Jew Deprived Jews
of German citizenship Boycott of Jewish
businesses Barred from employment, from use of
state hospitals, parks, libraries, beaches,
schools (past age of 14) War Memorials were to
have Jewish names expunged Passports were stamped
with a J, as Jews could leave Germany, but not
return. Jews who didnt have a Jewish first name
had to adopt a Jewish middle name Sara for
women/Israel for men between people defined as
"Jews" and non-Jewish Germans and prevented
"Jews" from participating in German civic life.
41
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44
July 1938 Evian Conference Jews met with Britain
and U.S. to discuss the situation in Germany,
only to leave disheartened as neither country was
willing to take in Jews.
1933-1945
45
1933-1945
October 1938 Deportations Begin
46
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47
1933-1945
November 7, 1938 Assassination of Ernst Vom
Rath Triggered Kristallnacht
48
'Being a Jew is not a crime. I am not a dog. I
have a right to live and the Jewish people have a
right to exist on this earth. Wherever I have
been I have been chased like an animal.'9
--Herchel Grynszpan
49
1933-1945
November 9, 1938 Kristallnacht
50
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53
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54
1933-1945
May 1939 S.S. St. Louis
55
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56
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57
1933-1945
Sept. 1, 1939 WWII Begins
58
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59
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60
Hitlers MEIN KAMPF
Heinrich Himmler on Polish Education
  • The sole goal of this schooling is to teach them
    simple arithmetic, nothing above the number 500
    writing ones name and the doctrine that it is
    divine law to obey the GermansI do not think
    that reading is desirable.
  • --May 1940

61
1933-1945
1940 Euthanasia Program
62
Adolf Hitler's authorization for the Euthanasia
Program (Operation T4), signed in October 1939
but dated September 1, 1939. __________ National
Archives and Records Administration, College
Park, Md.

63

This photo originates from a film produced by the
Reich Propaganda Ministry. It shows two doctors
in a ward in an unidentified asylum. The
existence of the patients in the ward is
described as "life only as a burden." Such
propaganda images were intended to develop public
sympathy for the Euthanasia Program. __________ Un
ited States Holocaust Memorial Museum
64
Slide taken from a Nazi propaganda filmstrip,
promoting "euthanasia," prepared for the Hitler
Youth. The caption says "Mentally ill Negro
(English) 16 years in an institution costing
35,000 RM Reichsmarks." __________ United
States Holocaust Memorial Museum

65
Hitlers MEIN KAMPF
German Education Math Problems
  • The construction of a lunatic asylum costs 6
    million marks. How many houses at 15,000 marks
    each could have been built for that amount?

66
Buses used to transport patients to Hadamar
euthanasia center. The windows were painted to
prevent people from seeing those inside. Germany,
between May and September 1941. __________ Hessisc
hes Hauptstaatsarchiv Wiesbaden

67
1933-1945
Summer 1941 Killing Squads Einsatzgruppen
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69
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70
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71
PPogroms Organized massacre of helpless people
72
1933-1945
December 7, 1941 Pearl Harbor
73
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74
1933-1945
January 20, 1942 Wannsee Conference Final
Solution to the Jewish question
75
Reinhard Heydrich, chief of SD (Security) Service
76
1933-1945
Summer 1942 Deportations to camps begin
77
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78
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79
1933-1945
1942-1945 Camp Life and Death
80
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81
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82
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83
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84
1933-1945
April-October 1943 Rebellion
85
Treblinka under attack
Train tracks leading into Sobibor
86
Warsaw ghetto uprising
87
White Rose Movement Most famous youth
resistance movement Students from Munich
University secretly passed out anti-Nazi leaflets
were eventually caught and beheaded.
88
1933-1945
Death Marches
89
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90
1933-1945
1945 Liberation
91
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92
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93
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94
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95
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96
1933-1945
October 18, 1945-October 1, 1946 Nuremberg Trials
97
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98
Hitlers MEIN KAMPF
Nuremberg Trial Convictions
  • Guilty 12- sentenced to death 3- life
    imprisonment four- 10-20 years in prison
  • Innocent 3 were acquitted

99
1933-1945
November 13-December 14, 1945 Dachau Trials
100
Hitlers MEIN KAMPF
Dachau Trial Convictions
  • Guilty 40 Nazi war criminals found guilty and
    sentenced to death by hanging
  • Innocent none

101
1933-1945
Israel A New State
102
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103
Hitlers MEIN KAMPF
Number of Jews Murdered
  • 5, 900, 000

104
Hitlers MEIN KAMPF
Number of Gypsies Murdered
  • 220, 000

105
Hitlers MEIN KAMPF
Number of Handicapped Murdered
  • 200,000

106
Hitlers MEIN KAMPF
Number of Polish People Murdered
  • 1,900,000

107
Hitlers MEIN KAMPF
Number of Soviet Prisoners of War Murdered
  • 3, 300, 000

108
Hitlers MEIN KAMPF
Number of Homosexuals Murdered
  • 15,000 (estimate only)

109
Hitlers MEIN KAMPF
Number of Jehovahs Witnesses Murdered
  • 1,800

110
1933-1945
Only guard yourself and guard your soul
carefully, lest you forget the things your eyes
saw, and lest these things depart your heart all
the days of your life, and you shall make them
known to your children, and to your childrens
children. Deuteronomy 49
111
  • eElie Weisels Night
  • Setting Sighet Northwestern Romania (located
    in Southeastern Europe)
  • Home to 15,000 Jews
  • Hasidic Jews (a branch of Orthodox Judaism)

112
  • LLife in Sighet
  • Poor people whose lives focused on family,
    religion, and learning
  • Young Weisel spent evenings and weekends studying
    sacred texts, such as the Torah and Talmud
  • At age 12, Weisel began to explore Cabbala or
    Jewish mysticism an approach to Bible study
    that analyzes hidden meanings in the text.
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