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Recognition or Perception of the Oneness of Humanity is the Principle underlying World Citizenship

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Title: Recognition or Perception of the Oneness of Humanity is the Principle underlying World Citizenship


1
Recognition or Perception of the Oneness of
Humanity is the Principle underlying World
Citizenship
  • the concept of world citizenship should be
    taught in every school and that the oneness of
    humanity the principle underlying world
    citizenship be constantly asserted in every
    nation
  • (Taken from publication on World Citizenship
  • A Global Ethic for Sustainable Development
  • BIC 1993).

2
World Citizenship
  •    "... a reorientation of education so as to
    give young people everywhere a sense of the
    shared interests and basic oneness of mankind
  • and to prepare them for effective participation
    as members of a world community is, I believe, a
    clear necessity for human survival in the twenty
    first century.
  • Edwin O. Reischauer, Harvard Professor and
  • former U.S. Ambassador to Japan
  • in his book (1973) Toward the 21st Century
  • Education for a Changing World

3
Without the recognition of the Oneness of
humanity, human beings de-humanize the Other
  • On October 30, 2003 the U.S. Senate Committee on
    Appropriations released a report to the press,
    citing research done by the American Jewish
    Committee.  The report cites such examples as an
    eighth-grade textbook, published by the Saudi
    Ministry of Education, that labels Christians and
    Jews as non-human "apes" and "pigs"

4
Stages of Demonizing the "Other"
  • Self-preservation as form of violence.
  • Insular identity segregation (human).
  • Perception of scarcity competition.
  • You label the other as the enemy (threatens
    self-preservation).
  • You label the other as non-human.
  • You deny the other membership in the human
    race. Then you can do anything.
  • You conceptualize the Other as evil
    (demonized). He MUST be destroyed.

5
De-humanizing the Other Its in the News
  • On Sunday, April 25th, 2004, Tim Russert on NBC's
    Meet the Press asked Prince Bandar about these
    Saudi textbooks dehumanizing and demonizing
    "other" religious groups. 

6
De-humanizing the Other Its in the News
  • And on April 15th, 2004, Fox News reporter Steve
    Harrington decried that the same problem exists
    in the 70,000 madras schools of Pakistan,
    reaching over 1.5 million students between the
    ages of 6 and 24

7
De-humanizing the "Other in Rwanda
  • I first realized that this was what was
    happening when I served as head of our
    organization in Rwanda as the genocide unfolded.
    When I learned that a hospital, under control of
    the Hutus, sheltered several hundred children, I
    went to the Hum leader in charge and asked to
    take the children -- to transfer them to a safer
    place. The Hutu leader said, no.  I then asked,
    Do you have children of your own? Why yes,
    the leader replied, proudly pulling out photos. 
    Then I said, But these children in the orphanage
    are children, too. The Hutu leader replied,
  • No, they are cockroaches.  
  • Dr. James Orbinski, a French-Canadian physician
    -- President of Médecins Sans Frontières
    (Doctors Without Borders), tells how membership
    in the human race was taken from an entire people
    in Rwanda. 

8
De-humanizing the Other in Rwanda
  • The next day, half of the Tutsi children had been
    murdered.  Within 100 days, 800,000 people
    mostly Tutsis lost their lives because they had
    lost their membership in the human race.  The
    world stood by indifferently and let it happen,
    because no one else had sufficiently identified
    with their plight no other culture or
    civilization sufficiently shared their identity
    as fellow humans. The same has happened in
    Sudan, Uganda, and the Congo.
  • (According to Steven Lewis, UN envoy for AIDS, a
    similar indifference and racism exits towards
    African countries with respect to AIDS.)

9
Ghosts of Rwanda
10
De-humanizing the Other in Balkans
  • During the last Balkan war, a reporter having
    dinner with a family in Kosovo witnessed a six
    year-old child coming up from the basement where
    he had been playing and the parents inquired what
    he had been doing.  Killing rats, he said,
    referring to the Serbians.
  • In Bosnia, Muslims were referred to as sub-human
    by the Serbs.  In 1993 Croat nationalists began
    their own ethnic cleansing campaign in an
    effort to carve an all-Croat homeland out of
    Herzegovina.   

11
Bosnia-Herzegovina
  • In 1984 the world watched with wonder and
    delight, the Winter Olympics held in picturesque
    Sarajevo, the capital of Bosnia. What a
    beautiful and civilized place, one would think,
    right in the
  • heart and center of Europe!
  • Just eight years later, the world watched in
    horror at the human tragedy unfolding in that
    same area of the world.

12
Bosnia-Herzegovina
  • Thousands and thousands of civilians were
    assaulted, tortured, raped, displaced or killed
    in the ultimate barbaric siege known as ethnic
    cleansing 
  • the euphemism for nationalistic,
  • ethno-centristic and
  • murderous insanity.

13
Bosnia-Herzegovina
  • Three warring interfaith populations
  • Bosnian (Muslim)
  • Croatian (Catholic)
  • Serbian (Eastern Orthodox Christian) 

14
Bosnia-Herzegovina
  • The siege of Sarajevo continued
  • until late 1995 when the
  • Dayton Peace Accords were signed. 
  • This was the beginning of the end of the conflict
    that had, in the words of one writer, displaced
    hundreds of thousands of people, left thousands
    dead, mutilated, tortured, and without hope.

15
Are we headed towards a Balkanized society in
the U.S.?
  •   There is no greater challenge facing our
    nation than race If we continue to ignore
    growing inequalities and divisions, we will
    become a thoroughly balkanized society dominated
    by a declining white minority.  History and
    headlines worldwide provide ample evidence of the
    grievous consequences along that path.
  • -- Harvard Civil Rights Project

16
We have only ½ a Generation in time
  •   United States is in the throes of the largest
    migration in American history while we are
    simultaneously witnessing increasing segregation
    at an alarming rate. And while only a half
    century ago the country was nearly 90 white,
    within the next fifty years there will be no
    racial majority, and non-Europeans will actually
    outnumber whites in the general population -- a
    demographic shift already appearing in an
    accelerating number of institutions and
    communities.
  • -- Harvard Civil Rights Project

17
Our choice Segregation or Unity
  • Many fear that increasing diversity in the U.S.
    will lead inevitably to ethnic segregation and a
    thoroughly balkanized society (Harvard Civil
    Rights Project)
  • with disparate groups violently oriented
    towards one another.
  • If justice and unity within this diversity can be
    achieved, America as the most culturally
    diverse country in the world could lead the
    world towards UNITY, harmony and purposeful
    co-existence.

18
Our choice Segregation or Unity
  • In one sense it could be said of America that its
    dream of equality, union and democracy is about
    to be truly tested whether it is merely a
    mythological ideology or whether it can become
    real. At the same time this quickly developing
    shift towards a more equal diversity represents a
    microcosm of the world.

19
Our choice Segregation or Unity
  • The irony, perhaps, is that the United States is
    being forced to implement its espoused
    theoretical ideal or perish. At the same time,
    the world must awaken to the realization that
    what is happening with diversity in America if
    it truly is the microcosm is everyones
    challenge ultimately.

20
World Citizenship and Race Unity Two sides of
the same coin. (Reischauer 1973)
  • ". . .most people are probably not conscious that
    our traditional education is overwhelmingly about
    our own particular group, and thus tends to build
    a strong sense of identity with it, to the
    exclusion of the other members of the human race
    who do not qualify for membership.
  • Edwin O. Reischauer (1973)
  • Toward the 21st Century
  • Education for a Changing World

21
  • They
  • are not
  • us

22
But what if the world was only us ?? One
Human Family!
23
World Citizenship
  •      

24
Consciousness leads to Unity
  •     ". . . the consciousness of world citizenship
    will be born, a consciousness that can alone
    provide an adequate basis for the organization of
    world unity,
  • on which a lasting world peace must
    necessarily depend,
  • the peace itself inaugurating in turn that
    world civilization
  • which will mark the coming of age of the
    entire human race."   Shoghi Effendi, Messages
    to America, 1934

25
Even the most subtle pathologies such as
indifference and apathy destroy human
relationships.
  •      

Therefore, EDUCATION is of the greatest
importance.
26
Every child is potentially the light of the
world and at the same time its darkness
  •      

Therefore, EDUCATION is of the greatest
importance.
27
World Citizenship
  • Inherently a child may have tendencies for both
    good and bad behaviors, but education makes the
    greatest difference because a child can learn the
    values, ethics, attitudes and civilized behavior.

28
How do we bring about greater unity? How do we
create a sense of world citizenship?
29
Lesser loyalties are not destroyed by a wider
loyalty
  • a wider loyaltyshould not, and indeed does
    not, conflict with lesser loyalties....
  • It lays. . . the only foundation on which the
    concept of world citizenship can thrive, and
  • the structure of world unification can
    rest. (Shoghi Effendi, The World Order of
    Baha'u'llah, 1938)

World Citizenship calls for loyalty to the human
family
30
Love for humanity is higher than love for ones
country
  • a wider loyaltyshould not, and indeed does
    not, conflict with lesser loyalties....
  • It lays. . . the only foundation on which the
    concept of world citizenship can thrive, and
  • the structure of world unification can
    rest. (Shoghi Effendi, The World Order of
    Baha'u'llah, 1938)

31
Lesser loyalties are not destroyed by a wider
loyalty
World Citizenship calls for loyalty to the human
family
32
World Citizenship is the natural evolution of
global society
  • Does not the child disappear
  • in the youth?
  • and the youth in the man?
  • yet neither child nor youth perishes?

Isnt this also the normal development of
societies? Cities become part of states, and
states nations, and nations the world.
33
The world is emerging from its adolescence
attaining to maturity
  • The principle of the Oneness of Mankind...
    implies an organic change in the structure of
    present-day society
  • a change such as
  • the world has not yet experienced.
  • Shoghi Effendi (1938)

34
The modern world makes world unity possible
  • Time and space are not nearly as much against
    the organic unity of the world now as they were
    against the organic unity of the United States a
    hundred years ago.
  • Bridgman (1905)      

35
Easier to unite the world of today than the
original colonies of America
  • Even though the American states had similar
    traditions and culture, the task of welding them
    into a single federation was infinitely more
    complex than that which confronts our divided
    world in its efforts to achieve the unification
    of all humanity. Why? The facilities of modern
    progress transportation, telecommunication,
    television, satellites, word-processing,
    computerized data-analysis, Internet, AND global
    interdependence (economic, environment, etc.)

36
Even the negative threats drive us towards unity
  • The choice before the entire world at the present
    time is to avert or mitigate the disaster being
    called the "clash of cultures" or the "clash of
    civilizations" that could bring all nations to
    simultaneous ruin.  For example, an ecological or
    economic disaster or bio-terrorism could
    simultaneously threaten everyone on the planet.

37
As the world gets smaller we must be reconciled
  • in the end we must reconcile ourselves to
    existence side by side...
  • Kant (In 1795)

38
World Citizenship as consciousness
  • The different peoples of the world are just
    beginning to find each other. Whatever is best
    in any part is now being brought out into the
    light for the good of the whole. Whatever
    national geniuses have discovered is now being
    made the common possession of all nations....
    Multiply present conditions a hundred fold and
    then compute, if possible, what the world mind
    will be when it has come to its own inheritance
    -- Bridgman (1905)

39
World Citizenship as consciousness
  • The supreme aim of education is to develop men
    and women who can carry on effectively and nobly
    the work of the world.
  • ... The phenomenal growth of a world
    consciousness is the distinctive feature of the
    twentieth century and contributing to this
    development is the whole category of human
    activity. In the advancement of industry,
    education, religion, science, literature, art,
    philanthropy and government, the inhabitants of
    the world, regardless of national boundaries,
    have intermingled their interests in the pursuit
    of great achievements.
  • F.F. Andrews (1908)

40
World Citizenship as consciousness
  • In 1908, F.F. Andrews continued.
  • The teacher of the twentieth century is an
    international figure, and he can never perform
    his highest function until he is imbued with this
    international consciousness. He should stand
    shoulder to shoulder with his fellow teachers in
    the world for the achievement of a higher
    civilization. One generation of teaching the
    principles of justice, peace and international
    unity would revolutionize the world these
    sentiments can be taught in literature,
    geography, history, and, in fact, in every
    exercise connected with the school... To what
    nobler work can the teacher consecrate himself
    than to build up a new people whose country is
    the world, whose countrymen are all mankind!

41
World Citizenship
  • Listen again to those key words and concepts
    ringing through her vision
  • international consciousness, she said.
    Teaching peace and unity, she said, could
    revolutionize the world
  • within one generation.  

42
How do we get world citizenship in one
generation?
  • The Civil Rights project at Harvard states that
    we have only half a generation before the United
    States will have a thoroughly Balkanized society
    if the present trends towards segregation and
    inequity continue.

43
Diversity united or diversity segregated?
How will we choose?
  • Without unity in diversity as the watchword in
    our society (and schools), could we not be facing
    the prospect of increased tensions, conflict and
    violence among our (U.S.) ethnically segregated
    populations?

44
The role of a scholar is to bring a heart to
heaven and earth, to bring livelihood to the
general population, to continue the lost
teachings of past sages, and to bring about peace
to ten thousand generations. ?????,?????,??????
,?????? Sung dynasty scholar
45
What is the present state of civilization in
relationship to moral competence?
46
Science without moral competence can become
destructive
Science without the moral force of spiritual
values can lose its ethical compass. It
can become the means of human perversity and
destruction.
Hiroshima 92,000 died
Nagasaki 50,000 died
47
If a thing is carried to excess, it will prove a
source of evil
  Consider the civilization of the West, how it
hath agitated and alarmed the peoples of the
world. Strange and astonishing things exist
in the earth but they are hidden from the minds
and the understanding of men An infernal engine
hath been devised, and hath proved so cruel a
weapon of destruction that its like none hath
ever witnessed or heard These things are
capable of changing the whole atmosphere of the
earth and their contamination would prove
lethal. Bahaullah (1863)
48
Moral development Virtues
Moral development results from learning the
social rules and principles at the same time we
transform ourselves into more loving human beings
. . . human beings who can sustain authentic
relationships. The basic measure of morality is
simple Either a person has acquired the capacity
for self-sacrifice and love, which he
demonstrates through active, humble, reliable
service towards others (with kindness,
compassion, courtesy, etc.), or he has not, in
which case his behavior will reflect various
pathologies that destroy human relationships
such as greed, untrustworthiness, jealousy,
self-centeredness, coldness, indifference, anger,
or cruelty.
(Partly derived from W. Hatcher Love, Power,
and Justice)
49

Normally internalize the values into what we
think we know as right
Principles and rules of society
Norms become values
Think Know Feel
Know
Emotion /-
Dichotomy
Volition, Will, Intention
Decide, Commit, Plan
Emotional Attachment to untruths
Subconscious resonance with role models
Active will
Prejudice
Passive reaction
Unconscious socialization process
Action becomes a conscious choice
Empathy,
comes into awareness
Personality
Behavior
Education creates the possibility of
transformationexpressed in less-selfish behavior
(integrity over dichotomy)
50
Moral development Virtues
Behavior and actions reflect what we are, and
the degree of our moral development. All these
proper behaviors and attitudes can be learned.
51
Every child is potentially the light of the
world and at the same time its darkness
  •      

Therefore, EDUCATION is of the greatest
importance.
52
What is the relationship between MORALITY and
Citizenship?
  • Moral values determine quality of relationship to
    others (family, friends).
  • Citizenship is an extension of moral values to
    the whole society. It defines the quality of the
    the individuals relationship to society.

53
Developing shared values generates consensus of
morality.
Citizenship is a formal, public identity that
relies on a set of formal structures and
institutions for its maintenance and realization.
To be a citizen is to accept a particular regime
or set of universal rights and duties, to honor
these, and to support or participate in the
institutions that uphold them.
Traditionally there are 3 Institutions (formal
structures) Religious institutions The state or
government The market place (commerce/trade)
Todays GLOBAL market the SCIENTIFIC community
represent new sets of formal structures, bound to
define new levels of universal human rights
and duties
54
Developing shared values generates consensus of
morality.
Citizenship is a formal, public identity that
relies on a set of formal structures and
institutions for its maintenance and realization.
To be a citizen is to accept a particular regime
or set of universal rights and duties, to honor
these, and to support or participate in the
institutions that uphold them.
Traditionally there are 3 Institutions (formal
structures) Religious institutions The state or
government The market place (commerce/trade)
55
Developing shared values generates consensus of
morality.
Citizenship is a formal, public identity that
relies on a set of formal structures and
institutions for its maintenance and realization.
To be a citizen is to accept a particular regime
or set of universal rights and duties, to honor
these, and to support or participate in the
institutions that uphold them.
Todays GLOBAL market the SCIENTIFIC community
represent new sets of formal structures, bound to
define new levels of universal human rights
and duties
56
Global citizenship is Compromised by the Lack of
any Institutional Authority
The feasibility of citizenship becoming more
global and inclusive is clearly complicated along
a number of dimensions. The most obvious
challenges arise from the displacement of the
nation-state by globalization and
multi-nationals, the major institutional
architecture within which citizenship has been
realized. Amina Mama, Citizenship and Culture
society for International Development Lecture,
The Royal Tropical Institute of Social Studies
(June, 2004)
57

Principles and rules of society
Norms become values
Think Know Feel
Know
The institutional foundation for norms at the
global level is missing.
58
Global citizenship is Compromised by the Lack of
any Institutional Authority
In the context of the global market, who sets the
criterion for the rights and duties of citizens?
Even if we could find universal agreement, what
institutional architecture would ensure the
uphold of an agreed-upon regime of citizens
rights duties within globalization? Does a
system of international laws with the capacity to
govern multinational enterprise imply the
subordination of national sovereignty to a united
system of federated nation-states?
59
World Citizenship is service to humanity
  • That one indeed is a man who, today, dedicateth
    himself to the service of the entire human
    race...
  • happy is he that ariseth to promote the best
    interests of the peoples and kindreds of the
    earth. . .
  • It is not for him to pride himself who loveth his
    own country, but rather for him who loveth the
    whole world.
  • The earth is but one country,
  • and mankind its citizens.
  • (From the Writings of Baha'u'llah late 1800s.)

60
What is World Citizenship? What does it mean to
love the whole world? What do these have to do
with recognition of oneness?
61
  • The consciousness of World Citizenship, upon
    which international moral action is based, is
    dependent on a more mature and accurate
    perception of the world and ones place within it
  • a worldview that promotes unity and harmony
    among all peoples
  • essentially derived from the recognition of the
    fundamental oneness of humanity. Greg
    Kagira-Watson (2003)

62
The consciousness of World Citizenship, upon
which international moral action is based, is
dependent on a more mature and accurate
perception of the world and ones place within
it a worldview that promotes unity and harmony
among all peoples essentially derived from the
recognition of the fundamental oneness of
humanity. Greg Kagira-Watson (2003)
63
  • The well-being of mankind, its peace and
    security, are unattainable unless and until its
    unity is firmly established.
  • (Bahaullah 1863)

64
Inter-faith unity a global challenge
The unity of nations will never succeed without
a reconciliation among the worlds great
religions. This is the next global
challenge. Man-made ideologies have perverted the
teachings of religion and divided humanity.
Until humanity sees the essential unity of
religion there will be no peace in the world.
Dr. Robert Muller (1999) former Undersecretary
General of the United Nations, Chancellor of the
United Nations University for Peace.
65

Ting (caldron) / Holding
Here we see civilization as it reaches its
culmination in religion. The ting serves in
offering sacrifice to God
  • ?????? ? ??? ????
  • ???,?
  • The highest earthly values must be sacrificed to
    the divine.
  • But the truly divine does not manifest itself
    apart from man.
  • The supreme revelation of God appears in
    prophets. . .
  • To venerate them is true veneration of God.
  • Taken from the Chinese Book of Changes (
    I-Ching ).

??
66

Ting (caldron) / Holding
Here we see civilization as it reaches its
culmination in religion. The ting serves in
offering sacrifice to God
  • ???,??? ????,???? ???????,?????? ??
    ??????,?????,??????,???????????,?????????
  • The highest earthly values must be sacrificed to
    the divine.
  • But the truly divine does not manifest itself
    apart from man.
  • The supreme revelation of God appears in
    prophets. . .
  • To venerate them is true veneration of God.
  • Taken from the Chinese Book of Changes (
    I-Ching ).

??
67

Ting (caldron) / Holding
The supreme revelation of God appears in
prophets. . . To venerate them is true
veneration of God.
?????? ? ??? ???? ???,? ???,?? ????,???
??????? ?????? ?? ??????,?????,??????,???? ?????
?,???????? ?????,???,?????,?? ?????,????
???,???? ?????,????,????,? ?????,?????
????,?????
68
The supreme revelation of God appears in
prophets... I-Ching
The Creative Principle
?
?
Prophet reflects Heavenly qualities
The Prophets are the Mediators between The
Creator and Mankind
The World of Humanity ?
To venerate Prophets is true veneration of
God. ( I-Ching The Ting  ?)
69
Ancient Wisdom of the Tao Te Ching
There is a thing, formless yet complete. Before
heaven and earth it existed. Without sound,
without substance, it stands alone and
unchanging. It is all-pervading and unfailing.
One may think of it as the mother of all beneath
Heaven. We do not know its name, but we call it
Tao.
70
Lao Tzu depicted with halo
Circa 530 B.C.
Lao Tzu is like a flying Dragon,
un-trappable.-Confucius
71
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72
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73
Lao Tzu has Yin Xi appear to the Barbarian as the
Buddha.
74
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75


76

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77
. . .the biggest educational task of all
  • . . .the world community we must develop will
    never come into being or operate successfully
    unless
  • the bulk of the people feel themselves to be
    members of a world community
  • that is, unless they develop a sense of world
    citizenship.
  • This is clearly the biggest educational task of
    all,
  •   for millenniums of history have conditioned men
    to think in terms of smaller and more exclusive
    units,
  •    while suspicion and hostility toward other
    groups lie deep in their patterns of
    thought.

78
. . .the biggest educational task of all
  • . . .the world community we must develop will
    never come into being or operate successfully
    unless
  • the bulk of the people feel themselves to be
    members of a world community
  • that is, unless they develop a sense of world
    citizenship.
  • This is clearly the biggest educational task of
    all..
  •   for millenniums of history have conditioned men
    to think in terms of smaller and more exclusive
    units,
  •    while suspicion and hostility toward other
    groups lie deep in their patterns of
    thought.

ltgtltgtltgtltgtltgt Edwin O. Reischauer, Harvard
Professor and former U.S. Ambassador to
Japan in his book (1973) Toward the 21st
Century Education for a Changing World
79
Recognition or Perception of the Oneness of
Humanity is the Principle underlying World
Citizenship
  • the concept of world citizenship should be
    taught in every school and that the oneness of
    humanity the principle underlying world
    citizenship be constantly asserted in every
    nation
  • (World Citizenship
  • A Global Ethic for Sustainable Development
  • BIC 1993).

80
World Citizenship
  •    "... a reorientation of education so as to
    give young people everywhere a sense of the
    shared interests and basic oneness of mankind
  • and to prepare them for effective participation
    as members of a world community is, I believe, a
    clear necessity for human survival in the twenty
    first century.
  • Edwin O. Reischauer, Harvard Professor and
  • former U.S. Ambassador to Japan
  • in his book (1973) Toward the 21st Century
  • Education for a Changing World

81
Survival depends on Education moving more
rapidly and in the right direction.
  • ...Before long, humanity will face many grave
    difficulties that can only be solved on a global
    scale.
  •   For this there must be a much higher degree of
    understanding and a far greater capacity for
    cooperation between disparate peoples and nations
    than exist now. 
  • Education, however, as it is presently conducted
    in this countryand in every country in the
    world. . .
  • is not moving rapidly enough in the right
    direction to produce the knowledge about the
    outside world and the attitudes toward other
    peoples
  • that may be essential for human survival within a
    generation or two. Edwin O. Reischauer (1973)

82
Recognition of oneness of humanity
  • The Purpose of the
  • Perception of Oneness
  • is
  • JUSTICE
  • State of Consciousness
  • That no one should exalt himself above another
    person.
  • Fairness, equality, justice.

83
Crisis of Segregation in U.S. America at the
Crossroads
As the most highly diverse nation in the world,
is faced with two paths over the next 40 years
If we break the illusion of misperception
If inequities dont change
( Harvard Civil Rights Project 2003 report )
  • Society could become thoroughly
  • Balkanized or ghettoized (segregated)

Society could demonstrate that unity in
diversity is truly possible.
More possibilities of conflict and violence, or
helping lead the world to Peace.
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