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Enhancing Information Awareness Through Speech Induced Anthropomorphism

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Enhancing Information Awareness Through Speech Induced Anthropomorphism PhD Examination Nuno Jorge Gon alves de Magalh es Ribeiro External examiner: Professor ... – PowerPoint PPT presentation

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Title: Enhancing Information Awareness Through Speech Induced Anthropomorphism


1
Enhancing Information Awareness Through Speech
Induced Anthropomorphism
  • PhD Examination
  • Nuno Jorge Gonçalves de Magalhães Ribeiro
  • External examiner Professor Philip Barker
  • Internal examiner Dr. Alistair Edwards
  • Department of Computer Science
  • University of York
  • 06 February 2002

2
Structure of the Examination (follow
presentation, 4 blocks, discussion at the end of
each block)
3
Motivation
  • Problems with current interfaces
  • for information awareness
  • (lack of humanized interaction)
  • Finding visually hidden information is
    distracting (e.g. information hidden behind
    opened windows, dynamic information)
  • Lack of semantics in alerting cues (e.g. blinking
    icons, sounds), or visually intrusive displays
    (e.g. windows that obscure info. being accessed)
  • Lack of awareness and co-ordination between
    high-priority and unimportant alerts to be
    reported (e.g. junk e-mail, status info.)
  • Lack of a unified interruption mechanism for
    notifications (imminent and just occurred events)
    and reminders (past, but relevant, events)

4
How to Humanize Information Awareness?
  • One way is to exploit speech to deliver alerting
    messages (notifications and reminders)
  • BUT
  • (because listening to speech cues anthropomorphic
    feelings)
  • The reception of speech demands that the
    interface reflects human social norms
  • at the delivery level
  • design should humanize the delivery of
    speech-based messages
  • at the content level
  • design should humanize the contents of
    speech-based messages
  • 3 questions Why speech? How to humanize the
    delivery? How to humanize the content?

5
Why Speech?
  • There is an urgent need to find out the
    situations in which
  • speech enhances the user interface and the
    situations in
  • which it is detrimental to the user interface
  • This thesis suggests that speech can be used with
    advantages to
  • enable less disruptive interruptions
  • convey more meaningful notifications
  • design of an integrated notification mechanism

6
How to Humanize Message Delivery? (in order to
reinforce social acceptability of the speech
interface)
  • This thesis suggests that there are 3 fundamental
    design aspects
  • Attentive interruptions (minimise user
    disruption)
  • When to interrupt precedence lt prioritiy and
    urgency,
  • How to interrupt get attention, modulate the
    audio channel when it is already being used
  • Linguistic variation (avoid irritating repetitive
    utterances while maintaining the semantics)
  • Sources lexical, syntactical, phonetic
  • Politeness (attenuate irritating effect of
    interruptions)
  • Simple courtesy (e.g. Excuse me, Im sorry)
  • Design based on politeness strategies (e.g.
    direct, positive, negative)

7
How to Humanize Message Contents? (in order to
enhance the awareness of information that is
hidden from view)
  • This thesis suggests that there are 2 fundamental
    design aspects
  • Short alerting messages just relevant content
    (because speech is a serial channel)
  • Context-based cues extracted from items
    (because context plays a major role in recalling
    information)
  • Forward Cues Kind, Time, Quantity, People,
    Nature, Description, Place

8
End of block 1
  • Questions
  • Discussion

9
Humanized Experimental Environment In presenting
the design, the thesis illustrates
  • How to split a complex environment into a number
    of separate software agents that perform specific
    monitoring tasks.
  • How to develop a software architecture that is
    based on a collection of specialised software
    agents.
  • How to design the internal architecture of each
    software agent, in such a way that it collects
    and conveys context information.
  • How to communicate collected information between
    the software agents comprising the environment.
  • How to transform collected information into
    appropriate spoken messages to be delivered to
    the user.
  • How to deliver the spoken information following
    typical social norms.

10
Experimental Environment Architecture
11
Steps in the Humanization Process
  1. Deciding when to interrupt (hum.
    delivery) (specialised agents I.L. lt urgency,
    priority, user presence)
  2. Extracting context cues (hum. content) (specialis
    ed agents forward cues)
  3. Including linguistic variation (hum. content and
    delivery) (speaking agent templates for lexical
    and syntactical variations prosody markers for
    phonetic variation)
  4. Including politeness (hum. delivery)
    (speaking agent attention-grabbers, templates
    for linguistic style)
  5. Deciding how to interrupt (hum.
    delivery) (speaking agent attention-grabbing,
    audio channel modulation)

12
Experimental Environment Prototype
  • Windows environment (familiar, limitations)
  • Implements specialised agents
  • Environmental awareness, context extraction,
    message composition
  • E-mail (MAPI), Diary (TXT), Printer (Default
    printer queue)
  • Implements communication protocol
  • Comprises purposefully designed message types and
    contents
  • Relies on transport mechanism based on Dynamic
    Data Exchange (DDE)
  • Implements speaking agent
  • MS Agent client
  • Creates spoken reminders and notifications
    including linguistic variation and politeness
  • Interrupts by grabbing the user attention, fading
    audio channel
  • Uses TTS synthesiser and Speech Recognition engine

13
End of block 2
  • Questions
  • Discussion

14
Empirical Study Objectives (1/3)
  • Assess users perceptions of the adequacy of
    anthropomorphic behaviours

15
Empirical Study Objectives (2/3)
  • Assess users perceptions of the usefulness and
    humanization of the system
  • Useful helpful, convenient, comfortable.
  • Humanized pleasant, unobtrusive, satisfying,
    reliable, efficient, likeable.

16
Empirical Study Objectives (3/3)
  • Assess differences in those users perceptions
    according to psychological (MBTI) and other
    personal characteristics
  • Heuristic (N, F) versus Analytic (S, T)
    psychological types
  • Intuition (N) / Sensing (S) dimension gt
    preferences for info. Acquisition (awareness -
    first step in the acquisition of info.)
  • Feeling (F) / Thinking (T) dimension gt
    preferences for info. processing
  • Gender, O.S. proficiency, familiarity with TTS

17
Empirical Study Evaluation Method
  • Quasi-experimental model
  • Extensive laboratory test that simulated closely
    a real world situation.
  • 14 specific research questions
  • IV subject variables DV subjective users
    opinions and perceptions
  • Participants
  • 15 participants selected from the population of
    the C.S. Department
  • Measurement of variables
  • Attitude measurement through the use of
    questionnaires
  • 5-point scales 1Strongly Disagree, 3Neither
    disagree nor agree, 5Strongly agree
  • 7-point scales 1Not at all, 4 Undecided, 7
    Very much so
  • 7-point semantic differential scales e.g. 1
    unpleasant, 7 pleasant

18
Empirical Study Experimental Design and Procedure
19
Empirical Study Summary of Results (1/2)
  • Speech is useful to convey information that is
    hidden from view (but content must be humanized
    through context cues)
  • The prototype was perceived as supporting the
    awareness of visually hidden information.
  • It was considered particularly useful by
    heuristic information gatherers speech-based
    alerts allowed participants to appreciate the
    immediate relevance of an informational event,
    that is the relationship and connection between
    the alerting information and their personal
    interests and activities.
  • Information awareness is an arena where using
    speech is a valid and beneficial approach
  • Participants indicated that speech-based
    interruptions were not overly disruptive and
    allowed them to decide when to deal with
    information.

20
Empirical Study Summary of Results (2/2)
  • The anthropomorphic behaviours were considered to
    be important and adequate to reinforce the social
    acceptability of the speech-based system
  • Attentive interurptions, linguistic variation and
    politeness combine to avoid socially incorrect
    behaviours, such as respectively unnecessary
    interruptions, irritating repetitions and
    rudeness.
  • Urgency and priority-based interruptions were
    perceived as relevant.
  • Attention-grabbing and audio modulation were
    perceived as natural (or expected) behaviours.
  • When messages were varied they did not irritate
    participants. They were found so natural that
    some people did not even notice the variation.
  • Polite behaviour is appropriate to avoid
    rudeness when getting a persons attention, but
    it invokes the perception of a personality and
    thus must be used in a way so that it suggests a
    consistent personality.

21
End of block 3
  • Questions
  • Discussion

22
Summary of the Research Achievements
  • How to reinforce the social acceptability of a
    speaking system
  • Humanize interruptions, vary language, use
    politeness
  • How to enhance information awareness
  • Support speech-based alerts including contextual
    cues
  • Experimental environment design and prototype
  • Agent-based approach, protocol, delivery of
    spoken alerts
  • Empirical study
  • Validated the anthropomorphic speech-based
    approach for info. awareness
  • Practical guidelines for the design of
    speech-based systems for information awareness.

23
Contributions (1/4)
  • The thesis contributes to understand the
    importance of, and how to exploit, speech to
    enhance the awareness of personal information
    that is hidden from view in a desktop-based
    environment
  • How to humanize the delivery of speech-based
    alerts
  • How to humanize the contents of speech-based
    alerts

24
Contributions (2/4)
  • The thesis contributes with a unique experimental
    environment that integrates three different
    anthropomorphic characteristics for the delivery
  • Attentive interruptions, linguistic variation,
    politeness
  • They reinforce the social acceptability of the
    system - it was unexpectedly well accepted by
    users.

25
Contributions (3/4)
  • The thesis contributes to the research community
    in that it provides an extensible agent-based
    architecture for an experimental environment
  • Can be extended with additional specialised
    agents
  • Can accommodate the incorporation of additional
    anthropomorphic behaviours (e.g. gender,
    personality, emotion)
  • Can be used to support controlled experiments
    with larger and more heterogeneous user groups

26
Contributions (4/4)
  • The thesis contributes to expand current
    knowledge about how to evaluate users
    perceptions of anthropomorphic systems that
    employ speech, and suggests a range of
    appropriate subjective measures
  • It measured the adequacy of speech-induced
    anthropomorphic behaviours through specific
    questionnaires
  • It measured the perceptions of usefulness and
    humanization through careful designed
    questionnaires
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