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TAJUK 5: Perkembangan Kognitif


Title: Perkembangan Kognitif Author: Mariani Last modified by: Reenee Husin Created Date: 8/2/2004 1:13:17 AM Document presentation format: On-screen Show (4:3) – PowerPoint PPT presentation

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Title: TAJUK 5: Perkembangan Kognitif

TAJUK 5 Perkembangan Kognitif
Cognitive Development
Cognitive Development.
  • Refers to
  • Internal process and the product of the mind ?
    leading to knowledge development
  • Covers a wide aspects of mental activities
  • Memorizing
  • Categorizing simbolizing
  • Problem solving creativity
  • Inventions
  • Dreaming fantasizing
  • Reading Writing
  • Language acquisition etc

Cognitive Development involves
  • Changes in thinking (logic)
  • Language acquisition
  • The process of how human receive, store and
    remember information (knowledge) from their

Intellectual Development
  • How human relate the knowledge they receive
    and applied it to their everyday lives.
  • How the information from the environment
  • Receive
  • Stored
  • Re-use
  • Stressed on individual
  • Level of understanding use of knowledge

  • Thus, every changes, including those learned is
  • Recorded by the brain
  • Processed? which involves mental activities
  • The thinking reasoning process of children
    differs from adolescent and adults.
  • As age increases, the ability to think and
    reasons became complex (better)

Improvements in Information Processing During
Attention Efficiency, ability to shift focus improve. Less attraction to novelty, better sustained attention after first year.
Memory Retention intervals lengthen. Recall appears by 1 year excellent in second year.
Categorization Impressive perceptual categorization in first year. Conceptual categorization in second year
Store Model of Information Processing System
Piaget Cognitive theory
  • Focus on the
  • Function and the reaction of the mind ? to the
  • According to Piaget
  • Human being can think and are rational
  • The thinking ability of a child is strong
    and inquisitive
  • Always interact with their environment ?
    consistent to their understanding and
    cognitive ability.
  • Piaget argued that children have schemas.

Piagets Cognitive Development Theory
  • SCHEMA is a/an
  • cognitive structure ? built to assist
    individual to understand their past experiences.
  • Organized ways of making sense of experience
  • Childs schemas change with age ? involved the
    modification of intellectual schemas as the child
    seeks to understand its world
  • Action-based (motor patterns) at first
  • Later move to a mental (thinking) level
  • Thus, Schemas are
  • organized patterns of thought or behavior ?
    assist in making sense of experience

How Cognitive Changes Takes Place?
  • Through the process of Adaptation Organization.
  • A Child cognitive ability rely a lot on
  • How a child response to an event that
    occurs in their environment.
  • The effect of these event on their
  • Schemas developed by children must be able to
    handle new information and situations
  • Schema can be built based on adaptation
  • Adaptation is the process of building schemes
    through direct interaction with the

  • According to Piaget, adaptation can be further
    divided into two intellectual processes
  • Assimilation Involves interpreting new
    information in light of an old (existing) schema
  • All 4-legged animals are viewed as a dog
  • Accommodation Process by which old schemas are
    created or modified to fit new situations
  • A horse is not a dog

  • Organization is an internal process of
    arranging and linking together schemas to
    form an interconnected cognitive system.
  • Schemas reach a true state of equilibrium
    when they become part of a broad network
    of structures that can be jointly applied to
    the surrounding world.

Piagets Theory on The Level of Cognitive
  • Stages of Cognitive development
  • Sensory Motor (0-2 yrs old)
  • Pre operational (2-7 yrs old)
  • Concrete Operation (7-11 yrs old)
  • Formal Operation (12 and above)

Stage 1 Sensorimotor
Sensorimotor Stage
  • Birth to 2 years
  • Building schemes through sensory and motor
  • Circular reactions

Stage 1 Sensorimotor (0-2 yrs)
  • Piaget based this stage on his observation
    of his children.
  • Emphasize on Circular Reaction (CR)
  • CR the means by which infants explore the
    environment and build schemas by trying to
    repeat chance events caused by their own motor
  • Reactions are first centered on infants own
    body ? later change to manipulating objects ?
    then to produce effects in the environment.
  • 8-12 mths ? Concept of Object permanence develop
  • Object permanence, the realization that an
    object/person continues to exist when out of

Sensorimotor Substages
Reflexive Schemes Birth 1 month Newborn reflexes
Primary Circular Reactions 1 4 months Simple motor habits centered around own body
Secondary Circular Reactions 4 8 months Repeat interesting effects in soundings
Coordination of Secondary Circular Reactions 8 12 months Intentional, goal-directed behavior object permanence
Tertiary Circular Reactions 12 18 months Explore properties of objects through novel actions
Mental Representations 12 months 2 years Internal depictions of objects or events deferred imitation
Object Permanence
  • Understanding that objects continue to exist when
    out of sight
  • According to Piaget, develops in Substage 4.
  • Incomplete at first

Mental Representations
  • Internal, mental depictions of objects, people,
    events, information
  • Can manipulate with mind
  • Allow deferred imitation (ability to remember and
    copy the behavior of models who are not
    immediately present) and make-believe play

Deferred Imitation
  • Piaget Develops about 18 months
  • Newer research
  • Present at 6 weeks facial imitation
  • 6 9 months copy actions with objects
  • 12 14 months imitate rationally
  • 18 months imitate intended,
  • but not completed, actions

Into Preoperational Stage..
  • As child enters preoperational stage, the
    earlier abilities/skill continue to develop
    become better, such as abilities in
  • object permanence
  • Mental representations
  • Deferred Imitation

Stage 2 The Preoperational Child
Stage 2 The Preoperational Child (2-7 yrs old)
  • Cognitive Advances
  • Ages 2 to 7 yrs is a time of great expansion in
    the use of symbolic thought, or
    representational ability, which first emerges at
    the end of the sensorimotor stage
  • The use of symbols is a universal mark of human
    culture. Without symbols, people could not
    communicate verbally, make change, read maps, or
    treasure photos of distant loved ones. Yet an
    understanding of symbolism comes only gradually
    usually after age 3.
  • Growing understanding of space, causality,
    identities, categorization, and number

Piagets Preoperational Stage
  • Gains in Mental Representation
  • Make-believe Play
  • Dual Representation
  • Limitations in Thought Cannot Perform Mental
  • Egocentrism and Animistic Thinking
  • Conservation
  • Hierarchical Classification

Development of Make-Believe Play ..
  • With age, make-believe gradually becomes
  • More detached from real-life conditions
  • Less self-centered
  • More complex
  • Sociodramatic Play

Dual Representation
  • Viewing a symbolic object as both an object and a
  • Mastered around age 3
  • Adult teaching can help
  • Provide lots of maps, photos, drawings,
  • make-believe playthings, etc.
  • Point out similarities to real world

Animistic Thinking
  • Belief that inanimate objects have lifelike

Immature Aspects Of Preoperational Thoughts..
  • Cannot reason logically as to cause and effect
  • Attribute life to inanimate objects animism
  • Failure to understand conservation two things
    remain equal if their appearance changes but
    nothing is added or taken away
  • Egocentrism Center so much on their own point
    of view that they cannot take in another's
  • Conservation Understanding that the basic
    properties of an object are constant even if the
    object changes shape

  • Egocentrism refers to a cognitive view in which a
    child understands the world to have only their
    view (has great difficulty in understanding the
    views of others)
  • E.g Piagets three-mountain task. A
    preoperational child is unable to describe the
    mountains from the dolls point of view - an
    indication of egocentrism

Limits on Conservation
  • Centration Focus on one aspect and neglect others
  • Irreversibility Cannot mentally reverse a set of

Stage 3 The Concrete Operational Child (7-12
yrs old)
Achievements of a Concrete Operational Stage Child
  • Conservation
  • Decentration
  • Reversibility
  • Classification/ categorization
  • Seriation
  • Transitive inference
  • Spatial Reasoning
  • Directions
  • Maps

Steps in Planning
  • Postponing action to weigh alternatives
  • Organizing task materials
  • Remembering steps of plan
  • Monitoring how well plan works
  • Revising if necessary

Development in Memorizing Strategies
  • Chunking - Breaking the information into
    manageable chunk.
  • Rehearsal - Simple repetition
  • Elaboration ? when info to be remembered is
    linked to other information
  • Imagery - Conjured image of an object/related
  • Mnemonics - Memory strategy to help remember
  • Eg. A rhyme or pairing of to-be-learned
    information with well learned information.
  • Schema activation - Strategy to use with
    encoding complex info. ? relates new
    information to prior knowledge.
  • Level of processing -Material that is only
    skimmed will not be as deeply processed as
    material that is studied in detail.

Stage 4 The Formal Operational
Child/Adolescent (12 above)
Cognitive development
  • Rapid Mental activities
  • Cognitive development - better
  • Organisation and thinking process
  • Reasoning abilities

Formal Operation
  • Aspects Of Cognitive Maturation
  • Develop the capacity for abstract thought? a new,
    more flexible way to manipulate information
  • Can use symbols more extensively
  • Can understand metaphor and allegory
  • Can imagine possibilities and can form and test
    hypotheses (hypothetical-deductive reasoning)
  • Gradual accumulation of knowledge and expertise
    in specific fields
  • Higher gain of information-processing capacity
  • Growth in metacognition? awareness and monitoring
    of one's own mental processes and strategies.

Changes in the adolescent stage
  • Language ability
  • Ability in making decision
  • Memory and reasoning capacity


IQ Tests
IQ Tests
  • Group Tests
  • Allow testing of large groups
  • Require little training to administer
  • Useful for instructional planning
  • Identify students who need individual testing
  • Individually-Administered Tests
  • Examiners need training experience
  • Provide insights about accuracy of score
  • Identify highly intelligent and children with
    learning problems

Types (examples) of IQ test
  • Bayley Scales of Infant Development (0-2 ½
  • Mental, motor, social scale
  • Standford-Binet Intelligence Scale (2- adult)
  • General, verbal, quantitative, abstract/visual,
    short term memory scale
  • Weschler Intelligence Scale for children (WISC
  • 3-8 yrs (Weschler Preschool Primary Scale of
    Intelligence - WPPSI-R)
  • 6-16 yrs (WISC)
  • Verbal performance scale
  • Kaufman Battery of Assessment
  • Information processing

Calculating IQ
  • Formula
  • MA/CA x 100 IQ
  • Ma mental age
  • CA Chronological age
  • Example
  • Hasif is 10 yrs old and got a metal age
    of 12 years old. Thus Hasif have an IQ
    of 120, ie.
  • 12/10 x 100 120
  • According to IQ score chart,
  • Score above100 cerdik pintar
  • Score between 100 -69 kurang kemampuan
  • score of 70 below kurang upaya mental

Explaining Differences in IQ
  • Genetics
  • Accounts for about half of differences
  • Environment
  • SES
  • Culture
  • Communication styles
  • Cultural bias in test content

Gardners Multiple Intelligences
  • Linguistic
  • Logico-mathematical
  • Musical
  • Spatial
  • Bodily-kinesthetic
  • Naturalist
  • Interpersonal
  • Intrapersonal

The Child in School.
  • Children with Learning Problems
  • Mental retardation significantly subnormal
    cognitive functioning
  • Dyslexiadevelopmental reading disorder in which
    reading achievement is substantially below the
    level predicted by IQ or age.
  • Learning disabilities disorders that interfere
    with school achievement?performance substantially
    lower than expected.
  • Attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD)
    with or without hyperactivity
  • ADHD has a substantial genetic basis, with
    heritability approaching 80 percent
  • ADHD is generally treated with drugs, sometimes
    combined with behavioral therapy, counseling,
    training in social skills, and special classroom

Gifted and Talented Children
  • Gifted
  • Exceptional intellectual strength
  • The traditional criterion of giftedness is high
    general intelligence, as shown by an
  • Usually measured by high IQ (score of 130 or
  • Talented
  • Outstanding performance in a specific field
  • Measured by divergent thinking and creativity

  • Gifted Children
  • these children were taller, healthier, better
    coordinated, better adjusted, and more popular
    than the average child
  • Their cognitive, scholastic, and vocational
    superiority has held up for nearly eighty years
  • Creativity ability to see things in a new light
  • divergent thinking
  • enrichment or acceleration classes for both
    gifted and creative children

Milestone in children cognitive
development (2-12 yrs old)
  • By 2 years old
  • like to take things apart
  • explore surroundings
  • point to 5-6 parts of a doll when asked
  • Language
  • have a vocabulary of several hundred words
  • use 2-3 word sentences
  • say names of toys
  • ask for information about an object (asks,
    "Shoe?" while pointing to shoe box)
  • hum or try to sing
  • listen to short rhymes
  • like to imitate parents

  • By 3 years
  • recognize sounds in the environment
  • pay attention for about 3 minutes
  • remember what happened yesterday
  • know what is food and what is not food
  • know some numbers (but not always in the right
  • know where things usually belong
  • understand what is "1, "now," "soon," and
  • substitute one object for another in pretend play
    (as in pretending a block is a "car")
  • laugh at silly ideas (like "milking" a dog)
  • look through a book alone
  • match circles squares match object to a
    picture of that object or match objects that have
    same function (as in putting a cup and plate
  • count 2 to 3 objects
  • avoid some dangers, like a hot stove or a moving
  • follow simple one-step commands

  • By 3 years
  • Language
  • use 3-5 word sentences
  • ask short questions
  • use plurals ("dogs," "cars," "hats")
  • name at least 10 familiar objects
  • repeat simple rhymes
  • name at least one color correctly

  • By 4 years old
  • recognize red, yellow, and blue
  • understand taking turns and can do so without
    always being reminded
  • understand "big," "little," "tall," "short
  • want to know what will happen next
  • sort by shape or color
  • count up to 5 objects
  • follow three instructions given at one time ("Put
    the toys away, wash your hands, and come eat.")
  • distinguish between the real world and the
    imaginary or pretend world
  • identify situations that would lead to happiness,
    sadness, or anger

By 5 years old
  • Can count 10 or more objects
  • Correctly names at least four colors
  • Better understands the concept of time
  • Knows about things used every day in the home
    (money, food, appliances)

Mental Development 6-12 years old
  • Children can begin to think about their own
    behavior and see consequences for actions.
  • In the early stages of concrete thinking, they
    can group things that belong together (for
    instance babies, fathers, mothers, aunts are all
    family members). As children near adolescence,
    they master sequencing and ordering, which are
    needed for math skills.
  • Children begin to read and write early in middle
    childhood and should be skillful in reading and
    writing by the end of this stage.
  • They can think through their actions and trace
    back events that happened to explain situations,
    such as why they were late to school.

  • Children learn best if they are active while they
    are learning. For example, children will learn
    more effectively about traffic safety by moving
    cars, blocks, and toy figures rather than sitting
    and listening to an adult explain the rules.
  • Six- to 8-year-olds can rarely sit for longer
    than 15-20 minutes for an activity. Attention
    span gets longer with age.
  • Toward the beginning of middle childhood,
    children may begin projects but finish few. Allow
    them to explore new materials. Nearing
    adolescence, children will focus more on
  • Teachers set the conditions for social
    interactions to occur in schools. Understand that
    children need to experience various friendships
    while building esteem.

  • Children can talk through problems to solve them.
    This requires more adult time and more sustained
    attention by children.
  • Children can focus attention and take time to
    search for needed information.
  • They can develop a plan to meet a goal.
  • There is greater memory capability because many
    routines (brushing teeth, tying shoes, bathing,
    etc.) are automatic now.
  • Child begins to build a self-image as a "worker."
    If encouraged, this is positive in later
    development of career choices.
  • Many children want to find a way to earn money.
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