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The Development of the Global Drought Monitor Portal and Summary of the April 2010 Global Drought Assessment Workshop


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Title: The Development of the Global Drought Monitor Portal and Summary of the April 2010 Global Drought Assessment Workshop

The Development of the Global Drought Monitor
Portal and Summary of the April 2010 Global
Drought Assessment Workshop
  • Richard R. Heim Jr., Michael J. Brewer
  • NOAA/NESDIS/National Climatic Data Center
  • Asheville, North Carolina, USA
  • Will Pozzi
  • Group on Earth Observations (GEO) Architectural
    Implementation Pilot (AIP) Drought Working Group
  • NASA Global Drought Monitoring Workshop
  • Silver Spring, MD 11-12 April 2011

  • Background
  • North American Drought Monitor (NADM)
  • Need for a Global Drought Early Warning System
  • Summary of the April 2010 Asheville, NC, USA
    Global Drought Assessment Workshop
  • NIDIS U.S. National Integrated Drought
    Information System
  • Global Drought Monitor Web Portal (GDMP)
  • Design and functionality -- GDMP as a conceptual
    floor or foundation for a GDEWS building
  • Global drought indicators
  • Integration of continental/regional Drought
    Monitors with capability to drill down to
    sub-regional, national, and local drought

Background North American Drought Monitor
  • Agreement in principle between U.S., Canada,
    Mexico to establish climate extremes monitoring
    partnership, beginning with continental drought
  • Lead author coordinates prepares monthly
    continental map narrative
  • The national depictions (US, CN, MX) are prepared
    independently by experts within each country

  • Drought indices covering entire continent are
    needed Continental Drought Indicators
  • Same indices, same analysis period, same
  • SPI, Palmer Drought Indices, Percent of Long-term
    Average Precip
  • Standardizing period is 1951-2001
  • This consistency needed for depiction across
    international boundaries

NADM Continental Drought Indicators
  • Other indicators from other sources are also used
  • NOAA/NESDIS Satellite Vegetation Health Index
  • NOAA/CPC Leaky Bucket Soil Moisture Percentiles

National Integrated Drought Information System
(NIDIS) Goals Objectives
  • The NIDIS Act Public Law (109-430, December 2006)
  • better informed and more timely drought-related
    decisions leading to reduced impacts and costs

Goal Enable the Nation to move from a reactive
to a more proactive approach to managing drought
risks and impacts (PL109-430)
The NIDIS U.S. Drought Portal (
  • Service-oriented architecture
  • GIS interface for spatial overlays
  • Data metadata services
  • OGC-Compliant Web mapping services

Key Clearinghouse Functions Credible,
Accessible, Timely Information Where are drought
conditions now? Does this event look like other
events? How is the drought affecting me? Will the
drought continue? Where can I go for help?
Portlets (DIR shown). Another example NWS
River Forecast Center Ohio River Water
Resources Outlook- Ecosystem recovery
NADM Web Services
  • NADM web site transitioning to interactive web
    site with OGC web services (within NIDIS Drought
    Portal environment)
  • NADM indicators overlay and analysis with NADM
    map boundaries using various visualization tools

NADM shapefiles
Location of Indicator Stations
Station Indicator Data
  • NADM indicator station, divisional, and gridded
    (from LBPD) data in relational data base for
    efficient access analysis interoperability
    between various projects applications

NADM Web Services
  • The growing problem of drought and its impact on
    long-term sustainability of Earths water
    resources has been recognized for many years. At
    a 2007 GEO Ministerial Summit, the event
    concluded with a U.S. proposal that technical
    representatives from participating countries
    build upon existing programs to work toward
    establishing a Global Drought Early Warning
    System (GDEWS) within the coming decade to
  • A system of systems for data information
    sharing, communication, capacity building to
    take on the growing worldwide threat of drought
  • Regular drought warning assessments issued as
    frequently as possible with increased frequency
    during a crisis

  • Drought monitoring, assessment, response,
    mitigation, adaptation, and early warning systems
    have been created in a number of countries around
    the world, and some regional and continental
    efforts have been successful
  • but a GDEWS remains elusive.
  • Faces hurdles that include technical, data,
    observation network, communications,
    administrative, and political issues across
    international borders.
  • How to solve these problems?
  • Build a foundation first an international
    Clearinghouse for drought information upon which
    the GDEWS could be constructed.

Global Drought Assessment Workshop 21-22 April
2010, Asheville, NC, USA
  • Gathering of international drought experts from
    across the world
  • Addressed two subjects
  • Develop Recommendations to the WMO of specific
    characteristics of the Standardized Precipitation
    Index (SPI) (e.g., standardizing base period,
    time scales, probability distribution functions)
    that should be adopted by the National
    Meteorological and Hydrological Services around
    the world, as well as where this information
    should be integrated and hosted
  • Develop Recommendations for the creation of a
    Clearinghouse for international drought
    information and services

Global Drought Assessment Workshop SPI
  • Two options
  • Compare SPI across space (e.g., within and
    between countries)
  • Best description of drought at a given location
  • Probability Distribution Function (pdf)
  • Across spaceIncomplete gamma distribution
  • Best descriptionThe pdf that best describes the
    stations precipitation data
  • Standardizing Period
  • Across spaceAt least 30 years, preferably 50
    years common period (i.e., 1961-2010, or
    1981-2010 if data not available from all of
  • Best descriptionEntire period of record for
  • Time Scales
  • 1 month, 2 months, 3 months, 6 months for
    meteorological drought
  • Computed by each Member country
  • Appropriate time scale depends on season,
    location, climatology

Global Drought Assessment Workshop Clearinghouse
for International Drought Information and
Services Recommendations
  • Breakout groups discussed
  • What pieces should be part of an international
  • How should the Clearinghouse be housed,
    portrayed, and distributed
  • One suggestion was to use the NIDIS Drought
  • With a web-services-based Clearinghouse
    foundation (Global Drought Monitoring web
    portal), a GDEWS could be constructed atop it by
    integrating continental and regional Drought

A GDEWS Conceptual Framework An Integration of
Continental / Regional Drought Monitors
GDMP Global Drought Monitor Portal

Continental / Regional Drought Monitors
One Conceptual Framework Level 1 (NADM Model) Level 2 Level 3
Drought Experts In-house expertise for monitoring, forecasting, impacts, research, planning, education Limited in-house expertise Rely on external expertise
National Climate Observing Network Extensive data networks, near-real time daily observations Limited networks (spatial density and/or timeliness) Rely on national CLIMAT/ WWW reports and external observations (e.g., satellite obs global models)
National Drought Assessments National Drought Monitor already routinely produced timely (monthly or more frequently) National assessments produced to support regional/continental monitoring Rely on external expertise to produce national assessments
International Data Exchange Station data exchanged for creation of regional or continental standardized indicators Limited data exchanged internationally Only CLIMAT or WWW data exchanged internationally
International Collaboration National experts collaborate to create regional or continental Drought Monitor Some national input to regional or continental Drought Monitor Rely on external experts to produce national assessment for regional/ continental Monitor
IT Infrastructure ArcGIS, web, email Limited ArcGIS, web, and/or email access No IT infrastructure, rely on alternatives
Global Drought Monitor Portal (GDMP) http//www.dr
  • Provide a web-services-based environment for
  • Integration of Regional or Continental Drought
  • Computation and display of spatially consistent
    drought indicators on a global scale in situ
    (station) SPI, satellite-based indices, modeled
    soil moisture
  • Support for Drought Mitigation, Preparedness,
  • Drought Education, Research, Forecasting Tools

Global Drought Monitor Portal http//www.drought.g
North American Drought Monitor European Drought
Observatory Princeton University African Drought
Participating Continents
Current Global Drought Conditions University
College London
Global Drought Monitor Portal Drill-down
capabilities to access national to local products
Global Drought Monitor Portal How the IT Functions
  • The GDMP is made interoperable with the GEO
    Global Earth Observation System of Systems
  • by utilizing Open Geospatial Consortium (OGC) Web
    Mapping Services (WMS) and other web services
  • to exchange drought maps (and other information)
    among existing continental and regional drought
    monitoring efforts .

In summary, the GDMP is a new tool that
  • provides global drought indicator information,
  • provides an infrastructure which can be populated
    with drought information originating from nations
    across the world, and
  • provides data and web services capabilities for
    display and analysis of climatic hydrologic
    data originating from participating nations thus
  • provides crucial support for drought monitoring
    and mitigation in semi-arid regions and other
    parts of the world, and
  • serves as a foundation for the creation of a

How Can NASA Contribute?
  • Provide satellite-based global drought indicators
  • Provide global modeled drought indicators (soil
    moisture, ET, etc.
  • Other?

Thank You! wi Global Drought Monitor Portal
ty/global_drought North America Drought Monitor
rought/nadm/index.html http//
Drought Portal http//
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