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Give Me Liberty!

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... social control Program of institution building Jails Poorhouses Asylums Orphanages Common schools Thomas Mann As embodiment of reform agenda Reception and ... – PowerPoint PPT presentation

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Title: Give Me Liberty!


1
Chapter 12
Norton Media Library
Give Me Liberty! An American History Second
Edition Volume 1
by Eric Foner
2
The reform impulse
  • A. Overall patterns
  • Voluntary associations
  • Wide-ranging targets and objectives
  • Activities and tactics
  • Breadth of appeal
  • Utopian communities
  • Overall patterns
  • Varieties of structures and purposes
  • Common visions
  • Cooperative organization of society
  • Social harmony
  • Narrowing of gap between rich and poor
  • Gender equality

3
Map 42
4
The reform impulse (contd)
  • Utopian communities
  • Spiritual communities
  • Shakers
  • Outlooks on gender and property
  • Outcome
  • Oneida
  • John Humphrey Noyes
  • Outlooks on gender and property
  • Outcome

5
The reform impulse (contd)
  • Utopian communities
  • Worldly communities
  • Brook Farm
  • Transcendentalist origins
  • Influence of Charles Fourier
  • Outlooks on labor and leisure
  • Outcome
  • New Harmony
  • Communitarianism of Robert Owen
  • Forerunner at New Lanark, Scotland
  • Outlooks on labor, education, gender, and
    community
  • Outcome

6
The reform impulse (contd)
  • Utopian communities
  • Worldly communities
  • Utopia and Modern Times
  • Anarchism of Josiah Warren
  • Outlooks on labor, exchange, and gender
  • Outcome
  • Limits of mainstream appeal

7
The reform impulse (contd)
  • Mainstream reform movements
  • Visions of liberation
  • From external servitudes (e.g. slavery, war)
  • From internal servitudes (e.g. drink,
    illiteracy, crime)
  • Influence of Second Great Awakening
  • Perfectionism
  • Appeal in burnt-over districts
  • Radicalization of reform causes
  • Badge of middle-class respectability

8
The reform impulse (contd)
  • Opposition to reform
  • Leading sources
  • Workers
  • Catholics
  • Immigrants
  • Points of controversy
  • Temperance crusade
  • Perfectionism
  • Imposition of middle-class Protestant morality

9
The reform impulse (contd)
  • Ambiguities of reform
  • Impulse for liberation, individual freedom
  • Impulse for moral order, social control
  • Program of institution building
  • Jails
  • Poorhouses
  • Asylums
  • Orphanages
  • Common schools
  • Thomas Mann
  • As embodiment of reform agenda
  • Reception and outcome

10
Crusade against slavery
  • American Colonization Society
  • Founding (1816)
  • Principles
  • Gradual abolition
  • Removal of freed blacks to Africa
  • Establishment of Liberia (Monrovia)
  • Skepticism over
  • Harriet Martineaus Society in America (1837)
    relieve their consciences w/o annoying
    neighbors
  • Following Clay, Marshall, Webster, Jackson, etc.
  • In North the only way to rid the nation of
    slavery
  • In South a way to extricate America of free
    blacks
  • Black response
  • Emigration to Liberia (thousands)
  • Opposition
  • First black national convention
  • Insistence on equal rights, as Americans

11
Crusade against slavery (contd)
  • Take-off of militant abolitionism
  • Distinctive themes
  • Demand for immediate abolition
  • Explosive denunciations of slavery
  • Religious - as a sin
  • Secular - as incompatible with American freedom
  • Rejection of colonization
  • Insistence on racial equality, rights for blacks
  • Active role of blacks in movement
  • Mobilization of public opinion
  • Moral suasion
  • Radical social critics
  • Most abolitionists were proponents of
    non-violence

12
Crusade against slavery (contd)
  • Take-off of militant abolitionism
  • Initiatives and methods
  • Founding of American Anti-Slavery Society (1833)
  • Printed propaganda aka American Revolution / 2nd
    Great Awakening
  • Oratory public meetings
  • Petitions

13
Crusade against slavery (contd)
  • Take-off of militant abolitionism
  • Pioneering figures and publications
  • David Walkers An Appeal to the Coloured Citizens
    of the World (1829)
  • William Lloyd Garrison
  • The Liberator (1831)
  • Thoughts on African Colonization
  • Theodore Welds Slavery As It Is
  • Lydia Maria Childs An Appeal In Favor of That
    Class of Americans Called Africans
  • Spread and growth
  • Strongholds of support

14
Crusade against slavery (contd)
  • Take-off of militant abolitionism
  • Visions of American freedom
  • Self-ownership as basis of freedom
  • Priority of personal liberty over rights to
    property or local self-government
  • Freedom as universal entitlement, regardless of
    race
  • Right to bodily integrity
  • Identification with revolutionary heritage

15
Crusade against slavery (contd)
  • Black and white abolitionism
  • Prominence of blacks in movement
  • As opponents of colonization
  • As readers and supporters of The Liberator
  • As members and officers of AAAS
  • As organizers and speakers
  • As writers Frederick Douglas
  • Racial strains within movement
  • Persistence of prejudice among white
    abolitionists
  • White dominance of leadership positions
  • Growing black quest for independent role

16
Crusade against slavery (contd)
  • Black and white abolitionism
  • Remarkable degree of egalitarianism among white
    abolitionists
  • Anti-discrimination efforts in North
  • Spirit of interracial solidarity
  • Black abolitionists distinctive stands on
    freedom and Americanness
  • Exceptional hostility to racism
  • Exceptional impatience with celebrations of
    American liberty Freedom celebrations
  • Exceptional commitment to color-blind citizenship
  • Exceptional insistence on economic dimension to
    freedom
  • Frederick Douglasss historic Fourth of July
    oration

17
Crusade against slavery (contd)
  • D. Slavery and civil liberties
  • Assault on abolitionism
  • Mob violence
  • Attack on Garrison in Boston (1835)
  • Attack on James G. Birney in Cincinnati (1836)
  • Fatal attack on Elijah P. Lovejoy in Alton,
    Illinois (1837)
  • Suppression
  • Removal of literature from mails
  • Gag rule on petitions to House of
    Representatives
  • Resulting spread of antislavery sentiment in
    North

18
Crusade against slavery (contd)
  • Split within AAAS
  • Points of conflict
  • Role of women in movement
  • Garrisonian radicalism
  • Relationship of abolitionism to American politics
  • Outcome
  • Formation of rival American and Foreign
    Anti-Slavery Society
  • Founding of Liberty party
  • Weak performance of Liberty party in 1840
    election
  • James G. Birney

19
Origins of feminism
  • Rise of the public woman
  • Importance of women at grassroots of abolitionism
  • Forms of involvement in public sphere
  • Petition drives
  • Meetings
  • Parades
  • Oratory
  • Range of reform movements involving women
  • Abolitionism as seedbed for feminist movement
  • New awareness of womens subordination
  • Path-breaking efforts of Angelina and Sarah
    Grimké
  • Impassioned antislavery addresses
  • Controversy over women lecturers
  • Sarah Grimkés Letters on the Equality of the
    Sexes

20
Origins of feminism (contd)
  • Launching of womens rights movement Seneca
    Falls Convention
  • Roots in abolitionism
  • Influence of Grimké sisters
  • Leadership of antislavery veterans Elizabeth Cady
    Stanton and Lucretia Mott
  • Seneca Falls Declaration of Sentiments
  • Echoes of Declaration of Independence
  • Demand for suffrage
  • Denunciation of wide-ranging inequalities

21
Origins of feminism (contd)
  • Characteristics of feminism
  • International scope
  • Middle-class orientation
  • Themes of feminism
  • Self-realization
  • Transcendentalist sensibility
  • Margaret Fullers Woman in the Nineteenth Century
  • Right to participate in market revolution
  • Denial that home is womens sphere
  • Amelia Bloomers new style of dress
  • Analogy between marriage and slavery slavery of
    sex
  • Laws governing wives economic status
  • Law of domestic relations

22
Origins in feminism (contd)
  • Tensions within feminist thought
  • Belief in equality of the sexes
  • Belief in natural differences
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