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Today we move from the theme of Alienation to the theme of Leadership

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Title: Today we move from the theme of Alienation to the theme of Leadership


1
Today we move from the theme of Alienation to the
theme of Leadership
  • Cyrano was set apartobviouslyby his large nose,
    and his uncompromising individuality, as well as
    swordsmanship and eloquence
  • Cyrano had many traits that made him an effective
    (although unofficial) leader for the Cadets of
    Gascoyne
  • What were Cyranos leadership traits?

2
Cyrano and Julius Caesar have many leadership
traits in common
  • Both were fierce fighters in the military and had
    the loyalty of their fellow fighting men
  • Both had a way with words Caesars eloquence
    helped him make moving speeches to adoring crowds
  • Both were uncompromising in their quests for what
    they believed was right

3
Cyrano and Caesar have many differences in their
leadership, too
  • Caesar was not just a fierce opponent on the
    battlefield he had true blood-lust and was a
    vicious and sadistic killer and torturer
  • Caesar cared about material things a great deal
    and lived a luxuriou, decadent life, and he had
    many extra-marital affairs (rumored to have
    resulted in several illegitimate children) and
    was not loyal to any woman
  • Caesar had no qualms about betraying people who
    trusted him if it served to his advantage,
    whereas Cyrano was steadfastly loyal and
    trustworthy
  • Caesar sought (and gained) power over others, not
    just independence for himself

4
Allusions to Caesar in Cyrano de Bergerac
  • A Voice (in the back of the hall, sings)
  •  
  • Monsieur de Cyrano
  • Must be another Caesar
  • Let Brutus lay him low,
  • And play us, La Clorise! (22)
  •  
  • No. I love Cleopatra do I appear Caesar?
  •  
  • Cyrano de Bergerac (42)
  •  
  • So, when I win some triumph, by some chance,
  • Render no share to Caesarin a word,
  • I am too proud to be a parasite,
  • And if my nature wants the germ that grows
  • Towering to heaven like the mountain pine,
  • Or like the oak, sheltering multitudes
  • I stand, not high it may bebut alone!
  •  

5
Inferences We Can Make From Those Allusions
  • Caesarlike most political leadersdid tax his
    people, thus, they had to render a share unto
    him of their wealth to help keep Rome running
  • Caesar had a love affair relationship with
    Cleopatra of Egypt
  • Brutus was one of several assassins who laid
    low (that is, killed) Caesar

6
Caesar and Rome An Overview
7
Your Learning Goals Today (What I Want You to
Remember from Today)
  • How Ancient Rome has influenced our society today
    in terms of architecture, art, government,
    language, sports, etc.
  • The structure of the Ancient Roman government and
    how it worked
  • How and why Caesar rose toand fell frompower in
    Ancient Rome
  • What happened after Caesars assassination and
    why William Shakespeare felt it was important to
    write a historic play about these events

8
Roman Influences on Our Society
  • Our language, English, is primarily based on
    Latin, which the Romans spoke (other Latin-based
    languages include Spanish, French, and Italian)
  • Our sports such as boxing, wrestling, Mixed
    Martial Arts, fencing, even race-car-driving, can
    be traced back to Ancient Romes gladiatorial and
    chariot-racing spectacles we even have
    American Gladiators
  • A lot of our art can be traced back to the
    classical sculptures of ancient Greece and Rome,
    where the goal was to realistically portray
    idealized human forms the Romans worshipped
    physical perfection, as do we
  • Of course, arguably their most important
    influence has been on our form of government

9
But First, Verbal Irony
  • Raise your hand if you can tell us all the answer
    to this question Whats the definition of verbal
    irony?
  • Now that weve reviewed that, a bit about the
    Roman Senate

10
The Roman Senate
  • The Ancient Romans had a Senate, and we have a
    Senate in our government, too, but politics in
    Rome have nothingI repeat, nothingto do with
    our politics today
  • The Roman Senate was entirely made up of wealthy
    people called patriciansnot like our Senate
    today
  • The Roman senators got into their positions of
    power through money or family connections or
    both, not like our senators
  • The Roman lower classes (who were called
    plebeians) had almost no say in government,
    almost no political power at all, not like
    America today

11
More on the Roman Senate
  • Ancient Roman politicians often waged war and
    conquered foreign lands, bringing them under the
    control of their nation, just to enrich their
    nation and become popular not like our
    modern-day politicians
  • During a time of war, the Romans often elected a
    dictator and suspended democracy until the war
    was over not like our modern-day government

12
The Roman Senate and Our Own Modern-Day
GovernmentSeriously
  • Money, power, corruption, family dynasties of
    rulers, bribery, greed, bloodthirsty war-mongers
    and throwing out democracy when it was
    inconvenient their government was EXACTLY like
    our own modern-day government in all those
    respects
  • (I was using verbal irony before, something you
    will see frequently in the play The Tragedy of
    Julius Caesar)

13
Patricians Then and Now
Crassus, the banker, and member of the First
Triumvirate with Julius Caesar and Pompey
14
Roman Influences on Our Nation
  • Governmentagain, our Republic (which means any
    government where the people elect their leaders)
    was modeled after the Greco-Roman government,
    along with the Iroquois Confederacy (a large
    group made up of different Native tribes), both
    of which influenced our Founding Fathers as they
    formed our own government
  • Our early government did not permit women or
    slaves to participate in democracyjust like in
    the Republic of Ancient Rome, where only free
    (and wealthy) men could have government positions
    now we no longer have (legal) slavery, and
    women can participate in democracy, but the
    majority of our elected officials are still
    wealthy

15
Roman Influences on America, Contd.
  • Raise your hand if you can describe for the class
    the architectural style of most government
    buildings in Washington, DC

16
Roman Columns and Friezes on the U.S. Supreme
Court Building
17
An Actual Ancient Roman Building
18
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19
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20
The Roman-Architecture-Inspired U.S. Capitol
Rotunda and Capitol Dome
21
A Drawing of a Real Ancient Roman Building as it
Most Likely Looked
22
Our Nations Capitols Architecture Even Includes
Roman-Style Obelisks
23
Ancient Roman Obelisk in Saint Peters Square, in
Vatican City, in Rome
24
Rome Provided Us With the Model for the Literal
Architecture of Our Governments Buildings and
Its Metaphorical Architecture for Our
Governmental Structure
25
Roman Government, U.S. Government
  • In Ancient Rome, for awhile, there was a
    triumvirate made up of three different rulers
    the idea was that no one man would grow too
    powerful and abuse his power and make bad
    decisions that would be bad for Rome
  • We have our own version of this raise your hand
    if you can name the three different (and in
    theory, equal) branches into which our own
    government is divided so that no one branch has
    too much power, providing a system of checks and
    balances

26
The Roman Triumvirate Failed
  • The first triumvirate, made up of Julius Caesar,
    Pompey, and Crassus (a wealthy banker), fell
    apart Crassus died, leaving Pompey and Caesar,
    but Pompey was jealous of Caesars power and
    popularity, and when Caesars only legitimate,
    acknowledged childhis daughter Julia, who had
    been married off to Pompey (to solidify Caesars
    and Pompeys alliance)died in childbirth, this
    left Caesar no reason to try to get along with
    Pompey, so they went to war and Caesar won

27
Caesars Victory Leads to Dictatorship
  • Julius Caesar defeated his former ally Pompey,
    and also defeated Pompeys sons (Pompey and one
    of his two sons were eventually killed by Caesar
    and/or Caesars forces), and established himself
    as dictator-for-life of Rome (in an interesting
    historical parallel, the U.S. defeated its former
    ally, the dictator Saddam Hussein, wholike
    Caesarhad images of himself all over his
    country, and the U.S. military also killed
    Husseins sons before establishing U.S. military
    rule in Iraq) some people had a problem with
    Caesar becoming dictator-for-life of Rome,
    because the way it was supposed to work was this
    during times of war, the Roman Senate (senators
    were democratically elected by the wealthy and
    free Roman males slaves, the poor, and women
    didnt get to vote, just like our earliest form
    of democracy) would elect a temporary dictator
    who was to rule absolutely (every order followed
    unquestioningly) ONLY for the duration of the
    war, not forever

28
Why Would They ELECT a DICTATOR?
  • It seems odd to democratically vote a dictator
    into power, since a democracy means that many
    citizens get to have a say in their government,
    while a dictatorship means one individual (and
    that individuals closest circle of trusted
    fellow rulers) get to tell everyone what to do
    and everyone has to do what theyre told, or ELSE
    why would they think it was a good idea to
    elect a dictator during times of war (or national
    crisis), suspending democracy until the war or
    crisis ended? Raise your hands and Ill call on
    some- one to share.

29
Advantages and Disadvantages of This Approach
  • Dictators could get things done a lot more
    quickly than a democratic process could achieve
    during war, when swift decisions could make the
    difference between victory and defeat, this made
    sense to the Romans
  • Without the possibility of dissent, those who
    opposed or questioned the dictator could have
    their rights seriously violated with democratic
    rights thrown out, people could be imprisoned,
    enslaved, tortured, or killed just for stating
    their beliefs (like that the dictator is making
    bad decisions, and/or they need to step down from
    power so that their nation can restore democracy)
  • Julius Caesar and Adolf Hitler were both
    initially elected by a democratic vote, after
    which they became dictators who did not allow
    anyone else to ever run against them

30
Our Own Version of This Model
  • During World War I, people who opposed Americas
    getting involved were imprisoned for exercising
    their First Amendment right to say so many
    remained in prison until well after the war was
    over
  • During World War II, Americans of Japanese
    descent were put into internment camps without
    their Constitutionally-guaranteed right to due
    process (trial, etc.) simply because they were of
    Japanese descent and we were at war with Japan
  • During the 1950s, Senator Joseph (Joe) McCarthy
    claimed Communists had infiltrated our
    government, and proceeded to call forth suspected
    Communist Americans to have Congress question
    them on their loyalties, ruining the lives of all
    who were accused (those who were Communist and
    those who werent) many people were even
    imprisoned for refusing to cooperate with his
    witch-hunts for Communists, a violation of their
    Constitutional rights

31
Our Own Version of This Model, Contd.
  • During the Civil War, Abraham Lincoln had all
    kinds of people who opposed that war put into
    prison for exercising their First Amendment
    rights by speaking out against it anti-war
    pamphleteers had their printing presses smashed,
    etc. It didnt matter if they were
    pro-Confederacy (for the Souths right to have
    slaves and secede from the country) or if they
    were just opposed to war on principle because
    they were pacifists (who believe in peace and
    always oppose war) they were imprisoned.
    Lincoln used the very first-ever Executive Order
    to do this. Other Presidents have issued
    Executive Orders since

32
Our Own Version of This Model, Contd.
  • If you are so inclined, write down these numbered
    Executive Orders and look them up online
  • Executive Order 10995
  • Executive Orders 10998-11005
  • Executive Order 12919
  • Heres what these Executive Orders give our
    government the power to do in times of crisis or
    national emergency (our government gets to decide
    what constitutes a national crisis)

33
Executive Orders Similar to the Roman Model of
Suspending Democracy in Times of
Crisis/Emergency/War
  • Those Executive Orders give our federal
    government the power to seize control of all
    media, transportation, food, natural resources,
    schools, and force civilians to work without pay
  • These Executive Orders can be activated by any
    president during a state of national emergency or
    warthere is no distinction between two. This
    can go on indefinitely as long as our nation is
    at war, or in a state of emergency, these extreme
    measures that suspend the Constitution can
    continue
  • Operation Blackwoods was a plan in which our
    military would fake a foreign-based attack on our
    nation as a justification for suspending the
    Constitution, giving the president King-like
    powers, and waging war it was planned, but
    never done (it was rumored Kennedy came up with a
    plan of this type to justify invading Cuba, and
    Reagan planned to do the same to justify invading
    Nicaragua) the government agency responsible
    would have been FEMA this is exactly the type
    of thing that (unfortunately) lends credibility
    to the crackpots who believe our own federal
    government actively engineered 9-11, though this
    is not the case

34
However
  • There is at least some credible evidence to
    suggest that Franklin Delano Roosevelt knew in
    advance of the attack on Pearl Harbor, and
    permitted it to happen, because he knew that the
    Axis Powers were a threat to the whole world, and
    had to be defeated, and the Allies needed America
    to help them defeat this evil, and that without
    widespread support from the American public we
    would not be able to accomplish that victory
    before Pearl Harbor, most Americans opposed our
    getting involved in the war because it wasnt
    any of our business but after Pearl Harbor,
    most Americans demanded we get involved and fight
    the Axis Powers righteous vengeance against a
    foreign attacker was a powerful incentive to get
    people to actively support the war effort thus,
    its possible that those who died at Pearl Harbor
    were deliberately sacrificed by FDR to serve the
    greater good

35
Julius Caesar Ruthless, Brilliant, Bloodthirsty
  • Like FDR, JFK, Abraham Lincoln, Winston
    Churchill, Adolf Hitler, and Fidel Castro, Julius
    Caesar was quite intelligent and went after power
    with single-minded purpose, aided by his
    intellect and ability to write and speak well
  • Caesar crucified his enemies (literally)
  • Caesar didnt invent gladiatorial combat, but he
    elevated it to the sports-entertainment that it
    later became in Rome chariot races were
    primarily watched for their spectacular and
    deadly accidents (rather like NASCAR today) and
    the gladiatorial fights (to the death) are
    reflected in our own sports of wrestling, boxing,
    fencing, MMA the Ancient Romans were a
    bloodthirsty bunch, and Caesar gave them what
    they wanted

36
Gladiators Then and Now
37
Spectacular Crashes Then and Now
38
Caesars Rise
  • After conquering Pompey and his sons, Caesar was
    declared dictator-for-life of Rome (not just
    until Rome was no longer at war or in crisis),
    and also got himself declared a living god, and
    had temples built in his honor and statues of
    himself built everywhere, and his image put on
    Roman currency (we have put our past political
    leaders on our money, too)

39
Caesars Popularity
  • Caesar was popular because he gave land to the
    poor, benefits to war veterans, tax breaks to the
    wealthy, and he won lots of wars and conquered
    lots of land which Rome then got to rule and
    exploit (the natural resources and the labor of
    the people of those lands, etc.)

40
Caesars Unpopularity
  • Caesar angered some members of the Roman Senate
    when at a public meeting he did not (as was
    customary) rise to greet them, but instead
    remained seated on his throne, a gesture of
    disrespect
  • Caesars claiming to be a god angered many Romans
    who believed in the traditional Roman pantheon of
    gods it was blasphemous
  • Caesar violated the basic rights of many Roman
    citizens (freedom of speech, etc.) for example,
    when tribunes removed laurel wreath coronets
    (crowns) from his statue because that honor was
    reserved for royalty and/or the gods, Caesar
    ordered them to be either fired or executed
    (depending on which historic source you believe)
  • Many Romans believed that while temporary
    suspension of democracy in times of crisis was
    acceptable, a total loss of democracy and a
    permanent dictatorship were unacceptable, and
    brought to mind their ancient kings whom the
    Romans had overthrown to install a democracy in
    the first place

41
More Reasons Caesar Was Scandalous
  • Caesar also blatantly carried on an affair (one
    of many) with Cleopatra of Egypt, bringing her to
    Rome and having herand her young son Caesarion,
    who was allegedly Caesarslive in an apartment
    across from the Roman Capitol this shocked many
    Romans, who believed husbands should be more
    discreet about the affairs they were all expected
    to have Caesar was openly cheating on his last
    wife, Calpurnia (depending on which source you
    read, she was either his third or his fourth
    wife historians still argue about whether or not
    Caesar ever legally married his first fiancé
    Cossutia)
  • We cant know for sure if Caesar loved any of his
    wives, but we do know every time he got married
    it helped him advance his careerand when one of
    his wives was involved in a public scandal he
    divorced her for that reason, and said so

42
Caesar and Cleopatra Not Keepin It on the DL
43
Caesars Fall
  • For all these reasons, a group of conspirators,
    including Caesars best friend (and possibly, it
    was rumored, his illegitimate son) Brutus, whose
    ancestors had helped overthrow the Roman kings
    and install a democracy, stabbed Caesar 23 times,
    in public, and sent Roman society into a downward
    spiral of chaos and civil war

44
The Aftermath of Caesars Assassination
  • The conspirators fell to bickering with each
    other as Rome fell to pieces, and those who had
    been loyal to Caesarincluding his other best
    friend, Mark Antonyformed a new triumvirate
    sworn to get revenge on those who had betrayed
    Caesar the new triumvirate was made up of
    Antony, Lepidus, and Octavius (or, Octavian)
    Caesar, Julius Caesars grand-nephew and his
    adopted heir to the throne
  • Octavius later became known as Augustus Caesar,
    and he is why we have the month of August, named
    after him July is named after Julius Caesar, and
    the Julian Calendar (which Julius Caesar created)
    was widely used until the twentieth century (its
    still used by some people in the world today,
    though now most people in the world, including
    us, go by the Gregorian Calendar, a reform of the
    Julian Calendar)

45
Rome Returns to Another Caesars Power
  • After a long war waged largely through the
    Middle-East, the conspiratorsBrutus, Cassius,
    and otherswere defeated and killed by the forces
    of the new triumvirate, with the result that
    Octavius (later known as Augustus) Caesar became
    the new ruler of Rome
  • After Julius Caesar, the name Caesar became a
    generic name for every Roman emperor they were
    all known as the Caesars
  • The German form of Caesar is Kaiser, like Kaiser
    Wilhelm who ruled Germany during World War I
  • The Russian form of Caesar is Czar or Tsar, and
    the Czars of Russia ruled Russia in much the same
    way Caesar had ruled Ancient Rome iron-fisted
    and merciless dictatorships

46
Why Shakespeare Wrote The Play The Tragedy of
Julius Caesar
  • During Shakespeares time in Englandknown as the
    Elizabethan Age, named after their Queen
    Elizabetha lot of people worried about the fact
    that Elizabeth had no heirs to inherit the throne
    if she were to die
  • Julius Caesar had no known legitimate male heirs
    (whom he claimed as his own) to inherit his
    throne (Romans would not have accepted a female
    Empress, and even if they would have accepted
    this, Caesars daughter Julia had died), so when
    Caesar died, Rome fell into chaos and civil war
    as different sides fought to gain power and rule
    Rome
  • Shakespeare feared the same fate could befall
    England if Elizabeth died without an heir,
    leaving a power vacuum and a destructive
    struggle for power

47
Important Things to Know
  • Shakespeare based his play on Roman histories,
    but did not accurately portray every single event
    as it really happened he took some creative
    liberties with the facts to make a more effective
    drama
  • However, the main pointsthe assassination
    itself, those who were involved in the
    conspiracy, and the chaos after Caesars
    deathare pretty much what did happen in actual
    history, though Shakespeare did change some minor
    details or make up some things (Caesars last
    words in the play are spoken in Latin, but in
    actual history his last words were probably in
    Greek)

48
More Important Things
  • BCE means Before the Common Era, and has now
    largely replaced the previously-used BC, which
    stood for Before Christ the years referred to
    remain the same, but, for example, what used to
    be called 1 BC is now generally referred to as 1
    BCE (both refer to the year before Jesus Christ
    was allegedly supposed to have been born)
  • Whereas once wed refer to our own time as AD
    (for Anno Domini, which is Latin for Year of Our
    Lord) it is now more common to refer to this time
    period as the Common Era, or, CE
  • Caesar was assassinated in 44 BCE on the ides of
    March, or, in other words, on March 15th (ides
    means middle) and over fifteen and a half
    centuries later, William Shakespeare thought it
    was still important enough to write a play about
    it about four centuries after Shakespeare wrote
    that play, we still consider it important enough
    today to read William Shakespeares play about
    these events that happened over twenty and a half
    centuries ago

49
Trivial But Interesting Information
  • John Wilkes Booth, who assassinated Abraham
    Lincoln, was an actor in a family of actors, and
    had been in The Tragedy of Julius Caesar, but
    never as Brutus (who strikes the fatal blow
    against the tyrant Caesar), but he always wanted
    to play that role he killed Lincoln in a
    theater, in public, and then leapt on to the
    stage and yelled, Sic semper tyrannus, Latin
    (the language they spoke in Ancient Rome) for
    Thus always to tyrants (which is now the state
    motto of Virginia) and in his own diary Booth
    referred to Lincoln as a Caesar and to himself as
    Brutus

50
(No Transcript)
51
SIC SEMPER TYRANNUS! (Thus
always to tyrants!)
52
More Trivial But Interesting Info.
  • Caesars Rome was considered to be the First
    Reich Kaiser Wilhelms government during WWI was
    considered to be the Second Reich Adolf Hitler
    called his Fascist government the Third Reich,
    and adopted many of the symbols (and practices)
    of Julius Caesar, among them, the symbol of the
    eagle the term Fascism itself comes from the
    ancient Roman practice of having high-ranking
    government officials have lower-ranking officials
    walk in front of them with bundles of sticks tied
    together around an axe (these bundles were called
    fasces) to symbolize their power this symbol
    was adopted by the founder of Fascism, Italian
    dictator Mussolini (Italy is where Ancient Rome
    used to be), the idea being that a bundle of
    sticks is strong and not easily broken while a
    single stick can easily be broken this
    represents the idea of an individual citizens
    life being unimportant, and only the whole
    nation-state matters, so individuals rights are
    sacrificed

53
Fasces
54
The Third Reich Borrowed the Imagery of the
First Reich
55
More Interesting Trivia
  • In the 1930s, a young American, Orson Welles,
    had his Mercury Theatre company stage a
    production of The Tragedy of Julius Caesar as a
    propaganda piece to encourage the U.S. to get
    involved in the fight against the Axis Powers,
    re-setting the play in the then-current 1930s
    Fascist Italy, portraying Caesar as a Mussolini-
    or Hitler-type of dictator, and having those
    loyal to Caesar wear brown shirts like Hitlers
    supporters
  • Welles re-staged the scene portraying the death
    of Cinna the Poet as a hate crime similar to what
    the Fascist Nazis were doing to the Jews

56
An Interesting Anecdote About Caesar
  • When just a youth, Caesar was kidnapped by
    pirates he asked them how much they were asking
    for him, and they told him, and he told them he
    was worth more, and they should ask his friends
    for more he assured his kidnappers that his
    friends would pay more for his safe return the
    pirates asked for the amount Caesar told them to
    demand, and they got the ransom in full
  • While their captive, Caesar joked with them that
    hed eventually catch up to them and crucify them
    all at the time, the pirates laughed

57
  • After Caesars friends had paid the higher
    ransom, his pirate captors let him go, and Caesar
    promptly got some ships, caught up to the
    pirates, and crucified them all, just like hed
    said he would do he did show them some mercy,
    however, since theyd been such gracious hosts
    and treated him so well while he was with them
    he slit their throats so theyd die faster on
    their crosses (usually it takes days to die by
    crucifixion, due to dehydration, exhaustion,
    exposure, and blood loss) then he took the
    ransom money (which was now more than it would
    have been otherwise) and kept it for himself
    rather than returning it to his friends whod
    paid to free him he turned his own kidnapping
    into a fundraising opportunity

58
Did Caesar Know About the Assassination Plot?
  • Finally, some historians argue that Caesar may
    well have actually received and read the warnings
    about his imminent assassination, but allowed it
    to happen anyway because he wanted to go out on
    top and in a blaze of glory at the height of
    his power, rather than fade away slowly, growing
    weak in body and mind, becoming senile as he grew
    older, etc.
  • We do still remember him today as he was at the
    height of his power
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