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Chapter 20: World War II and the Cold War Portents of Disaster

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Chapter 20: World War II and the Cold War Portents of Disaster Economists predict disaster soon after signing of Versailles Treaty Disruptions of food & coal supply – PowerPoint PPT presentation

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Title: Chapter 20: World War II and the Cold War Portents of Disaster


1
Chapter 20 World War II and the Cold
WarPortents of Disaster
  • Economists predict disaster soon after signing of
    Versailles Treaty
  • Disruptions of food coal supply
  • Weight of reparation payments
  • Poet William Butler Yeats points to cultural
    sickness of Europe
  • Onset of Depression ten years after treaty

2
Contest of the Isms Fascism Communism
  • Italy
  • Mussolini followers unsuccessfully seek
    electoral wins amidst post-war instability
  • Fascist thugs then attack a variety of
    nationalist enemies, declare a national emergency
    and March on Rome
  • Mussolini wins 1924 election with fraud
  • Support from those who like society without
    turmoil

3
Contest of the Isms Fascism Communism
  • Germany
  • Hitler was virulent racist before WWI
  • Adopted Mussolini model for party after war
  • Weimar government popular with no one
  • France reinvades after 1923 reparations default
  • Hitler attempts putsch to overthrow government
  • Failure leads to jail and manifesto Mein Kampf
  • Blames Jews for German misery

4
Contest of the Isms Fascism Communism
  • Germany cont.
  • Nazi party gains votes, 1928-32
  • Hitler and Nazis asked to join ruling coalition
    in 1933
  • Elitist parties believed they could control
    Hitler
  • Reichstag building burns but new elections leave
    Nazis short of a majority
  • Declares national emergency and turns thugs loose
    to silence opponents and wins desired majority

5
Contest of the Isms Fascism Communism
  • Germany cont.
  • Creation of totalitarian state includes
  • propaganda and paramilitary organizations
  • Racial science and worship of pre-Christian
    gods
  • Citizens were intimidated but also attracted to
    territorial expansion return of German glory
  • Germany and Italy proclaim axis in 1936

6
Contest of the Isms Fascism Communism
  • Japan
  • Japan was one of five great powers at Versailles
  • Gross national income grew 40 1914-1918
  • Advanced rapidly by leap-frogging technology
  • Successfully maintained dual economy
  • Food riots at end of war show vulnerability
  • Need colonies for numerous resources
  • Zaibatsu control economy by 1920s

7
Contest of the Isms Fascism Communism
  • Japan cont.
  • Path to democracy undermined by political power
    of zaibatsu
  • Constitution requires ministries of war and navy
    to be in hands of the military
  • Shinto emphasized divinity of emperor and
    importance of samurai
  • Military seeks to protect resource-poor nation

8
The Descent Toward War
  • 1920s a time of peace (?)
  • League of Nations serves as an annual forum
  • Negotiated limits on navies at Washington
  • Locarno modifies German debt payments
  • Pact of Paris (1928) outlaws war
  • Great Depression and relative ability of
    communist and fascist nations to survive while
    democracies struggle

9
The Descent Toward War
  • Steps toward war in the 1930s
  • Japanese seize Manchuria (1931)
  • Establish Manchuria as puppet state (1932)
  • Opposition at home silenced violently
  • Italy invades Ethiopia (1935)
  • League of Nations does not respond
  • Civil War in Spain (1936)
  • Japan invades China proper (1937)

10
The Descent Toward War
  • Steps toward war in the 1930s cont.
  • Germany rises under Hitler
  • Withdraws from League of Nations (1933)
  • Saar region forced into pro-German stance (1935)
  • Rearming of Germany begins (1935)
  • Militarization of Rhineland (1936)
  • Formal seizure of Austria (1938)
  • Takeover of Czechoslovakia (1938)
  • Invasion of Poland (1939)

11
The Descent Toward War
  • The Early Cost of War Technology
  • National budgets reflect militarization of the
    1930s
  • Germany, Japan and USSR spend about 1/4 of total
    national income on defense
  • 1938 70 of the Japanese national budget goes to
    the military
  • Aircraft production skyrockets

12
World War II
  • The War in Europe, 1939-45
  • Phony War to Spring, 1940--then blitzkieg of
    Germans into France
  • French fall followed by aerial assault on Britain
  • USSR-German non-aggression pact ended in 1941
    with broad assault into Russia
  • Germany directs attack to oil fields, 1942
  • US neutral but implements Lend-Lease plan

13
World War II
  • The War in the Pacific, 1937-42
  • Severity of war seen in Rape of Nanjing the use
    of scorched earth tactics by Russia China
  • Tripartite Pact forms Axis Powers (1940)
  • US stays neutral but helpful until December 7th
  • Churchill Entry of US seals Axis fate
  • Japanese spread rapidly after Pearl Harbor
  • Japanese hopes fade--colonies cant produce
    enough for Japan to prosper

14
World War II
  • Turning the tide, 1942-5
  • Allied counter-offensive begins in 1942
  • 2nd Front for Russia deferred by West
  • Role of underground symbolic not decisive
  • Bombing of German cities begins (1943)
  • Dresden hardest hit--necessity of attack debated
  • Allied invasion of Sicily (1943)
  • 2nd front opened on D-Day, June 6, 1944

15
World War II
  • War in Asia the Pacific, 1942-5
  • 1st naval victory in Pacific--Midway Island
  • Fire bombings of Japan begin (March, 1944)
  • Atomic bombs end war amid controversy about
    necessity of their use
  • 3 million Japanese die in the war
  • 1/4 of national assets were destroyed
  • Industrial production 10 of pre-war levels

16
World War II
  • Assessing the Results of War
  • Total War meant 50 million dead including 30
    million civilians
  • Japanese model taught Asian colonies that
    resistance was not futile
  • Technology in the War
  • Victory tied to ability of victors to produce
    more goods in their factories

17
World War II
  • Women and the War
  • Mobilization of women in World War II varied by
    country
  • Hitler Mussolini offered women emancipation
    from emancipation
  • Rose the Riveter symbol of women workers in US
  • Return of soldiers brought pressure on women to
    give up their factory jobs
  • Laid groundwork for new feminism

18
World War II
  • Horrors of War
  • Holocaust and atomic warfare
  • Genocide built on anti-Semitism to seek
    obliteration of a people
  • Atomic bomb was a new, higher level of
    destructive power in world history
  • Necessity of dropping the bombs remains
    controversial today.
  • Racist?
  • Saved lives?

19
The Image of Humanity
  • World War challenged idea of West as region of
    progress through rationalism
  • Gandhi
  • Freud
  • Picasso
  • Eliot
  • Wiesel
  • Japanese Peace Memorials

20
United Nations, Postwar Recovery Origins of
Cold War
  • The United Nations
  • Goal to save succeeding generations from the
    scourge of war
  • General assembly gives every nation a voice
  • Security Council can dispatch peace keepers
  • Other organizations provide variety of
    humanitarian services
  • Founded 1945 by 50 countries

21
United Nations, Postwar Recovery Origins of
Cold War
  • Resettlement
  • Millions of individuals, displaced by war, had to
    be returned to their home nations
  • Surrendered/captured soldiers were far from home
  • Civilians had followed armies, settled new lands
    or fled in the face of war
  • US developed GI Bill of Rights to ease return of
    soldiers to civilian life and to reward them for
    their service

22
United Nations, Postwar Recovery Origins of
Cold War
  • Political Reconstruction Japan Germany
  • Japan
  • Emperor remains power but no longer sacred
  • Colonial empire was dissolved
  • Land redistribution in Japan
  • Zaibatsu were dissolved
  • Promotion of worker rights
  • Restructured the educational system
  • Economic recovery aided by Korean War

23
United Nations, Postwar Recovery Origins of
Cold War
  • Political Reconstruction Japan Germany
  • Germany
  • Divided into four regions of administration
  • Russian occupation harsher than that of others
  • Major war criminals tried at Nuremberg
  • Democracy promoted in western sectors
  • Berlin blockade marked opening of the Cold War

24
United Nations, Postwar Recovery Origins of
Cold War
  • Economic Reconstruction the Cold War
  • Despite devastation, some factories and much
    production knowledge remain intact
  • Truman Doctrine and Marshall Plan
  • Western foreign policy goal of containment
  • Fear on both sides leads to NATO and other
    economic defensive alliances

25
Entering the Second Half of the 20th Century
  • World attracted to FDR idea of the Four Freedoms
    and the Atlantic Charter
  • Racism and imperialism a troubling legacy of
    Europe
  • Creation of United Nations offered hope
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