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World War I: A New Kind of War


World War I: A New Kind of War CH 27 Section 2 The Belligerents The warring countries formed two powerful sides {Central Powers-consisted of Germany, Austria-Hungary ... – PowerPoint PPT presentation

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Title: World War I: A New Kind of War

World War I A New Kind of War
  • CH 27 Section 2

The Belligerents
  • The warring countries formed two powerful sides
  • Central Powers-consisted of Germany,
    Austria-Hungary, Bulgaria, and the Ottoman Empire
  • Allied Powers- were Great Britain, France, and
  • The Central powers had the advantage of easy
    communication and rapid troop movement
  • The allied powers had more troops and were more
    industrialized than the central powers
  • This along with Britain having the largest navy
    in the world allowed them to get food or raw
    materials from anywhere in the world
  • It also gave them the ability to blockade the
    central powers

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Innovations in warfare
  • Because WWI was an industrialized war weapons
    were mass produced as never before and were also
    trying new weapons
  • The Germans were the first to effectively use
    submarines (or U boats) in naval warfare along
    with poison gas on the battlefield
  • Among new weapons were machine guns and long
    range artillery
  • Machine guns originally were fired by a team of
    people and to defend against them trenches were

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  • Another new weapon was the airplane which were
    mainly used for observing troop movement at the
    beginning of WW I
  • Later they were used against other enemy
    airplanes in dogfights and for dropping bombs on
    enemy targets
  • In 1916 Britain introduced the tank which would
    tear through barbed wire and cut through enemy
  • Even the soldiers were changed most fighting in
    this war were drafted civilians and before they
    were professional soldiers
  • The government also used propaganda to back the
    war effort

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Early years of the war
  • Belgium wanted to remain out of the war
  • Germany asked to pass through on their way to
    France and Belgium declined
  • Germany went through Belgium anyway bringing
    Britain into the war
  • By September 1914 the Germans were as far as the
    Marne river on their way to Paris when they met
    resistance from the French and British
  • The battle of the Marne changed the entire nature
    of the war when both sides dug in and soon had
    trenches dug from Switzerland to the north sea

Trench Warfare
Western Front
  • Late in August 1914 the Russians battled a German
    force at the Battle of Tannenberg The Russian
    army suffered a humiliating defeat. About half
    its force was lost,
  • With this victory, the Germans launched an
    offensive, moving into Russian Poland.
  • Russia did not have the weapons to equip its
    soldiers properly
  • In 1915 Great Britain and France tried to change
    this situation. They decided to try to force
    their way through the Dardanelles so they could
    capture Constantinople.
  • They hoped to remove the Ottoman Empire from the
    war. Then they would be able to get needed
    supplies to the Russians.

Naval Warfare
  • The British decided to blockade the North Sea to
    keep merchant ships from reaching Germany
  • At first the blockade was aimed at cutting off
    the flow of raw materials to German factories
  • Eventually the blockade became an attempt to ruin
    the German economy and starve the German people.
  • In May 1916 the only large naval battle of the
    war was fought, at the Battle of Jutland, in the
    North Sea off the coast of Denmark
  • Both Germany and Great Britain claimed victory,
    However, the German navy remained in port for the
    rest of the war.

German U Boat
The Lusitania
  • In the process of this naval war a German U boat
    sank the British passenger ship the Lusitania
  • The passengers on the ship included 128 Americans
  • The attack was denounced by Woodrow Wilson and
    angered many Americans who wanted to join the war
  • Understanding they could not afford America
    entering the war, Germany backed off their
    unrestricted submarine warfare

The Lusitania
The Stalemate
  • By late 1915 the war in the west had become a
    stalemate on land as well as on sea
  • Both sides wondered if they would be able to
    break through the others front lines
  • Both sides continued to attack exchanging small
    pieces of land and losing thousands of lives in
    the process
  • The conflict became a war of attrition a slow
    wearing-down process in which each side was
    trying to outlast the other

The United States and World War I
  • Most Americans had agreed with President Wilsons
    declaration in 1914 that the United States should
    be neutral and that the war was strictly a
    European affair.
  • According to international law, however, if a
    ship carried contraband the goods could be
  • British propaganda had a great influence on
    Americans. Stories about German
    atrocities-brutal acts against defenseless
    civilians-angered Americans. They did not
    realize that many of the stories were exaggerated
    or not true.
  • In January, Arthur Zimmermann sent a secret
    telegram to the German ambassador in Mexico
    proposing an alliance between Germany and Mexico

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The Zimmerman note
  • In the Zimmerman note Germany offered to help
    Mexico regain Arizona, New Mexico, and Texas if
    it would help fight on Germanys side
  • The British intercepted the telegram and decoded
    it and it was then published in American
  • Americans were enraged.

America Joins the war
  • After the Zimmerman note and the sinking of the
    Lusitania the American people understood it was a
    matter of time before they joined the war
  • As a result Germany continued their unrestricted
    u boat attacks
  • None of the Central powers had a democratic
    government while all of the allied powers had so
  • When revolutionaries in Russia overthrew the
    czarist government president Wilson went to
    Congress and said the world must be made safe
    for democracy
  • On April 6, 1917 the Congress voted to declare
    war on Germany

Review Questions
  • Who made up the Central powers?
  • Who made up the Allied powers?
  • Who were the first to effectively use submarines
    in war?
  • Name two new weapons used for the first time
    during this war.
  • Germans were as far as the Marne river on their
    way to Paris when they met resistance from what
    two countries?
  • What was the name f the British passenger ship
    the Germans sank?

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