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World War I: A New Kind of War

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World War I: A New Kind of War CH 27 Section 2 The Belligerents The warring countries formed two powerful sides {Central Powers-consisted of Germany, Austria-Hungary ... – PowerPoint PPT presentation

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Title: World War I: A New Kind of War


1
World War I A New Kind of War
  • CH 27 Section 2

2
The Belligerents
  • The warring countries formed two powerful sides
  • Central Powers-consisted of Germany,
    Austria-Hungary, Bulgaria, and the Ottoman Empire
  • Allied Powers- were Great Britain, France, and
    Russia
  • The Central powers had the advantage of easy
    communication and rapid troop movement
  • The allied powers had more troops and were more
    industrialized than the central powers
  • This along with Britain having the largest navy
    in the world allowed them to get food or raw
    materials from anywhere in the world
  • It also gave them the ability to blockade the
    central powers

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4
Innovations in warfare
  • Because WWI was an industrialized war weapons
    were mass produced as never before and were also
    trying new weapons
  • The Germans were the first to effectively use
    submarines (or U boats) in naval warfare along
    with poison gas on the battlefield
  • Among new weapons were machine guns and long
    range artillery
  • Machine guns originally were fired by a team of
    people and to defend against them trenches were
    dug

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6
Continued
  • Another new weapon was the airplane which were
    mainly used for observing troop movement at the
    beginning of WW I
  • Later they were used against other enemy
    airplanes in dogfights and for dropping bombs on
    enemy targets
  • In 1916 Britain introduced the tank which would
    tear through barbed wire and cut through enemy
    defenses
  • Even the soldiers were changed most fighting in
    this war were drafted civilians and before they
    were professional soldiers
  • The government also used propaganda to back the
    war effort

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8
Early years of the war
  • Belgium wanted to remain out of the war
  • Germany asked to pass through on their way to
    France and Belgium declined
  • Germany went through Belgium anyway bringing
    Britain into the war
  • By September 1914 the Germans were as far as the
    Marne river on their way to Paris when they met
    resistance from the French and British
  • The battle of the Marne changed the entire nature
    of the war when both sides dug in and soon had
    trenches dug from Switzerland to the north sea

9
Trench Warfare
10
Western Front
  • Late in August 1914 the Russians battled a German
    force at the Battle of Tannenberg The Russian
    army suffered a humiliating defeat. About half
    its force was lost,
  • With this victory, the Germans launched an
    offensive, moving into Russian Poland.
  • Russia did not have the weapons to equip its
    soldiers properly
  • In 1915 Great Britain and France tried to change
    this situation. They decided to try to force
    their way through the Dardanelles so they could
    capture Constantinople.
  • They hoped to remove the Ottoman Empire from the
    war. Then they would be able to get needed
    supplies to the Russians.

11
Naval Warfare
  • The British decided to blockade the North Sea to
    keep merchant ships from reaching Germany
  • At first the blockade was aimed at cutting off
    the flow of raw materials to German factories
  • Eventually the blockade became an attempt to ruin
    the German economy and starve the German people.
  • In May 1916 the only large naval battle of the
    war was fought, at the Battle of Jutland, in the
    North Sea off the coast of Denmark
  • Both Germany and Great Britain claimed victory,
    However, the German navy remained in port for the
    rest of the war.

12
German U Boat
13
The Lusitania
  • In the process of this naval war a German U boat
    sank the British passenger ship the Lusitania
  • The passengers on the ship included 128 Americans
  • The attack was denounced by Woodrow Wilson and
    angered many Americans who wanted to join the war
  • Understanding they could not afford America
    entering the war, Germany backed off their
    unrestricted submarine warfare

14
The Lusitania
15
The Stalemate
  • By late 1915 the war in the west had become a
    stalemate on land as well as on sea
  • Both sides wondered if they would be able to
    break through the others front lines
  • Both sides continued to attack exchanging small
    pieces of land and losing thousands of lives in
    the process
  • The conflict became a war of attrition a slow
    wearing-down process in which each side was
    trying to outlast the other

16
The United States and World War I
  • Most Americans had agreed with President Wilsons
    declaration in 1914 that the United States should
    be neutral and that the war was strictly a
    European affair.
  • According to international law, however, if a
    ship carried contraband the goods could be
    seized.
  • British propaganda had a great influence on
    Americans. Stories about German
    atrocities-brutal acts against defenseless
    civilians-angered Americans. They did not
    realize that many of the stories were exaggerated
    or not true.
  • In January, Arthur Zimmermann sent a secret
    telegram to the German ambassador in Mexico
    proposing an alliance between Germany and Mexico

17
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18
The Zimmerman note
  • In the Zimmerman note Germany offered to help
    Mexico regain Arizona, New Mexico, and Texas if
    it would help fight on Germanys side
  • The British intercepted the telegram and decoded
    it and it was then published in American
    newspapers.
  • Americans were enraged.

19
America Joins the war
  • After the Zimmerman note and the sinking of the
    Lusitania the American people understood it was a
    matter of time before they joined the war
  • As a result Germany continued their unrestricted
    u boat attacks
  • None of the Central powers had a democratic
    government while all of the allied powers had so
  • When revolutionaries in Russia overthrew the
    czarist government president Wilson went to
    Congress and said the world must be made safe
    for democracy
  • On April 6, 1917 the Congress voted to declare
    war on Germany

20
Review Questions
  • Who made up the Central powers?
  • Who made up the Allied powers?
  • Who were the first to effectively use submarines
    in war?
  • Name two new weapons used for the first time
    during this war.
  • Germans were as far as the Marne river on their
    way to Paris when they met resistance from what
    two countries?
  • What was the name f the British passenger ship
    the Germans sank?

21
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