MAKING (OR NOT MAKING) OUR WORLD DISASTER RESILIENT IS OUR LEGACY History Will Decide Which Legacy We Actually Leave Part 2 - PowerPoint PPT Presentation

Loading...

PPT – MAKING (OR NOT MAKING) OUR WORLD DISASTER RESILIENT IS OUR LEGACY History Will Decide Which Legacy We Actually Leave Part 2 PowerPoint presentation | free to download - id: 5c020c-MmJmZ



Loading


The Adobe Flash plugin is needed to view this content

Get the plugin now

View by Category
About This Presentation
Title:

MAKING (OR NOT MAKING) OUR WORLD DISASTER RESILIENT IS OUR LEGACY History Will Decide Which Legacy We Actually Leave Part 2

Description:

MAKING (OR NOT MAKING) OUR WORLD DISASTER RESILIENT IS OUR LEGACY History Will Decide Which Legacy We Actually Leave Part 2 Walter Hays, Global Alliance for Disaster ... – PowerPoint PPT presentation

Number of Views:130
Avg rating:3.0/5.0
Slides: 50
Provided by: Walte58
Learn more at: http://www.pitt.edu
Category:

less

Write a Comment
User Comments (0)
Transcript and Presenter's Notes

Title: MAKING (OR NOT MAKING) OUR WORLD DISASTER RESILIENT IS OUR LEGACY History Will Decide Which Legacy We Actually Leave Part 2


1
MAKING (OR NOT MAKING) OUR WORLD DISASTER
RESILIENT IS OUR LEGACY History Will Decide Which
Legacy We Actually Leave Part 2
  • Walter Hays, Global Alliance for Disaster
    Reduction, Vienna, Virginia, USA 

2
PART 2 WHAT DO WE KNOW ABOUT GLOBAL CLIMATE
CHANGE

3
BOOK OF KNOWLEDGE -
Perspectives On Science, Policy, And EM HI-ED
4
A CONTINENTAL ASSESSMENT OF CLIMATE CHANGE
5
PRESENT UNDERSTANDING OF ENVIRONMENTAL EXTREMES
  • During 2007-2008, the world began to consider
    seriously the environmental impacts of global
    climate change and the possibility of exacerbated
    impacts from floods, landslides, droughts, and
    wildfires.
  • Warmer air and warmer water are a Rx for
    enhancing severe windstorms.
  • Warmer air can hold more water and unleash more
    energy, making wind fields stronger, storm surges
    higher, rainfall heavier, and floods and
    landslides more frequent.

6
PRESENT UNDERSTANDING OF ENVIRONMENTAL EXTREMES
  • Earthquakes, tsunamis, and volcanoes have
    tectonic ori-gins, but some of their physical
    effects can be exacerbated by global climate
    change.
  • Warmer air and warmer water may explain the
    increase of flooding in Europe Asia, South
    America, and the USA during 2007 and 2008..

7
PRESENT UNDERSTANDING OF THE JET STREAM AND
FLOODING
  • A number of flooding disasters occurred almost
    simultaneously around the World in 2007 and 2008.
  • Experts now know that certain configurations of
    the jet stream can produce flooding nearly
    simultane-ously in different parts of the World..

8
THE FOUNDATION FOR ANALYSES BY 2,500
INTERNATIONAL SCIENTISTS
  • RELIABLE TEMPERATURE MEASUREMENTS FROM AROUND THE
    WORLD DURING THE PAST 150 YEARS SUPPORT GLOBAL
    CLIMATE CHANGE.

9
TOWARDS A SCIENTIFIC CONSENSUS
  1. THE AVERAGE GLOBAL TEMPERATURE HAS INCREASED BY
    1.73 DEGREES F DURING THE PAST 100 YEARS TO 57.9
    DEGREES F
  2. THE NORTHERN HEMISPHERE IS WARMING FASTER THAN
    THE SOUTHERN HEMISPHERE

10
TOWARDS A SCIENTIFIC CONSENSUS
  • 3. SATELLITE MEASURE-MENTS INDICATE THAT THE
    TROPOSPHERE IS WARMING FASTER THAN THE EARTHS
    SURFACE.
  • NOTE THIS IS CONSISTENT WITH THE PHYSICS
    OF GREENHOUSE GASES ABSORBING HEAT.

11
TOWARDS A SCIENTIFIC CONSENSUS
  • THE EARTHS OCEANS ABSORB 20 TIMES AS MUCH HEAT
    AS THE EARTHS ATMOSPHERE.
  • THE PH LEVEL OF THE EARTHS OCEANS HAS INCREASED.
    NOTE THIS INDICATES AN INCREASED ABSORPTION OF
    CARBON DIOXIDE.

12
TOWARDS A SCIENTIFIC CONSENSUS
  • AVERAGE GLOBAL SEA LEVEL HAS INCREASED BY 4.7
    INCHES SINCE THE LAST ICE AGE.
  • SEA LEVEL RISES FOR TWO REASONS A) WATER
    EXPANDS WHEN IT IS WARMER, AND B) WATER VOLUME
    INCREASES FROM MELT WATER.

13
TOWARDS A SCIENTIFIC CONSENSUS
  • 8. IF THE FLOATING ARCTIC ICE CAPS MELT,
    GLOBAL SEA LEVEL WILL NOT BE AFFECTED.
  • 9. IF ALL THE SNOW AND ICE IN GREENLAND MELTED,
    GLOBAL SEA LEVEL WILL RISE 24 FEET.

14
TOWARDS A SCIENTIFIC CONSENSUS
  • 10. THE ALBEDO (PERCENT OF LIGHT REFLECTED) FOR
    FRESH SNOW IS 80-90 PERCENT, BUT ONLY 50-60
    PERCENT FOR MELTING ICE.

15
TOWARDS A SCIENTIFIC CONSENSUS
  • 12. THE SUN PROVIDES AN AVERAGE OF ABOUT 1370
    WATTS OF POWER THROUGH EM RADIATION TO EVERY
    SQUARE METER OF SURFACE IT STRIKES.
  • NOTE THIS IS CALLED THE SOLAR CONSTANT.

16
TOWARDS A SCIENTIFIC CONSENSUS
  • 13. THE SOLAR SPECTRUM INCLUDES VISIBLE
    (ROYGBIV), ULTRAVIOLET (A WAVE LENGTH TOO SHORT
    TO SEE), AND INFRARED LIGHT (A WAVE LENGTH TOO
    LONG TO SEE).

17
TOWARDS A SCIENTIFIC CONSENSUS
  • 14. ABOUT 30 PERCENT OF THE INCOMING SOLAR
    SPECTRUM IS REFLECTED BACK TO SPACE FROM CLOUDS,
    SNOW, AND, TO A LESSER DEGREE, BY OTHER SURFACES.

18
TOWARDS A SCIENTIFIC CONSENSUS
  • 15. THE BALANCE (ABOUT 70 PERCENT) OF THE
    INCOMING SOLAR SPECTRUM IS ABSORBED BY LAND, AIR,
    WATER, OR ICE.

19
TOWARDS A SCIENTIFIC CONSENSUS
  • 16. THE GREENHOUSE EFFECT OCCURS WHEN AN EARTH
    WARMED BY THE SOLAR SPECTRUM RADIATES INVISIBLE
    INFRARED LIGHT BACK, BUT, INSTEAD OF GOING BACK
    TO SPACE, IT IS PARTLY ABSORBED BY GREENHOUSE
    GASES IN THE ATMOSPHERE, MAKING THE ATMOSPHERE
    WARMER.

20
TOWARDS A SCIENTIFIC CONSENSUS
  • 17. THE GREENHOUSE EFFECT OCCURS NATURALLY.
  • 18. THE ISSUE IS HAVE HUMAN ACTIVITIES
    ENHANCED THE GREENHOUSE EFFECT BY INCREASING
    GREENHOUSE GASES ABOVE HISTORIC LEVELS?

21
TOWARDS A SCIENTIFIC CONSENSUS
  • 19. WITHOUT THE NATURAL GREENHOUSE EFFECT,
    PLANET EARTH WOULD BE AT A MUCH COLDER
    TEMPERATURE E.G., MINUS 2 DEGREES F.
  • 20. WITH AN ENHANCED GREENHOUSE EFFECT, PLANET
    EARTH WOULD BE WARMER THAN THE AVERAGE SURFACE
    TEMPERATURE OF 57.9 DEGREES IT NOW ENJOYS.

22
TOWARDS A SCIENTIFIC CONSENSUS
  • 21. CARBON DIOXIDE ENTERS THE ATMOSPHERE
    NATURALLY.
  • 22 NATURAL PHYSICAL PROCESSES REMOVE CARBON
    DIOXIDE FROM THE ATMO-SPHERE.

23
TOWARDS A SCIENTIFIC CONSENSUS
  • 23. AS THE GREENHOUSE EFFECT CAUSES HIGHER
    TEMPERATURES IN THE ATMOSPHERE, THE REMOVAL RATE
    OF CARBON DIOXIDE IS DECREASED.

24
HIGHLIGHTS OF REPORT
  • "Heat waves and heavy downpours are very likely
    to increase in frequency and intensity.

25
HIGHLIGHTS OF REPORT
  • "Substantial areas of North America are likely
    to have more frequent droughts of greater
    severity.

26
HIGHLIGHTS OF REPORT
  • Hurricane wind speeds, rainfall intensity, and
    storm surge levels are likely to increase.

27
HIGHLIGHTS OF REPORT
  • The strongest winter storms are likely to become
    more frequent, with stronger winds and more
    extreme wave heights."

28
ADDITIONAL IMPLICATIONS
  • Soil amplification of earthquake ground shaking
    is likely to be more pervasive.

29
ADDITIONAL IMPLICATIONS
  • Landslides triggered in earthquakes are likely
    to be more extensive.

30
ADDITIONAL IMPLICATIONS
  • The impacts of tsunami wave run up will be more
    extensive.

31
PROJECTED CHANGE IN FREQUENCY
  • By the end of this century rainfall amounts
    expected to occur every 20 years now could be
    taking place every five years.
  • y the end of this century rainfall
    amounts expected to occur every 20 years could be
    taking place every five years.
  • Such an increase "can lead to the type of events
    that we are seeing in the Midwest," said Karl,
    though he did not directly link the current
    flooding to climate change.

32
PROJECTED CHANGE IN FREQUENCY
  • An increase in frequency can lead to more
    frequent occurrences of flooding events such as
    those that occurred worldwide during 2007.
  • y the end of this century rainfall amounts
    expected to occur every 20 years could be taking
    place every five years.
  • Such an increase "can lead to the type of events
    that we are seeing in the Midwest," said Karl,
    though he did not directly link the current
    flooding to climate change.

33
FLOODS IN NORTH KOREA AUGUST 7-14, 2007
34
FLOODING IN CHINA JULY 2007
35
FLOODING IN CHINA JUNE JULY 2007
36
FLOODING IN CHINA JULY 2007 (50,000 kg of dead
fish)
37
FLOODING IN HENLEY ON THAMES, ENGLAND JULY 2007
38
FLOODING TEWKESBURY, ENGLAND JULY 2007
39
FLOODING IN GLOUCESTERSHIRE, ENGLAND JULY 2007
40
FLOODING AND OIL SPILL IN COFFEYVILLE, KANSAS
JULY 2007
41
FLOODING IN THE SUDAN JULY 2007
42
FLOODING IN IRAN JUNE 2007
43
FLOODING IN MARBLE FALLS, TEXAS JUNE 2007
44
FLOODING IN LAGOS, NIGERIA JUNE 2007
45
FLOODING IN PAKISTAN JUNE 2007
46
FLOODING IN KANSAS, USA MAY 2007
47
FLOODING IN SALINAS, KANSAS MAY 2007
48
FLOODING IN BOLIVIA FEBRUARY 2007
49
BOOK OF KNOWLEDGE -
Perspectives On Science, Policy, And EM HI-ED
About PowerShow.com