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Folk and Popular Culture

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Title: Folk Versus Popular Culture Author: Michael Reed Last modified by: Michael Reed Created Date: 11/21/2000 5:14:30 AM Document presentation format – PowerPoint PPT presentation

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Title: Folk and Popular Culture


1
Folk and Popular Culture
Insanely Radical Scot, with Kilt and Classic
Surfboard
Hindu Sadhu (Holy Man) Varanasi, India
2
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3
Beijing, China2004
4
Important Terminology
  • Folk Culture traditionally practiced by a
    small, homogeneous, rural group living in
    relative isolation.
  • Popular Culture found in a large, heterogeneous
    society that shares certain habits despite
    differences in personal characteristics.
  • Material Culture the physical objects produced
    by a culture in order to meet its material needs
    food, clothing, shelter, arts, and recreation.
    Carl Sauer (Berkeley, 1930s 1970s).

5
Important Terms
  • Custom frequent repetition of an act until it
    becomes characteristic of a group of people..
  • Taboo a restriction on behavior imposed by
    social custom.
  • Habit repetitive act performed by an individual.

6
  • Folk Culture rapidly changing and/or
    disappearing throughout much of the world.

Indigenous Woman, Guatemala
Portuguese Fishing Boat
Northern India, 2009
Bhopal, India, 2009
7
Folk Culture
  • Stable and close knit
  • Usually a rural community
  • Tradition controls
  • Resistance to change
  • Buildings erected without architect or blueprint
    using locally available building materials
  • anonymous origins, diffuses slowly through
    migration. Develops over time.
  • Clustered distributions isolation/lack of
    interaction breed uniqueness and ties to physical
    environment.

Brazilian Rainforest, 2011 (click photo!)
8
FOLK ARCHITECTURE
9
FOLK ARCHITECTURE
  • Effects on Landscape usually of limited scale
    and scope.
  • Agricultural fields, terraces, grain storage
  • Dwellings historically created from local
    materials wood, brick, stone, skins often
    uniquely and traditionally arranged always
    functionally tied to physical environment.

10
FOLK FOOD
How did such differences develop?
Ecuador, 2006 (click photo for slideshow)
11
Food Cultures (i.e. hog production)
Fig. 4-6 Annual hog production is influenced by
religious taboos against pork consumption in
Islam and other religions. The highest production
is in China, which is largely Buddhist.
12
North American Folk Culture Regions
13
Food Taboos Jews cant eat animals that chew
cud, that have cloven feet cant mix meat and
milk, or eat fish lacking fins or scales Muslims
no pork Hindus no cows (used for oxen during
monsoon)
Washing Cow in Ganges
14
Popular Culture
  • Clothing Jeans, for example, and have become
    valuable status symbols in many regions including
    Asia and Russia despite longstanding folk
    traditions.

15
Popular Culture
  • Wide Distribution differences from place to
    place uncommon, more likely differences at one
    place over time.
  • Housing only small regional variations, more
    generally there are trends over time
  • Food franchises, cargo planes, superhighways and
    freezer trucks have eliminated much local
    variation. Limited variations in choice
    regionally, esp. with alcohol and snacks.
    Substantial variations by ethnicity.

16
World Cell Phone SubscribersCartogram, 1990
2002
Territory size shows the proportion of all
cellular telephone subscriptions found there in
1990 and 2002. Source www.worldmapper.org
17
World Internet SubscribersCartogram, 1990 2002
Territory size shows the proportion of all
Internet users in 1990 and 2002. Source
www.worldmapper.org
18
GSM World Cellular Coverage, 2009
Source GSM Association. 2009.
19
Diffusion of TV, 19541999
Television has diffused widely since the 1950s,
but some areas still have low numbers of TVs per
population.
  • Much media is still state-controlled.
  • Ten Most Censored Countries
  • North Korea
  • Myanmar (Burma)
  • Turkmenistan
  • Equatorial Guinea
  • Libya
  • Eritrea
  • Cuba
  • Uzbekistan
  • Syria
  • Belarus
  • Source The Committee to Protect Journalists.
    2009. www.cpj.org.

20
Internet Connections
The Internet is diffusing today, but access
varies widely.
21
Internet Connections
The Internet is diffusing today, but access
varies widely. Some countries censor the
Internet, but this is difficult to do.
22
Popular Culture
  • Effects on Landscape creates homogenous,
    placeless (Relph, 1976), landscape
  • Complex network of roads and highways
  • Commercial Structures tend towards boxes
  • Dwellings may be aesthetically suggestive of
    older folk traditions
  • Planned and Gated Communities more and more common

23
Surfing at Disneys Orlando Typhoon Lagoon Are
places still tied to local landscapes?
Disconnect with landscape indoor swimming pools?
desert surfing?
24
McDonalds Restaurant, Venice
Swimming Pool, West Edmonton Mall, Canada
Dubais Indoor Ski Resort
25
Muslim Women in Traditional Dress at Indoor Ski
Resort
26
Problems with the Globalization of Culture
  • Often Destroys Folk Culture or preserves
    traditions as museum pieces or tourism gimmicks.
  • Mexican Mariachis Polynesian Navigators Cruise
    Line Simulations
  • Change in Traditional Roles and Values
    Polynesian weight problems

Satellite Television, Baja California
27
Problems with the Globalization of Popular Culture
  • Western Media Imperialism?
  • U.S., Britain, and Japan dominate worldwide
    media.
  • Glorified consumerism, violence, sexuality, and
    militarism?
  • U.S. (Networks and CNN) and British (BBC) news
    media provide/control the dissemination of
    information worldwide.
  • These networks are unlikely to focus or provide
    third world perspective on issues important in
    the LDCs.

28
Environmental Effects of Globalization
  • Accelerated Resource Use in Consumer Societies
  • Furs minx, lynx, jaguar, kangaroo, whale, sea
    otters (18th Century Russians) fed early fashion
    trends.
  • Aggressive consumerism evident in most Western
    Media , including hip hop and rock and roll.
  • Inefficient over-consumption of Meats (101),
    Poultry (31), even Fish (fed other fish and
    chicken) by meat-eating pop cultures
  • New larger housing desires and associated energy
    and water use.
  • Pollution
  • Water treatment and improved public health may
    come with higher incomes.
  • However, increased waste and toxins from fuel
    use, discarded products, plastics, marketing and
    packaging materials, etc.

29
Benefits of Economic and Cultural Globalization
  • Increased economic opportunity?
  • Higher standards of living?
  • Increased consumer choice
  • More political freedom?
  • More social freedom?

Shanghai, China, 2003
30
Beijing, China
Palm Springs, CA
31
Marlboro Man in Egypt
32
Forbes Hip Hop Cash Kings, 2007
33
Fiji
34
Suburban Sprawl, Arizona
35
Resisting Globalization
  • Protests at WTO and G9 meetings
  • Al Jazeera
  • Indigenous Peoples in Latin America
  • Chinese government censorship

36
The Most Violent Places on Earth?
Source Wikipedia. 2010. List of countries by
intentional homicide rate http//en.wikipedia.org/
wiki/List_of_countries_by_intentional_homicide_rat
e
37
The Happiest Places on Earth?
  • What do the social sciences tell us about what
    makes people happy?
  • How does happiness vary around the world?
  • How does happiness change over time within a
    country?
  • Family and Friends, Exercise, Faith (Sense of
    Purpose), Extroversion, Sufficient Employment and
    Increasing Income, Flow and Balance
  • Some regions are clearly more happy than others
    and there are geographic clusters.
  • In Japan, China, Australia, and the U.S.
    satisfaction has stayed level or decreased as GDP
    increased for much of recent history.

38
  • The 20 happiest nations in the World
  • 1. Denmark 2. Switzerland 3. Austria 4.
    Iceland 5. The Bahamas 6. Finland 7. Sweden
    8. Bhutan 9. Brunei 10. Canada 11. Ireland
    12. Luxembourg 13. Costa Rica 14. Malta 15.
    The Netherlands 16. Antigua and Barbuda 17.
    Malaysia 18. New Zealand 19. Norway 20. The
    Seychelles
  • Other notable results include
  • 23. USA 35. Germany 41. UK 62. France 82.
    China 90. Japan 125. India 167. Russia
  • The three least happy countries were
  • 176. Democratic Republic of the Congo 177.
    Zimbabwe 178. Burundi

Subjective well-being in this study was found to
be most closely associated with health, followed
by wealth and then education.
2006. Adrian White, Analytic Social Psychologist
at the University of Leicester produces first
ever global projection of international
differences in subjective well-being the first
ever World Map of Happiness.
39
World Values Survey
40
The Happiest Places on Earth?
1.    Denmark2.    Finland3.   
Netherlands4.    Sweden5.    Ireland6.   
Canada7.    Switzerland8.    New Zealand9.   
Norway10.  Belgium
Question Taking all things together, would you
say you are? 1 Very happy 2 Rather happy 3 Not
very happy 4 Not at all happy
- Based on data from World Values Survey
41
Question Please imagine a ladder, with steps
numbered from 0 at the bottom to 10 at the top.
The top of the ladder represents the best
possible life for you and the bottom of the
ladder represents the worst possible life for
you. On which step of the ladder would you say
you personally feel you stand at this time?
Based on data from Gallup World Poll, 2006
42
Based on data from World Values Survey
The WVS has shown that from 1981 to 2007
happiness rose in 45 of the 52 countries for
which long-term data are available. Since 1981,
economic development, democratization, and rising
social tolerance have increased the extent to
which people perceive that they have free choice,
which in turn has led to higher levels of
happiness around the world.
  • All things considered, how satisfied are you
    with your life as a whole these days? Using this
    card on which 1 means you are completely
    dissatisfied and 10 means you are completely
    satisfied where would you put your satisfaction
    with your life as a whole?
  • Completely dissatisfied Completely
    satisfied 1 2 3 4 5
    6 7 8 9 10

43
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44
Source Internet appendix to Inglehart, Foa and
Welzel, Social Change, Freedom and Rising
Happiness, Journal of Personality and Social
Psychology
45
Source Internet appendix to Inglehart, Foa and
Welzel, Social Change, Freedom and Rising
Happiness, Journal of Personality and Social
Psychology
46
Source Internet appendix to Inglehart, Foa and
Welzel, Social Change, Freedom and Rising
Happiness. Accessed in 2010. Journal of
Personality and Social Psychology.
47
Map showing countries shaded by their position in
the Happy Planet Index (2006). The highest-ranked
countries are bright green the lowest are brown.
www.happyplanetindex.org
HAPPY PLANET INDEX (HPI)
The new HPI results show the extent to which 151
countries across the globe produce long, happy
and sustainable lives for the people that live in
them.  The overall index scores rank countries
based on their efficiency, on how many long and
happy lives each produces per unit of
environmental damage (ecological footprint).
Thus, high environmental impact countries drop in
ranking.
48
World Values Survey
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