Psychological Disorders - PowerPoint PPT Presentation

Loading...

PPT – Psychological Disorders PowerPoint presentation | free to download - id: 5bc814-YWE3Y



Loading


The Adobe Flash plugin is needed to view this content

Get the plugin now

View by Category
About This Presentation
Title:

Psychological Disorders

Description:

Panic disorder with agoraphobia When intruding thoughts (that occur repeatedly) ... ACUTE ABDOMINAL DISTURBANCES SWALLOW OBJECTS, SAFETY PINS, ... – PowerPoint PPT presentation

Number of Views:148
Avg rating:3.0/5.0
Slides: 64
Provided by: Own21233
Learn more at: http://blake.mysdhc.org
Category:

less

Write a Comment
User Comments (0)
Transcript and Presenter's Notes

Title: Psychological Disorders


1
Psychological Disorders
2
Psychopathology
  • The study of abnormal behavior.
  • But how do we define abnormal?
  • Try to..

3
Video Clips
  • Watch the following clips and add to your
    definition.
  • Where should we draw the line between normal and
    abnormal?
  • How should we define psychological disorders?
  • How should we understand disordersas sicknesses
    or as natural responses to the environment.

4
The HISTORY
  • From as early as
  • 3000 B.C.E. skulls have
  • been found w/ evidence
  • of an ancient surgical
  • technique. (Trepanning)
  • Mainly done to release the
  • DEMONS and EVIL SPIRITS

5
The History
  • In the 1800s, disturbed people were no longer
    thought of as madmen, but as mentally ill.
  • Locked/chained away in mental hospitals
  • Some hospitals even charged
  • admission for the public to
  • see the crazies, just like a zoo.

6
CURRENTLY - ABNORMALITY
  1. Statistical Definition
  2. Frequently occurring behavior normal
  3. Infrequent behavior abnormal
  4. Social Norm Deviance
  5. Going against normal behavior (refusing to wear
    clothing)
  6. Subjective Discomfort
  7. When the person experiences discomfort while
    engaging in a behavior
  8. Inability to Function Normally
  9. Maladaptive behavior cant do daily living

7
Definition -
  • Psychological Disorder a harmful dysfunction
    in which behavior is judged to be atypical,
    disturbing, maladaptive and unjustifiable.

8
Abnormality across cultures
  • Read the Current Issues in Psychology to see
    how abnormality differs in various cultures.
  • Answer the two discussion questions

9
What causes?
  • Biological Model
  • Medical Perspective psychological disorders are
    sicknesses and can be diagnosed, treated and
    cured.
  • assumes that these mental illnesses can be
    diagnosed on the basis of their symptoms and
    cured through therapy, which may include
    treatment in a psychiatric hospital

10
What causes?
  • Psychodynamic View
  • Hiding Problems
  • Behaviorism
  • Learning Problems
  • Cognitive Perspective
  • Thinking Problems
  • Biopsychosocial Perspective
  • All of the above

11
PRACTICE MCQ 1-5
12
Classifying Psychological Disorders
  • DSM-IV Diagnostic Statistical Manual of Mental
    Disorders the big book of disorders.
  • Describes 250 disorders on 5 Axes

13
DSM IV - TR
  • Official categorization of psych disorders in
    U.S.
  • 5-Axis model adopted in 1980
  • Axis 1
  • Clinical disorders (e.g., mood anxiety
    disorders)
  • Axis 2
  • Personality disorders (e.g., narcissism,
    antisocial) mental retardation
  • Axis 3
  • Medical (physical) conditions influencing Axis 1
    2 disorders
  • Axis 4
  • Psychosocial environmental stress influencing
    Axis 1 2 disorders
  • Axis 5
  • Global Assessment of Functioning score highest
    level of functioning patient has achieved in
    work, relationships, and activities

14
DSM IV - TR
  • Look at your page.
  • How is each disorder described?

15
Anxiety Disorders
  • All disorders where the most dominant symptom is
    EXCESSIVE or UNREALISTIC anxiety
  • Free-floating anxiety anxiety that seems to be
    unrelated to any realistic or known factor.

16
(Anxiety)Phobic Disorders
  • Phobia an irrational, persistent fear of
    something
  • Social Phobias (social anxiety
    disorder)
  • fear of interacting with others or
  • being in social situations.
  • Specific Phobias- fear of some
  • object or specific situation
  • Agoraphobia the fear of being somewhere where
    you cant escape if something should go wrong.

17
Name the phobia
  • Washing and bathing
  • Spiders
  • Lightning
  • Dirt, germs
  • Darkness
  • Fire
  • Foreigners, strangers
  • animals
  • Ablutophobia
  • Arachnophobia
  • Ceraunophobia
  • Mysophobia
  • Nyctophobia
  • Pyrophobia
  • Xenophobia
  • Zoophobia
  • FEAR OF
  • SCIENTIFIC NAME

18
(Anxiety)Panic Disorder
  • Anna is sitting in science class when she starts
    feeling strange. Her vision is blurry, ears feel
    stuffed with cotton. She was cold, breaking into
    a sweat extremely afraid for no reason. When
    she stands up to go to the teacher everything
    immediately turns to normal.
  • What was going on with Anna?
  • Panic Attack a sudden onset of extreme panic
    with various physical symptoms

19
(Anxiety)Panic Disorder
  • Becomes a disorder when it affects the persons
    ability to function daily.
  • Q. What would you call it if a person has a fear
    of panic attacks in a public place that prevents
    the person from going out into unfamiliar or
    exposed places?
  • A. Panic disorder with agoraphobia

20
(ANXIety)Obsessive-compulsive disorder
  • When intruding thoughts (that occur repeatedly)
    are followed by some compulsion, a repetitive
    ritualistic behavior. The compulsions are meant
    to lower the anxiety caused by the thought.

21
(ANXIETY)Generalized anxiety disorder
  • The kind of anxiety that has no real source and
    lasts for more days than not for a period of at
    least 6 months.

22
Causes?
  • Psychodynamic?
  • Behaviorists?
  • Cognitive?
  • magnification (mountains out of molehills)
  • All-or-nothing thinking
  • Overgeneralization
  • Minimization
  • Biological?
  • Imbalance of neurotransmitters including low
    levels of serotonin and GABA.

23
PRACtice MCQ
24
Somatoform disorders
  • Disorders in which people think they are sickbut
    are not, its all in ones head
  • Differs from psychosomatic disorders
    (psychophysiologic) because physical ailments are
    not real with somatoform

25
(SOMATOFORM)hypochodriasis
  • when a person worries excessively and almost
    constantly about getting ill.
  • Differs from anxiety disorder because the worry
    is about illness

26
(SOMATOFORM) Somatization disorder
  • Person feels vague, recurring physical symptoms
    for which medical attention has been sought
    repeatedly but no organic cause found. Less
    worrymore drama
  • Symptoms described as unbearable or beyond
    description
  • Example backpain, dizziness, partial paralysis,
    abdominal pains, sometimes anxiety and depression

27
(SOMATOFORM) Conversion disorder
  • A dramatic specific disability has no physical
    cause but instead seems related to psychological
    problems (psychological problems are converted
    into a physical illness.)
  • Examples paralysis, blindness, deafness,
    seizures, loss of feeling .. Serious physical
    impairments
  • Symptoms leave when hypnotized, under anesthesia
    or unconscious

28
SOMATOFORM (MUNCHAUSEN)
  • Munchausen syndrome
  • Patient is usually admitted to a hospital
    presenting some acute illness that has a dramatic
    but plausible origin.
  • History is riddled with falsehoods, and that the
    patient has similarly deceived the staff of
    several other hospitals.

29
SOMATOFORM (MUNCHAUSEN)
  • Munchausen syndrome by proxy
  • Involves a caregivers persistent fabrication of
    medical symptoms and signs in the person cared
    for (typically a mother/child relationship)
    leading to illness, endangerment, and unnecessary
    invasive or hazardous treatments.

30
MUNCHAUSEN
  • Key elements presence of physical symptoms that
    are self-induced (or other-induced, mother/child
    proxy), pathological lying
  • Baron Munchausen was a teller of tall tales
  • ILLUSTRATIVE CASES (FOLLOWING SLIDES)

31
MUNCHAUSEN
  • ACUTE ABDOMINAL DISTURBANCES
  • SWALLOW OBJECTS, SAFETY PINS, NEEDLES
  • INGEST POISONOUS SUBSTANCES
  • HEMORRAGHIC DISTURBANCES
  • CREATE WOUNDS
  • CONTAMINATE/IRRITATE/INFECT WOUNDS
  • RESPIRATORY DISTURBANCES
  • INSSERT NEEDLES INTO CHEST
  • BREATHE TOXIC CHEMICALS

32
Causes?
  • Psychodynamic?
  • Behaviorists? positive/neg reinforcement
  • Cognitive? magnification

33
Dissociative DIsorders
  • What is dissociation?
  • literally a dis-association of memory (a split)
  • person suddenly becomes unaware of some aspect of
    their identity or history
  • unable to recall except under special
    circumstances (e.g., hypnosis)
  • Three types are recognized
  • dissociative amnesia
  • dissociative fugue
  • dissociative identity disorder

34
Dissociative amnesia
  • Marian and her brother were recently victims of a
    robbery. Marian was not injured, but her brother
    was killed when he resisted the robbers. Marian
    is unable to recall any details from the time of
    the accident until four days later.
  • Memory loss the only symptom
  • Often selective loss surrounding traumatic events
  • person still knows identity and most of their
    past

35
Dissociative fugue
  • Jay, a high school physics teacher in New York
    City, disappeared three days after his wife
    unexpectedly left him for another man. Six
    months later, he was discovered tending bar in
    Miami Beach. Calling himself Martin, he claimed
    to have no recollection of his past life and
    insisted that he had never been married.

36
Dissociative Fugue (flight)
  • Complete amnesia
  • leaves home
  • develops a new identity
  • apparently no recollection time in fugue state
  • If fugue wears off
  • old identity recovers
  • new identity is totally forgotten

37
Dissociative identity disorder (DID)
  • Norma has frequent memory gaps and cannot account
    for her whereabouts during certain periods of
    time. While being interviewed by a clinical
    psychologist, she began speaking in a childlike
    voice. She claimed that her name was Donna and
    that she was only six years old. Moments later,
    she seemed to revert to her adult voice and had
    no recollection of speaking in a childlike voice
    or claiming that her name was Donna.

38
DID
  • Originally known as multiple personality
    disorder
  • Two or more distinct personalities manifested by
    the same person at different times
  • VERY RARE and controversial disorder
  • Examples include Sybil, Trudy Chase, Chris
    Sizemore (Eve)
  • Has been tried as a criminal defense
  • Hillside strangler
  • He was (both) convicted

39
CAUSES?
  • Psychodynamic?
  • Cognitive/Behavioral?
  • Biological?
  • Those with DID show significant differences in
    PET scan activity taken when different
    personalities are present
  • Maybe due to childhood abuse??

40
Practice MCQ
41
Dissociation and multiple personalities
  • 644-645
  • Read about Sybil
  • What are the arguments for and against DID as an
    actual disorder? What do you think?

42
Three faces of eve
43
Sybil?
  • Was she a true DID case?

44
Mood disorders
  • Disorders that are a disturbance in emotion.
  • They are also referred to as Affective
    (emotion/mood) Disorders
  • (mild mood disorders)
  • Dysthymia mild depression (2 yrs or more)
  • Cyclothymia sad, happy, sad, happy (2 yrs)

Extreme Sadness
Mild Sadness
Normal Emotion
Extreme elation
Mild Elation
45
Major depression
  • A deeply depressed mood that comes on fairly
    suddenly and seems too severe for the
    circumstances or exists without any external
    cause
  • Most common of the diagnosed mood disorders
  • More common in womenthats changing.
  • (Unipolar disorder)

46
Bipolar disorder
  • Severe mood swings that go from severe depression
    (extreme sadness) to manic episodes (extreme
    elation).
  • No external cause for either mood
  • Manic episodes can last from a few weeks to a few
    months
  • Extreme happiness
  • Restless, irritable
  • May become aggressive when not allowed to carry
    out their grand plans
  • Rapid speech

47
Causes?
  • Biological
  • serotonin, norepinephrine and dopamine.
  • Appear in genetically related individuals at a
    higher rate
  • Specific genes

48
Practice MCQ
49
schizophrenia
  • A long lasting psychotic disorder, involving a
    severe break with reality, in which there is an
    inability to distinguish what is real from
    fantasy as well as disturbances in thinking,
    emotions, behavior and perception

50
symptoms
  • Delusions
  • Delusions of persecution (Dr. Nash- A Beautiful
    Mind)
  • Delusions of grandeur
  • Delusions of reference
  • Delusions on influence
  • IF ONLY DELUSIONS THEN NOT SCHIZOPHRENIA, INSTEAD
    A DELUSIONAL DISORDER

51
symptoms
  • Speech disturbances
  • Make up words
  • Repeat words or phrases persistently
  • Sting words together on the basis of sound
  • Thought disturbances
  • Hard time linking thoughts in a logical fashion
  • Emotional Disturbances
  • Flat affect when a person shows little to no
    emotion
  • Excessive or inappropriate

52
symptoms
  • Hallucinations
  • Hearing voices or seeing things or people not
    really there
  • Behavior
  • Disorganized and cold

53
types
  • Disorganized
  • Vivid and frequent hallucinations
  • flat affect
  • Socially impaired
  • Giggling, silliness, nonsensical speech and
    neglect of cleanliness

54
Types
  • Catatonic
  • Disturbed motor behavior
  • Doesnt respond to outside world and doesn't move
    or maintains odd-looking posture for hours on end
    or moves about wildly in great agitation
  • Totally off or totally on

55
types
  • Paranoid
  • Hallucinations (often auditory)
  • Delusions

56
Cures?
  • Positive symptoms
  • Excess or distortion of normal functions
    (delusions, hallucinations)
  • Overactivity in the dopamine area (prescribed
    dopamine reducing drugs)
  • Recovery outlook - good
  • Negative symptoms
  • Decrease of normal functions (poor attention or
    lack of affect)
  • Lower than normal activity in dopamine system and
    frontal lobe functioning
  • Recovery outlook not so good

57
Video
58
Case Studies
  • Read 1case study
  • Be able to
  • Summarize each case (highlights)
  • List the symptoms
  • Diagnosis Why
  • Treatment and outcome

59
Personality disorders
  • A person has an excessively rigid, maladaptive
    pattern of behavior and ways of relating to
    others
  • 10 recognized types of personality disorders
  • See list
  • Video Personality Disorders and Narcissistic

60
Antisocial personality disorder
  • Against society
  • Habitually breaks the law
  • Disobeys rules
  • Tells lies
  • Uses others without worrying about their rights
    or feelings
  • No remorse
  • Sociopath
  • 3 - 6xs as many men as women

61
Borderline personality disorder
  • Moody, Unstable, Manipulative, Mistrusting
  • Periods of depression
  • Excessive spending, drug abuse, suicidal behavior
  • More common in women than men
  • Treatment (video)

62
Causes?
  • Psychoanalysis Superego underdeveloped,
    unresolved issues, fixation on anal stage for
    narcissism and borderline disorders
  • Cognitive-Behavioral
  • Some biological evidence

63
Practice mcq
About PowerShow.com